Where real power resides the three branches of American system of governance

One concept in governance unique to a democratic system such as the US is the separation of power into three co-equal branches, the executive, legislative and the judiciary.  But on the question of balancing power, are these branches of government really equal Considering the traits and functions of each branch could give us an idea on how the balance of power is being played out.

Congress drafts the law to guide the development of the country and by theory should be the most powerful because of its collective mandate from the people. It could even impeach a president and more important it could change the rules on system of governance. Representatives to Congress have more grass roots exposure and hence as an institution could rally support in a more expansive and representative manner than any sitting president.

The executive branch meanwhile, implements the law and the president more or less functions like a chief-executive-officer but the role has been magnified by a clause on another presidential function, that of the commander-in-chief. The president is expected to lead the country especially at times and period of great uncertainties.  The executive branch, which included federal agencies including law enforcement, unlike the other two branches, is encapsulated in the persona of the president, elected every four years. Congress and the judiciary have no equivalent persona and more or less perceived as a collective unit.  This somehow trumps the power of Congress, as when the situation gets critical, it is the president who usually takes over the role of keeping the country together.

The judiciary, the third branch is powerful because it is the keeper of the law and this branch of government has the last say on anything pertaining to the law and its implementation. In societies based on the rule of the law, judges occupy position of power in society. This power is negated in some ways because it is manifested after an act has been committed and the court is tasked to establish the constitutionality or legality of said action.  Hence, the Supreme Court for example, is really out of the loop of governance but functions more as an arbiter between Congress and the President.

While it is difficult to compare powers of the three branches as these are different and unique to each branch, we can see how external or environmental factors such as the political parties and public opinion exert an influence in tilting the balance in favor of one branch over the other with respect to question of power. The public especially in societies with strong representative mechanisms such as political parties, e.g., Democratic and the Republican parties lobby and advocacy groups such as the green lobby could give added premium to a branch of government. The unpopularity of the war on Iraq for example dismantled the Republican hold on the White House. Though at the onset, then Pres. Bush was able to rally support for the war efforts playing on the 911 attack to push his anti-terrorism program, which included toppling Saddam Hussein. When the intelligence gaffe that Iraq has no weapons of mass destruction, which was the pretext of going to Iraq, the public support waned and consequently Congress shifted its sight to eventual pull out from Iraq placing the presidency of Mr. Bush into a defensive position.

There are accounts, which place premium on flexibility as a measure of power.  The president for example could use tactics as signing statements or clarification on what the president would do or how he treats such a legislation he signed, which as pointed out by Examiner.com, had been used extensively by then Pres. Bush to circumvent immediate implementation of certain laws which not to his list of priorities.  It is not however, only the president who has a trick or two when it comes to exercise of power, representatives could use filibustering techniques to scuttle issues and make it difficult if not impossible for a president to secure necessary legislation such as budget allocation for his programs. Another point which limits the presidents power is that a president for example, no matter how popular and powerful to a point that he could get what he wanted would still have to go after two terms. That is the law.

On the whole, when it comes to balance of power, we can say that because of the nature of leadership and succession in governance, the pendulum shifts as to which is more powerful in shaping national priorities at certain times.  The president sometimes appeared as the most powerful but this could be more due to the president as a symbol of the country as head of state but a president under the American system would still have to answer to where real power resides  to his constituency and to his political party, to the American people.
While it might appear that Lius Legislating the Universal The Circulation of International Law in the Nineteenth Century is of little relevance for scholars of international relations, it is definitely not the case. One of the major strengths of this piece, which focuses on the translation of Henry Wheatons Elements of International Law into Chinese in 1864 by W. A. P. Martin, is its comprehensive, interdisciplinary approach. Borrowing methods and insights from discourse studies, linguistics, historiography, philosophy, and jurisprudence, the author makes important observations about the implications that circulation of legal texts has had for historical developments in international relations.

The central argument the author advances is that translated texts produce intended and unintended meaning between discursive contexts of source and target languages, especially if such languages had little contact before and are only learning to speak in each others political discourse (which certainly was the case with English and Chinese in the middle of the nineeenth century). Thus, translators are charged with creating hypothetical equivalences between languages which are subsequently fixed through repeated use. Martin had to come up with neologisms which were barely intelligible to his Chinese contemporaries,such as quanli for right, created by removing negative connotations associated with quanshi (power or domination) and adding the word li (interest of calculation) from commercial vocabulary nowadays, the terms seem perfectly natural. However, it is important to keep in mind that due to different connotations attached to any word in target language, concepts are transplanted from one discourse to another with a great degree of imprecision.    

Leaving the linguistic peculiarities aside, the author examines how Western powers employed international law to project their influence around the globe. Chinese ordered translations of some passages from Vattels Le droit des gens (another work considered by Martin for translation which, however, was not endorsed by American authorities because of the author being French) to justify their refusal to trade in opium. In such a way, the approach to international law among Chinese was purely instrumental they tried to use it as a rhetorical device to persuade the West (the British Empire in this case) of righteousness of their position. Western powers ignored the letter and spirit of the law during the Opium Wars, forced numerous unequal treaties upon China, colonized Hong Kong, and opened its ports to international vessels. Under such historical circumstances, the translation of Wheatons Elements of International Law was considered timely for two main reasons. First of all, it helped to construct the image of the West as a more benign power which relied not only on force but also law in its dealings with other nations. Secondly, it legitimized unequal treaties and served as a useful instrument for ensuring their implementation. This marked an important shift in the perception of universality of international law rather than defending it on the basis of shared humanity and moral vision, as early European philosophers did, the emphasis shifted to universal consent, treaties, balance of power, and international tribunals.      

The only noticeable weakness of the text is that it makes several points which are not sufficiently integrated into the texts canvas. The discussion on Lord Macartneys mission which discovered that China was reluctant to open up to international trade  and therefore established the image of Chinese as sinocentric, traditionalist, backwards and uncooperative, the central image employed by the so-called colonial historiography  is an interesting point in itself yet does little to advance the authors argument. So is the discussion of the naturalization of the translating the word yi (originally meaning foreigner or stranger) as barbarian, deemed to be highly offensive by the British and banned from all Chinese official documents on these grounds.

Other than that, the argument of the author appears sound and complete. Using the example of a particular legal text, the author investigates how purely discursive events influence actual material reality. This text is extremely relevant nowadays, given the apprehensions that the recent rhetoric of universality of human rights and humanitarian interventions can be just a guise for neo-colonialism and neo-imperialism.                                  

Federal Express

Federal Express known as FedEx is a US bases logistics Services Company whose headquarter is in Memphis. Frederick W. Smith In 1971 invested 91 million as a capital for a business enterprise. After he added 4 million more to his money he purchased a second-hand airline company named Little Rock in Arkansas. He started to use the airplanes to offer delivery services for envelopes and small parcels being delivered within the United States. Finally Smith named his business as Federal Express.

The company started its operation in April 1973. At that time FedEx owned 14 Dassault Falconaircraft and had nearly 400 workers. The services that were offered included overnight and two-day package delivering services and also Courier Pak. Sometime later the company started to experience financial crises and Smith was unable to cover the companys expenses. After his loan application was rejected he flew to Las Vegas and won a fortune at Black Jack table. In 1976 the company became profitable with an average quantity of 19,000 parcels per day. In 1977 the Us Govt. allowed the Federal Express to purchase their first large aircraft the Boeing 727. In 1978 the company was listed in the New York Stock Exchange. Federal Express started to use a centralized computer system to keep track of packages, weather, routes, employees and vehicles. In 1980 the company started to provide facilities in nearly 90 states. Federal Express started to establish hubs at different airports in the late 80s. In 1989 the company purchased to Flying Tiger Line to expand its international services. In 1994 Federal Express adopted the name FedEx and also launched their website and in 2000 the company officially dropped the Federal Express and became FedEx Corporation.

Managerial Aspects
Individuals involved at FedEx
The key individuals involved at FedEx involve
Frederick W. Smith who is the founder of FedEx and is the Chairman, President and CEO of FedEx. His responsibilities include giving tactical instructions to all of the FedEx Corporation operating Companies.
Michael Glenn who is the Executive Vice President of Market Development and Corporate Communications he controls all sales, marketing and communications across the FedEx operating companies.

Alan Graf who is the executive vice president and chief financial officer. His responsibility is to control all the financial aspects of FedEx Corporation.

Christine Richards who is the Executive vice president and General Counsel and Secretary of FedEx Corporation. She is responsible for making sure that FedEx Corporations worldwide activities are in accordance with global, national, state and regional government rules.

Robert Carter who is the Executive Vice President and Information Services and Chief Information Officer. He is responsible for placing technology direction, and also the companys key applications and technology framework.

Organizational Chart
The organization chart of the FedEx is given below


Project Manager and Team
The FedEx Corporation includes one chairman four vice presidents, four Chief Executive Officers, five international executives, and eleven other key executives.

Types of Cargo Transported
FedEx transports all types of cargo all over the world including from letters to parcels to houses to cargo containers. FedEx offers fast and most of the time same delivery depending on the destination. Before being transported the cargo is categorized into different categories and this categorization depends on what type of item is being transported, what is the size of the item, how long will it take to deliver the parcel. Shipments are generally categorized as domestic goods such as furniture or art pieces etc, parcel, express and cargo. Small enveloped or packages are termed as express shipments. Express shipments are usually delivered by air. Parcel shipments include big boxes and do not travel by air but are transported through road or rail.

Operational Philosophies
The major underlying philosophy of FedEx Corporation is to complete collectively, operate independently and manage collaboratively (Knudson, 2009). This philosophy is responsible for binding all the services of FedEx express together. Other underlying major operational philosophies of FedEx Corporation can be to provide 100 reliable service in less time period. The FedEx corporation also tries to link up the team members in such a way that they feel like an important part of the company. This philosophy makes the employees to work harder and to provide good results.

Market Served by FedEx
FedEx Corporation is situated in the United States. The hub of FedEx at Memphis is the head quarter of FedEx Corporation and it is responsible for providing the services to the country as well as too many other markets of the world like Canada, Mexico, Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Europe, Central and South America, the Caribbean and China and so on. It is serving almost 220 countries and has provided a global access.

Types of Cargo
The FedEx delivers a wide range of cargoes across the world. FedEx is serving the world with different types of cargo like air cargo, shipping cargo, road cargo and so on. Hence ships, trucks, vans, airplanes all are being used for delivering the services to the customers. All types of cargo are being delivered across the world from letters to parcels.

Problems Limitations
Although FedEx is a very reliable and fast delivery service but still sometimes few limitations can be observed in the operations. The most commonly limitations or problems of FedEx have seem to be a delivery which is not made on time. Another problem with the FedEx operations is the increasing costs of operations which sometimes takes place because of having lack of coordination along the employees. Although these problems are observed only sometimes but still are very important and should be solved.

Business Relationships
Partners, alliances and pacts of FedEx
FedEx has done partnership with partners such as the American Express, Google Checkout, Amazon Services, GotVMail, Pitney Bowes, USAA and QuickBooks to offer its customer exclusive savings. FedEx gives its customers many intelligent ideas to save money daily and the customers can bring improvement in their business. They have formed alliances with several government institutions, financial, academic and insurance organizations and foreign trade associations that provide support and beneficial services along with high quality and economical prices. Besides that FedEx also gives special discount offers for small and medium sized customers that actively participate in the PyMex Ship and Save Program. Some alliances of FedEx include Concepta Engo, Partnership Yellow Pages Brazil, Seven Idiomas, INPG LICEX,Seu Sucesso, World Tariff, and PyMEx Ship  Save. FedEx has signed a pact with OfficeMax to offer local FedEx express and ground shipping services in over 900 OfficeMax stores opening this autumn as the struggling office-supply vendor looks to improve traffic at its stores. FedEx has also signed a pact with Prakash Airfreight Pvt. Ltd. (PaFex) and Wincor Nixdorf USA.

Code-Sharing, Joint Ventures
In 1999 FedEx Corp. and Tianjin-based Da Tian W. Air Service Corporation formed a joint venture in Beijing. The goal of this venture was to provide unmatched international express transport facilities for clients with delivery requirements to and from China. A code sharing venture was formed between FedEx Corp and Nippon Cargo Airline Ltd. (NCA).

Any Unique Agreements, arrangements etc
FedEx and its subsidiaries have agreed to enter into an alcohol shipping agreement in which FedEx will provide shipping facilities for alcohol and wine under certain conditions. Like for wine it is that the customer should be a licensed dealer, distributor, manufacturer etc. For alcohol it is that a licensed dealer, distributor, manufacturer etc can ship alcohol to other licensed dealer or distributor.

Company Resources
Vehicles and Employees
FedEx is providing its services in more than 210 countries of the world. The workforce of FedEx all around the world is estimated to be having 142,000 across the globe. The drop off locations is more than 44,700. When it comes to the vehicles then FedEx has 40,900 vehicles in all in the entire global network. Also it has got a 615 aircrafts available.

Main Airports Served by FedEx
As it has been discussed above that FedEx serves more than 210 countries all over the world. According to estimation more than Following are some of the main airports that are served by the FedEx
Central Japan International Airport.
Memphis international airport.
Toronto Pearson International Airport.
Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport.
Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport.
Miami International Airport.
Oakland International Airport.
Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport.
Newark Liberty International Airport
Indianapolis International Airport.
Fort Worth International Airport.

Biggest Customers
FedEx serves 211 countries of the world supplying millions of items per day. It has got number of customers but few of them can be termed as the biggest customers of FedEx. Few of the biggest customers of FedEx are United States postal services, Thaigem, Steve Irwin, IBM and EMEA automotive industry and so on.

Key Facilities
FedEx facilities are located almost all over the world. Facilities located at France, Paris, Netherlands and china recently located offices of fedEx. These new offices are supporting the company. All the offices are however becoming a chain to support the company. The needs of people can be supported with the growing branches It can match the worlds ever- changing needs. The expansion of fedEx will surely benefit its customers. Expansion of fedEx includes online fedEx trade tools and supply chain visibility. These facilities are recently added in companys plan. 14 new offices are being located in 2009.

Future Plans
The cargo airline of USA has also made many plans for its future development and improvement. In future, FedEx wants to establish the visibility is such a way that it may have multiple nodes. By having visibility on multiple nodes means to be visible at every division of the cargo airline from a single place. This will create a single platform for all the various services provided by the cargo airline. The various services or divisions may include FedEx freights, FedEx express, FedEx custom critical and FedEx ground and so on. This visibility will make it easier for the customers to track the information at a single place. This is possible when the information from all the operating services of FedEx is developed as a single unit of information which will be tracked by the customers. If this goal is achieved then the customers would not have to look the different web sites of different services of FedEx in order to view their tracking information. This plan will not only enhance the accessibility of the customers by providing them a single interface but it will also increase the collaboration among the different operating services. Other future plans of the FedEx Express may include the increment in the profits every year. The cargo airline wants to increase this revenue or profit by 10 percent almost. It is also desired that the strategies should be developed that may increase the flow of cash within the company. The operations should be performed in such a way that the return over these operations can get maximum. FedEx Express also wants to grow its network by covering more geographical locations.

In this paper we have made an analysis of the managerial side of FedEx operations. FedEx is considered to be the best courier service in the world. The network of FedEx is very strong which provides it access to the entire globe. FedEx has established a very effective network of transportation, information services, business and supply chain. In the paper we have also discussed the history of FedEx which states that how this company has made progress and grew in to a large cargo airline service. In this paper we have mainly focused over the managerial side and for this reason we have also provided the organizational chart of FedEx along with the introduction to the key people involved in it. The biggest customers as well as the main airports where the services are being provided by FedEx have also been given in this paper. It has also been discussed that what the future plans of this company are. These plans clearly states that the company aims to progress more by introducing innovative ways for improving the coordination and collaboration.