Contemporary International Problems

1. What was colonialism What problems has it left behind in Africa
Colonialism is usually defined as the process of exploitation wherein a stronger country, usually referred to as the colonizer takes control of a weaker nation, the colony. In the same manner, colonialism is also referred to as the establishment and maintenance of colonies in one territory by foreign invaders. The sovereignty of the colony is taken over by the metropole. In doing so, the colonizer changes the social structure, government, and economy of the colony, which include taking control of the resources of the colony and uses it to further strengthen and enrich the colonizer (Roskin et al., 2007).

The process of colonialism has left behind problems that are still observable even up to the present time. The adverse effects of colonialism have greatly devastated the African continent, which is one of the main causes of hardships that the people in Africa are experiencing. The exploitation of the natural resources of Africa by the colonizers in the past has destroyed the environment, especially the natural habitats and species of the continent. Due to this, people in Africa are in dire poverty because of the lack of natural resources, which has already been exploited by the colonizers. In relation to this, the African people were also able to acquire the mentality and practices of their colonizers and some of which are the negative characteristics of this foreign invaders. As a result, most of the African people also became materialistic, which further worsen the condition of their environment (Roskin et al., 2007).

2. Why was decolonization more difficult where there were many European settlers What examples can you give
Decolonization is not an easy process because it requires great effort coming from the native settlers of the colony and most of the time decolonization does not merely took place with one revolutionary effort but rather it entails continuous action towards the achievement of the colonys independence. In line with this, decolonization is even more difficult for colonies that have many European settlers. A great number of European settlers in a colony, usually entail that these European people have greatly change the way of life of the colony from its economic situation up to the philosophy and attitude of the people. As a result, it is quite difficult to change the mentality of the people and convince them to fight for their independence. This is quite observable in the case of South Africa wherein the dominant British settlers were able to change the ways of the people, especially with the implementation of apartheid. Due to this, the colonizers were able to take political and social control of the people. It was only recently that apartheid has been eradicated from the country (Roskin et al., 2007).

3. How did Nuremberg ultimately lead to the trial of Saddam Hussein
The Nuremberg Trials is recognized as a series of military tribunals, which was established by the Allied forces of the Second World War. The main highlight of the Nuremberg trials is the prosecution of prominent personalities, especially those political, military, and economic leaders of the defeated Nazi Germany. Nuremberg Trial has left behind a legacy when it comes to placing prominent personalities into trial, especially if that individual is guilty of war crimes. As a result, the concept of the Nuremberg Trials is also applied to the case of Saddam Hussein, which eventually led to his trial (Roskin et al., 2007).4. Is war illegal under international law Under what circumstances is military force permitted

War or armed combat is not necessarily illegal in international law. However, the legitimacy of a war is dependent upon the reasons and justifications for a certain party, specifically a state to participate in armed combat. Under International Law, military force is permitted in cases wherein the sovereignty of a state is threatened. This can be exemplified in a scenario wherein a state was surprisingly attack by another party to the point wherein the enemy breached the territory of the state. In addition to this, military force can also be used in instances wherein a state with the agreement of the United Nations, specifically the Security Council order to attack a certain country or group in the sake of international peace and security. This is exemplified in cases wherein civilians are greatly threatened and military intervention is needed in order to save innocent lives (Roskin et al., 2007).

Cold War

What is cold war

Cold war began after the Second World War and it was between the two super powers, the United Statessatellite states and the USSR now called Russia. It was an ideological war based on two competing ideologies, capitalism that was supported by the United States and communismsocialism that was fronted by USSR.The battle to seek allies and to spread the two ideologies was worrying since the two fronts tried to sweet talk other states to adopt their ideologies in governance and Africa was not an exception.

Even though the war was not characterized by war, there was a feeling of war and each of the super power were ready to fight one another and as a result, there was a hostile perceptions and formation of military blocs for any eventuality. It was an arms race between the two super powers (Whitcomb, 1998).

Why did the two super powers have to look for allies in Africa
The two super powers were interested in Africa first for economic gain and also to show their supremacy by governing indirectly using the comprador bourgeoisies who could spread their ideologies in different states. It is worth noting that even though cold war was never relevant to Africans, the two super powers had a great interest in occupying most parts of Africa (Whitcomb, 1998).

With the end of cold war, it is still not clear why most of African countries and leaders are still dependant to the western powers as a result of this, China which is the upcoming super power and USA are still competing for allies in Africa up to date. In the past, most coups that took place during the time of cold war were directly linked to the two super powers. For instance, African leaders such as Milton Obote, Hamed Sekou Toure, Gamel Abdel Nasser Patrice Lumumba, Dr Kwame Nkrumah, Luis Cabral, Eduardo Mondlane, Samora Marcel and Ahmed Ben Bella, were frequently disturbed by the western powers due to the stand they took concerning the two ideologies. However, some leaders such as Jomo Kenyatta of Kenya, Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe and Nelson Mandela of South Africa suffered imprisonment as a result of the war (Whitcomb, 1998).

Should Africa be ignored after cold war
It is worth noting that Africa as a continent has been ignored by the western powers since the end of the cold war. Africa is still faced with serious economic, social and political problem that has left the continent poor, dependant and no longer safe to live. For instance, Algeria, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia, Chad, the Democratic Republicof Congo, Central African Republic, Nigeria, Sudan and Uganda are still fighting among themselves and even some states such as Somalia, are no longer considered a state due to unending war among themselves.Eventhough the United State emerged the winner at last, Africa as a continent remained behind in terms of economic growth and social well being.

Mandatory Retirement Age for Police Officers

General introduction
Mandatory retirement age refers to the age at which a person has to stop employment completely (or decides to leave the labour force if she he is unemployed) if he is holding a particular type of job. Although mandatory retirement has been abolished in the U.S there are some types of jobs that fall under the purview of mandatory retirement laws. Most people choose to retire when they are eligible for private or public pension benefits although some are forced to retire when physical conditions dont allow the person to work anymore (maybe due to illness or accidents).In many countries the idea of retirement is very recent having being introduced in the 19th and 20th centuries. German was the first country to introduce retirement in the 1880s (Bamber, 2002).

Previously people used to work till death due to low life expectancy and lack of pension schemes but nowadays most developed countries have systems to provide pensions on retirement in old age. Retirement age varies from country to country but it generally ranges between 55 and 70 years. Many organizations today are faced with an aging work force which represents both an opportunity and a challenge to them. It represents an opportunity in a sense that the organization can draw upon this growing resource to achieve their goals and strategies. On the other hand, an aging work force poses a challenge because its effective utilization may require development of appropriate human policies including retirement policies (Naresh, 1998).

Description Mandatory Retirement Age for Police Officers
This essay will mainly and specifically explore in details the mandatory retirement age of police officers in the United States of America. The major problem being addressed here is that once they attain a certain age, the police officers have to forcefully quit from being employed. The people affected here are the policemen and their families. Its fundamental effect on them is psychological as they think that their retirement age is not sufficient. The mandatory requirement age for police officers in the United States is 60 although the police are advocating that it should be changed to 65.Pressure for this change has also come from serving officers approaching 60 who are complaining of being forced to retire. In actual sense, no one should be forced to retire from work at any given time because most of these people are the breadwinners in their families and are being solely depended on by their families. Therefore early retirement from work may mean that they will start struggling for the upkeep of their families. In response, the relevant authorities are completing plans to allow police forces to recruit both men and women upto the age of 65 though currently the maximum age for recruits is 55 and the compulsory retirement age is 65.Although most police forces are upto strength, chief constables are facing the prospect of a quarter of all serving officers retiring in the next five years (Bamber, 2002)

There are two types of retirements mandatory and flexible retirements and the one in use in the United States police force is mandatory retirement. In most western socities, individual rights, needs and preferences have become increasingly committed to democratic principles of equality and freedom. Therefore at work places, these principles imply that employment decisions that affect individuals ought to be made without any regards to their personal and demographic characteristics. Instead these decisions are supposed to be based on work related criteria like bona fide occupational requirements and performance.Therefore, it can be argued out that mandatory retirement, by singling out age rather than individual productivity or competence is contrary to the principles of equality that our society is embracing (Naresh, 1998). Retirement is supposed to be a wonderful experience in the life of employees who have spent many years working and contributing to the society in which they live and the same applies to policemen. However to many people it turns out to be confusing, unsettling and downright depressing especially if someone doesnt know what to expect or if it comes at a time that one has not planned enough on how to handle life after quitting employment. (Belcher, 1999).Therefore its of great importance that employees prepare adequately to ensure that their retirement years become full of life and joy just as the years spent pursuing their careers.

Description Effects of Mandatory Retirement
Policemen in the United States, just like other employees experience the following effects due to mandatory retirement One of the most profound effects is mental anguish which they may feel unexpectedly due to the sudden change from working full time and chasing their career goals to the challenge of facing dark days full of unknown tasks and expectations. Therefore they end up feeling totally depressed, confused and misunderstood. Defiance against the routine they have followed for many years is also one of the first things that policemen may develop upon forced retirement. This may involve waking up late in the morning, staying in pajamas all day, watching bad daytime TV and staying up late at night. The policemen will definitely develop stress because life change of any kind usually causes some stress and retirement is no different many seniors report feeling stress and depression about the lack of direction for their lives upon retirement .Many tend to have thoughts of what will transpire in the next life after employment and how to acquire the next resources when their pensions are depleted. When it comes to retirement, health of employees either improves or deteriorates depending on how the retirees feel about the situation. In the case of policemen in the United States who feel that the mandatory retirement age is not appropriate, their health will definitely be affected in a negative way .Some of them will find their health fading away so fast as a result of their mental anguish over retirement (Belcher, 1999).

Research in the Issue of Mandatory Retirement for Police Officers
Research has shown that complete retirement leads to a 5-16 increase in difficulties in mobility and daily activities, 5-6 increase in illness conditions, 6-9 decline in mental health, over an average post retirement period of six years. These adverse health effects can be mitigated if an individual is married and has social support because heshe will not be lonely hence there will be a lot of emotional support from family members. Continual engagement in physical activities post retirement or working part time in other areas can also be of great help to a retiree because it will keep the person busy and shift the minds away from the main problem that is at hand and in the process there will be some kind of recovery from stress(Dhaval,2006).

The police pension scheme as it stands today came into force in the year 2006.This means that initially, policemen were forced to retire with no benefits. This must have been a very devastating situation especially for those who had no ability to find ways into other careers or who could not find any other means as a source of income. The arrangements for payment of pension are based on the final salary of the police who have to contribute 9.5 of their salary every month. Therefore upon retirement, their pension is usually a maximum of 50 of the final salary each year and to add to that, there is also a fixed lumpsum of a magnitude of 400 of the pension.Curently the maximum pension for a police officer is after 35 years of service and the rate at which the final pension is accrued is 170th of the final salary for each year of service in the police force. Normally these pensions can be paid to another person even one who is not a marriage or civil partner in some circumstances. Due to natural circumstances, not all police officers can make it to retirement. Some of them may die in accidents, due to diseases or even while carrying out their normal work duties. If this happens then the police officer would still be able to receive pension but it will be based upon the length of service though it will be paid earlier (Redding, 2000).

As it is required that every employee in the United States have to pay taxes to the government, not even the police force can escape. The pension contributions can be made free of tax upto a certain level after which these contributions will be taxed and the retirement benefits paid are also taxable. By paying taxes, the United States government gains money that is used for the benefit of its citizens. For example the money paid as taxes is used by the government to improve infrastructure (like roads), building and improvement of public facilities like hospitals and schools, promote small business owners to make them succeed because entrepreneurship is what makes the country going. In addition tax is used to facilitate disaster recovery and control like hurricane Katrina and the September 11 attack. The police pension and retirement policy is generally considered to be generous although there is certainly a lot of work to be done to make it perfect (Redding, 2000).

There are assumptions held by police that officers die soon after leaving their careers. These findings are derived from an analysis on 732 Illinois State Police officers who have retired from the agency since 1957 and there is similar information available from Arizona, Kentucky and Ohio state patrols. Due to scarcity of research on this subject, reasons for these findings are not clearly spelt out. The average police officer dies within five years after retirement and is reportedly said to have a life expectancy of twelve years less than that of other people. This fact is well known within police departments and though it does not have supporting evidence, it reflects a commonly held assumption among police officers although the Los Angeles city police and Massachusetts state police have also provided data that appears to contradict these assumptions. Their data suggests that Illinois State Police officers have as long, if not longer life expectancy as the population as a whole. The expected shorter life for police officers may be assumed to arise from the type of work they perform which includes threats, boredom and conflicting expectations from society. Threats can be from criminals who are being hunted down who when they reach a point of being overwhelmed by the police, they end up killing them. This is one illustration as to why police work is considered so risky. Each and every day, there are cases of policemen being killed in efforts to maintain law and order or cases where they have to deal with terrorists like in the 911 incidence in the United States. With all these, the life of police officers is sometimes shortened by circumstances in their work environments hence leading to a shorter life expectancy compared to other employees (Raub, 1987).

Police are also said to have a higher than normal rates of divorce and suicides. High divorce rates can be attributed to the fact that most of the times, policemen are always out for duties and at times they have to go to places far from their families to attend to duties making them out of reach from their families. In the process, wives and children are left back at their homes for so long and when it exceeds the tolerance of the involved parties, conflicts arise which mostly lead to separation and divorce. In most cases the issue of unfaithfulness comes up and it breaks families which may in turn tempt couples to commit suicide due to stress (Raub, 1987).

Other peoples views
Much as mandatory retirement age is considered to be a set back in the police force, other people think that banning it from being implemented will have several effects as discussed below. It is said that forbidding mandatory retirement age from fulfilling the mutually agreed functions will reduce jobs and promotion opportunities in the police force. This is because the older or senior policemen will still remain in their higher ranks and those who serve below them will not have any chances of being promoted to better positions. Working in the same capacity for so many years is known to be demotivating hence the quality of work from the policemen will not be of good quality (Gunderson, 2008).Succession planning on the part of government will become more difficult in the sense that if the older policemen continue to stay in the work force then there will be no one willing to be replaced or substituted yet we know that in any given organization, there must be changes including recruiting new people who come with new ideas and energy to improve the quality of work done. It will also be difficult to know when to bring in new recruits for certain positions because there will be no definite time when the incumbent will leave.

Moreover, in absence of mandatory retirement, policemen in the United States of America might become less prepared for retirement making the public and private pensions to dissipate. The government of the United States may begin to think that if the policemen can continue working past the retirement age, then there would be no need for a pension plan for them. Pension plans may start being used strategically as a substitute for mandatory retirement in order to get policemen to leave the work force voluntarily. Furthermore, its abit difficult and stringent to monitor and evaluate older employees in any given organization and as a result the rate of dismissals will be higher. The same issue will affect the police work force if mandatory retirement age is banned hence it can be retained for the good of the policemen in a sense that it would be better for them to work knowing that at a certain age they have to quit than have all the years to work yet risk losing their jobs anytime due to dismissals. Since there will be so many older people in the police force, the only thing that will be used as a basis of eliminating some of them will be the mistakes they commit hence it will be so easy for so many of them to lose their jobs(Gunderson, 2008).

Considering the labour force participation rate in the United States of America, there was a decline in the age of retirement before the 1980s but starting in the late 1980s people stopped retiring earlier. Although there is no evidence that there is a casual relationship between banning mandatory retirement age and the one at which people retire, the statistics are pretty coincidental which shows that there will be actually little effect on the actual retirement age.However, it is debatable that fewer people may continue working if mandatory retirement is banned in the police force because they will already have their retirement plans (Gunderson, 2008).

If mandatory retirement age for policemen is banned, they may begin to retire at different ages or whenever they feel they want to quit working. Some of these decisions will be made abruptly without even having planned for the future hence such people will be bound to suffer economically and emotionally when they start experiencing hardships as a result of the freedom to choose when they want to retire. This is one of the reasons why mandatory retirement age is good because it forces people to plan for their life after retirement (Gunderson, 2008).

Based on the way policemen perceive their mandatory retirement age, I would recommend the following The relevant authorities responsible or those dealing with issues regarding retirement and pensions for police officers in the United States should seriously look into changing this retirement age to around 65-70 years. This is because from the discussion laid above most of these officers are not contented with what is on ground for them. They feel they are being forced to quit working when they can still do well and contribute perfectly to the police force. Moreover at the age of 60(the current mandatory requirement age), most policemen feel that they are still physically fit and
can still perform as per the requirement of the police force so they should be given the chance to prove themselves.

I also recommend that the government of the United States creates other job opportunities for police retirees so that after leaving their careers, retired policemen can be able to earn a living elsewhere apart from waiting and depending on their pension money which may not be able to sustain them sufficiently. By so doing, the effect of retiring will not be felt because there will be transition from their career jobs to yet other jobs which will keep them busy. On the other hand, these recommendations may not be so easy to implement because of some barriers which can be discussed as follows the job of police officers is not an easy one and this brings in the time factor. If these recommendations can be carried out, then it means that the time frame should be very short so that policemen can feel the change within the shortest time possible. It is well known that changing anything within a given work force or organization is not quite easy because it involves so many people with so many ideas and they have to discuss and come to agreement before anything is implemented. So time becomes the major limiting factor here.

Summary Statement
In summary, this essay was exploring the topic Mandatory retirement age for police officers. Its the age at which police officers have to stop working and currently in the United States of America, the age is 60. The policemen feel that the age is not adequate for them and want it pushed to 65 years. This problem mainly affects the policemen directly and their families indirectly. There are several effects of mandatory retirement age which can be generalized as follows confusion, restleness, anguish, stress and several health effects. Along with these, other issues about the policemen in the United States also came up for example research shows that the rate of divorce and suicide among them is higher compared to other employees in different categories.

In addition, their life expectancy is shorter compared to other people in different careers As a result, I have recommended that the relevant authorities in the United States should look into changing the mandatory retirement age of police officers as a means of motivating them in their careers.Moreover, other job opportunities should be set aside for those who retire to earn a living out of it other than just depending on the pension. Other peoples views on the effects of banning mandatory retirement age of policemen in the United States have also been discussed.

In Conclusion, I think the police in the United States of America just like any category of employees should be considered and granted their wishes because without it, there will be no motivation in the police work force bearing in mind that its them who take charge of the country in matters that pertain to maintaining law and order among other functions.

Transnational Organization Best Practices Paper

Bata Shoe Companys re-entry into the Czech Republic
From the rich history of the Bata Shoe Company it is possible to tell that it is a viable business with a lot of promise and new markets and opportunities to exploit. It has the resources to do this and a good plan is necessary to ensure that its re-entry into the Czech Republic brings advantage to both the country and the shoe company.

The Czech republic is located in a very strategic location it is opening up to other markets meaning that Bata will also have an opportunity to explore these markets once it is well established. The Republic holds dearly its culture and customs and therefore all people and organizations planning to set up business in the republic should be very careful not to go against, interfere or disrespect the culture of the people. Even the business environment in the republic is governed by a sort of business culture that the business community adheres to.  Many businesses have failed to take off in the country as a result of cultural challenges, especially with foreigners. That said it is important to note that the republic offers a great deal of opportunities for those who are interested in investing there. (Kwintessentail, 2010)

For a long time, the Bata Shoe Company has been involved in the manufacturing and retail business of different types of shoes for its market. In the Czech Republic the Bata Shoe Company is better off investing in the retail market as the country offers a good market for the companys products together with other advantages that come with a retail business as opposed to other forms of businesses. A retail business is easier to set up as it does not require as much capital resources as a manufacturing business. The company can also partner with an already existing company as this will mean that the cost of restarting its operations will be reduced and it will also benefit from the connections and goodwill of the already existing company. (Kwintessentail, 2010)

Bata should also look into investing in already set up retail facilities such as pre existing plants from where it will conduct its operations in order to save time that would be used in the construction of a new plant. Czech Republic has such plants and it will therefore not be difficult to find one which the Bata Company can acquire. A retail business would also be easier to control and run and therefore a good option for the company since it will most likely be starting a fresh.

Business, Cultural and Legal Practices in the Czech Republic
The business culture in the Czech Republic is one that upholds discipline, responsibility and respect both for businesses and for the people. Punctuality, politeness, setting meetings in advance and appearance is very important and so to be able to get through this part, it will be important to really study the business and corporate structures to ensure that there are no obstacles that will hinder the restarting of the business. Building necessary relationships with players in the same and related markets is also important and having a clear proposal and goals as well as all the relevant information will be an added advantage. Urbach Hacker Young International Limited, 2008)

A complete knowledge of the business environment is also necessary such as the laws and regulations that govern retail businesses in the republic. The legal system regarding businesses is a bit complex and therefore the company should be prepared to follow the necessary regulations. The start of the second half of the year 2000 saw the government establish a statute that ensures that those engaged in investment activities get incentives on their projects in their respective industries. The incentives are in the form of tax holidays, material support for those who create jobs, with a higher premium for those who employ people with disabilities, material support for companies that offer to train their workforce, subsidies and also enjoy the benefits that European Union Countries enjoy since the Czech Republic is an EU member. The Bata Company will also get to enjoy these incentives once it has reentered the market. Urbach Hacker Young International Limited, 2008)

Integration into the Market
This refers to how the Bata Shoe Company can become part of the business sector in the republic and in effect the economy. In order for the Bata Company to become integrated into the Czech Republic it must follow all the written down rules and regulations of businesses as stipulated in the Law. Bata will also have to conform to the cultural business practices as expected by the people of the Czech Republic. As for the Business community, Bata will have to associate itself with the relevant players in the industry in order to learn from them as they already know what the market in the republic is like and what kind of business it can handle or not be able to handle.

The Bata Shoe Company can also become integrated into the Czech Republics economy through the employment sector. This will take place because its re-entry into the Czech economy will create employment for the people. It will also become part of the industry as well as other related industries through buying raw materials and other forms of technology from them.

Competitive Advantage
In order for Bata to be able to create and maintain a competitive advantage in the retail business and shoe industry in the Czech Republic, it will need to invest a lot in research, marketing and advertising. Research can be conducted in both the consumer market in order to know what type of shoe products the consumers are interested in and the amount of money that they would be willing to spend on shoes. This will enable the company to know what to produce and to come up with a good pricing plan for its product so as not to overprice their products and at the same time not to under price them. The company should also research on the availability of raw materials for its products as well as the transportation details as this will affect the delivery of the products to the consumers.

In order to maintain its competitive advantage, the company will need to take into a count the kind of competition that it faces from similar businesses and how it can create and develop its own niche in the market and the direction to follow in order to create and maintain loyalty from its customers. Se of the latest technology and quality raw materials will ensure that the business will at all times produce top line products and thereby have a competitive edge compared to other competitors in the market.

The shoe market is a large market and the most important thing is to learn what is required by the main players of the market including the customers tastes and preferences. The foot ware market generates a lot of revenue in the Czech Republic and it is therefore up to the shoe company to develop policies and plans that will ensure that it is able to tap into the revenue in this market. The re entry of the company into the market will definitely lead to increased competition and the company should prepare for this by  coming up with well laid out strategic plans to deal with it as well as good policies to ensure that it will be able to take off and maintain its presence in the market.

Energy Crisis

When could one say that there is an energy crisis a term used to describe a huge decrease in energy supply or its resources At present, our world is now confronting a growing demand for electricity, exceeding more than what it can supply or produce.It was estimated by the International Energy Agency (IEA) that energy consumption would rise by 50 in the year 2030 compared to today s utilization (as cited in ElBaradeil, 2008). Hence, one could say that we are experiencing an energy crisis now.

Among the energy resources, petroleum or oil has the largest share at 40. With its consumption expected to increase, it has caused an impending threat of energy shortage (Kohl, 2008). Despite the additional investments made to alleviate the situation, big oil companies find it difficult to increase their production. In effect, petroleum has become too costly that it bears a constant threat of complete exhaustion.

The main cause of the energy crisis is our depleting oil reserves. Oil is the most widely consumed energy resource that supplies the needed electricity to light millions of homes, propel engines, and power numerous industries around the world. However, such resource is not renewable and is nearing the verge of scarcity that not even major oil companies can sustain its availability (Kohl, 2008). Thus, this crisis is posing detrimental effects on the economy, affecting mass production of goods as well as government or private operations.

A primary indicator of this energy crisis is the much-felt doubling in oil process. If one owns a car, then surely he or she can attest to soaring gas prices.As consumers, the public has certainly noticed how rates for basic commodities have so far gone up instead of down. In addition, blackouts and power cuts have been reported not just in poor or developing countries but also in wealthy or key areas (Esparza, 2009).  All of these effects result from our diminishing oil resources. What is more alarming is the fact that, a quarter of the world s population still do not have access to electricity and already much of our oil reserves have been used up. (ElBaradeil, 2008) . Yes, this is a crisis that needs to be addressed the soonest.

Yet, in spite of all these evidences presented, some people still consider it a myth. That should not be the case every one of us must realize that the danger of energy shortage is much too clear and present to be ignored. It can be a condition that can spread and worsen if left untreated.

Given this present ordeal in energy, does the possibility of supporting more generations to come exist It is not just the present that is at stake but also our future. Are we reaping the seeds of what we sow Is nature getting back at us for taking its richness for granted These are questions arising from the circumstance on hand.

Energy Crisis in Venezuela and Brazil
To corroborate the existence of an energy crisis, series of power cuts or blackouts were reported  in major countries, hitting hard in parts of Latin or South America such as Venezuela. (Esparza, 2009) The worsening energy shortage in Venezuela was confirmed by a decree proclaimed by Venezuelan president, Hugo Chavez, placing the country in a state of energy emergency. It mandated energy rationing to aid in relieving its electricity shortage. The decree imposed fines on households and business establishments unable to reduce energy consumption by the required percentage while a credit for reduction (Toothaker, 2010).

As the proclamation stays in effect, the government has laid out power cuts or blackouts throughout the country and ordered reduction of electricity supply in shopping joints and shutting off of states that operate aluminum and steel plants. To further support the cause, the president announced shorter working hours (8 am to 1 pm) with the exception of public offices (Sanchez, 2009).

Global warming or the EL Nio Phenomenon was pointed out as the cause for the country s state of energy emergency. Less or little rain has visited Venezuela and even caused drought in some of its areas. As a result, water level from the Guri Dam fell to a critical height. This dam supplies electricity to most parts of the country (Sanchez, 2009). The huge drop in the dam s water level will bring serious implications to the country s economy and stability. Therefore, the government had to step in and implement the energy rationing scheme that dictated even distribution and optimal use of the diminishing electric supply in Venezuela (Toothaker, 2010).

However, critics argue that Venezuela s energy crisis cannot be attributed to nature s wrath alone as it could also be a product of poor planning or administration. They made allegations concerning the government s lack of investment in preparing and addressing a national issue like, energy shortage (Toothaker, 2010).

Earlier on, Brazil, another Latin American country, has gone through the same energy crisis. An Energy Crisis Coordinating Committee was set up by the Brazilian government to come up with measures in response to its depleting energy supply. There is not much difference in the practices undertaken by the Brazilians compared to the Venezuelans. Its state required dimmed lights in streets, beaches, parks and tunnels, change of work shift to six hours, cancellation of games, concerts and activities and shutting off of service stations between 10 pm to 6 am. Obviously, these actions are focused on minimizing energy consumption on a larger scale (Rother, 2001).

Similarly, a scheme to have power supply cut off for six days for households who failed to meet targets for electric conversation and cash rewards for those who managed to save 20 percent more than the others was observed. (Rother, 2001)Hence, it operated based on the principle lessen electricity consumption lest pay a penalty .

The Brazilians themselves got firsthand experience in dealing with the gravity of their existing electricity shortage. As the current crisis takes its toll, its citizens have resorted to energy conservation methods such as the use of fluorescent of incandescent bulbs, electric fans instead of air conditioning, and unplugging of electrical appliances when not in use (Rother, 2001).

Brazilians more than shared the same energy crisis  as Venezuelans, they too, raised the inadequate planning and preparation factor critical in averting depletion of its energy reserves. (Rother, 2001)Energy Crisis on Public Administration and Globalization

Evidently, energy crisis is present and much prominent these days given the rising prices in oil, frequent blackouts, or power cuts across countries (ElBaradeil, 2008 ). However, can such condition be really attributed to poor administration or globalization

Insufficient and unsatisfactory planning from the government s end has been cited as contributing agents twice for countries suffering similar energy shortages. Thus, it is not just the critics who made the same allegation but the citizens themselves (Rother, 2001). Isn t it true that only on the precipice do people act on issues that threaten their safety, well being or survival Is it correct to say that we panic when there is a cause for alarm Needless to say, the answers to those questions are a reflection of how the littlest to the biggest of concerns are taken in by most.

Governments should have long anticipated the rise of energy crisis and developed procedures that could prevent if not ease its impact on their country, people, and economy. The lack in sound policies left an image of an administration that does not have control over the situation, spreading frustration and uncertainty amidst its sovereignty. (Rother, 2001) Their failure to think ahead and prepare may have caused irreparable damages. Thorough planning and preparation could have helped save enough energy reserves to consume during these crucial times. However, instead we feed off on what is left while trying to make it suffice, knowing that it will not.

Now, what is globalization s take on this issue Globalization is a process developed for purposes of trade and investment with the aid of technology. Undeniably however, it is mainly concentrated only on those two aspects, making matters on energy an exception. Sure enough, we have the World Health Organization (WHO) for food and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) for oil producers (ElBaradeil, 2008), but why not put a strong body that will monitor and pass mandates on the current energy crisis, such being a national concern

Currently, the Energy Treaty representing only 51 participating countries is restricted to deliberation on energy trade, transport, and dispute resolution. In the same way, the UN-Energy council only serves as an avenue for discussion and information dissemination, lacking neither funds nor discretion on the subject. It stressed the need for a global organization that would complement and not take the place of existing groups in dealing matters on energy. It listed functions that this body can do to carry out its aims and responsibilities assess energy supply and demand provide objective advice and share energy technology to poor countries design a global method to ensure energy supply during critical times and assist other countries in running their energy reserves (ElBaradeil, 2008).
Our present dilemma only shows how little notice and focus were placed on energy as a resource despite knowing its tendency to eventually run out. The facts given above demonstrate the flaw in our recent system of administration. Meticulous preparation could have been the key in sustaining our battle against energy crisis. Nonetheless, the call for energy conservation concerns everyone and not just those in power.

The implications of energy crisis can become too great to handle unless due attention and appropriate actions are formulated and implemented to provide solutions. At this point, alternative sources of energy are being looked into to help curb this national threat. These sources are renewable (e.g., solar, wind, water) and do not run out (Kohl, 2008). Then again, the successful development and use of alternative energy lies heavily on people for proper administration. If not, then let us prepare for a worldwide blackout.

Justification for Military Rule

The Dirty War of Argentina, during its seven years of military Junta, is possibly one of the most significant events in recent South American history. From 1976 to 1983, it is estimated that nearly 30,000 people were either killed or disappeared, before democracy could be restored. As a precursor to dictatorship, General Jorge Rafael Videla tried to justify his coup dtat by proclaiming that the Armed Forces of Argentina were tempted to fulfill its obligation to the State because of ongoing mismanagement and subversive activities. The dictator further commented that their aim was to lead by satisfying requirements of Justice that included respect to an individual rights and dignity (Rosenberg, 1992, p. 123). Historians believe that this was just another excuse to derail government as the chaos was mostly right wing that did not require Military intervention. The historian viewpoint is justified in the words of famous American Attorney General, Justice Robert H Jackson, who concluded that submission of captive enemies to the judgment of law is one of the most significant tributes Power has paid to Reason (Boraine, 2006, p.19). Resorting to irrational reasoning, General Videla and his comrades not only exerted Powers on their enemies but vehemently killed anyone who they thought garnered subversive thoughts.

Subversive Elements of Society
Consequently, more than 30000 people were kidnapped from their homes which included students, professionals, workers of opposition parties and clergy. The motive behind the coup is further undermined by taking into account the widespread disappearance of babies as well as pregnant women. Moreover, experts agree that by 1976 Argentine guerillas Montoneros and ERP had already abandoned organized combat and could launch only scattered attacks (Pion, 1994, p. 109). In this regard, one should not forget that the real subversive were mostly dead by the time coup took over because the left wing guerilla operations had lost its intensity. It will not be an oversimplification to suggest that the primary objective of Junta was not only to tackle direct opposition but anyone they presumed to be a subversive element of society. To the leaders of dictatorship, labor leaders, intellectuals and anyone thought to be a threat to their aims were actually subversive, themselves. As discussed, this strategy involved ordinary civilians evident by the killings of schoolchildren portrayed as Montoneros sympathizers when they were actually picketing for lower bus fares. Such policies offer an insight into the actions of contemporary dictatorship which initiated a program of brutal repression involving mass kidnapping, imprisonment without charges, torture and murder.

A Reason to Torture
Interestingly, one may be better able to comprehend the motives and strategies of military Junta by reading accounts of a captive and that of a captor. According to the account of interviews conducted by Pulitzer Prize winner, Tina Rosenberg, one of her interviewees was a fifty year old school teacher who was taken to the notorious ESMA interrogation center so that she could tell the whereabouts of her son. Once there, the women was brutally tortured and then released. To her, the interrogators were aware that she could not provide the intended information but their possible aim was to reduce her sons interest in politics or to warn others or just to show their power (Rosenberg, p.87). Whereas this account is consistent with the plans of military to prosecute anyone presumed a threat, another account of a General provide further clues as to why torture was deemed necessary. On interviewing, a former employee of ESMA, Lt. Commander Jorge explained that one of the reasons for torture was to extract information rapidly because if a certain guerilla did not contact a predetermined cell number within two days, his comrades would declare him dead and erase clues of his identity (p. 128).

Irrespective of these claims, it is apparent that the military continued to exterminate their opponents long after two thousand remaining left wing guerillas were crippled in 1977. It is reported that even United States had a favorable view of the new dictatorship in 1975 but later understood the grave consequences of a brutal military regime forcing USA to publicly oppose Argentinean government in Falkland War A war that became the primary reason of eventual downfall of General Jorge Rafael Videla (Osorio, 2002).

Grandmothers of the Plaza de Mayo
The onset of military regime brought terror to ordinary citizens as militia driving black falcons without number plate kidnapped people from their homes and offices in broad daylight. Initially public viewed these kidnappings as left wing guerrilla activities but soon realized that the kidnappers had the backing of Armed Forces. Seemingly, everyone was caught in this vicious cycle including housewives, teenagers and babies.

The Beginnings
Soon the grieving mothers of lost Sons started inquiring about whereabouts of their beloved. Perhaps, veneration given to Mothers in traditional Spanish cultures prevented authorities from clamping down on inquisitive Mothers and it may also be the reason for an inquest that started with fourteen women silently protesting at Plaza De Mayo on one evening of April 1977. The Plaza was chosen due to its historical significance in Argentinas history as well as its place in the middle of bureaucratic enclave. The grandmothers would silently stroll around the square wearing white handkerchief embodied by the names of those lost and the date of disappearance hence founding Mothers of Plaza De Mayo movement.

Eventually the size of the group began to expand as more mothers, mostly middle class, came out of their homes making it their mission to find the Sons. Overtimes, the group swelled to fifty or sixty women but not without confrontation with Police. Three year later in 1978, the first leader of the group Azuzena Villaflor de Vicenti and eleven members were kidnapped. One of the kidnapped, Doia Azuzena underwent severe torture which later culminated in her martyrdom. In a related incident, two Nuns were also charged and clandestinely thrown into the sea from military helicopters. It was only an international outcry that resulted in the groups eventual release (Agosin, 1987, p.431). This international attention signified the widespread local and international attention that the Mothers of Plaza De Mayo had achieved.

Grandmothers Demand
By this time, the movement had already become a political theme forcing politicians, human right organizations, NGOs and international missions to take notice. Amid these developments, Mothers realized that their voice was becoming a voice of a tormented Nation so their objective had to include a broader purpose. United behind a more venerated cause, the Mothers relinquished their blood relations to embrace all lost Sons as if their own. From, My Son the purpose transformed into the slogan, Our Sons (Bellucci, 1999, p.85).

Illegally Kidnapped Grandchildren
In collaboration with other organizations, further investigations revealed that infants and young children were also abducted by the security forces. Depending upon circumstance, these infants were handed to neighbors, left in institutions of abandoned children or handed to childless couples. Infants born to pregnant women under custody often ended up within the household of security personals. It is estimated that a total of 300 children were abducted with their parents or born in captivity to disappeared mothers. It seemed that all of a sudden the Mothers had also become Grandmothers. These women visited orphanages, families and remote areas to gather clues that could help locate and subsequently relate missing children to biological grandparents or families.

By the end of 1982, the Mothers had already located 50 out of 300 children. In order to prove relationship, DNA and other highly sophisticated scientific methods were utilized to present concrete proof to Civil Courts. By 1990, 7 were found dead, 13 were supported by their adaptive and biological families, 25 had been reunited with their families and 5 cases were still pending (Penchaszadeh, 1992, p.301). At present, the movement is still active. According to the official website addressing this particular cause, 87 children are already identified while the search for others continues (Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo). Every Thursday, the Mothers congregate at Plaza de Mayo to pledge their commitment to continue search until the whereabouts of everyone is found. This search will probably continue, forever.

The role of CONADEP
Argentinas National Commission on the Disappearance of Persons (CONADEP) played the most important role in uncovering atrocities committed under previous military Junta. The proceedings of commission were jointly made successful by Alfonsins government and human right commission. It basically served a two pronged function which included the discovery of new evidence and its collection to produce strong legal cause for the prosecution of those involved (Crenzel, 2008, p.174). Both CONADEP and the best selling final summary of its findings, Nunca Mas, are thought to have a direct impact on such human right violations around the World. The eventual success of CONADEP was not without great challenges.

CONADEP and its Challenges
Perhaps the most substantial challenge faced by Alfonsins government was the creation of CONADEP, itself. Alexander Boraine, founder of International Center for Transitional Justice, explains that people in Argentina were skeptical to CONADEP success because proponents of its formation including Catholic Church were seen as silent supporter of the Military Junta (Boraine, p.22). President Alfonsin had to carefully analyze the demands of human rights commission for widespread punishments in contrast to Militarys desire to go unpunished. In order to address this issue, the commission planned to prosecute only those who actually planned brutality or those who violently exceeded their limits (p. 176). The first major hurdle appeared when authorities agreed to involve military courts. Most human right organizations, with the exception of APDH, rejected to be a part of such proceedings. Although conditions could have deteriorated further when APDH was offered a prominent role in CONADEP hearings but many freedom movements including Abuelas de Plaza de Mayo decided to help understanding that CONADEP may be the only realistic chance of fulfilling human right objectives (p. 180). Initially, only 70 testimonies from survivors were collected making it difficult to produce relevant evidence. Therefore, authorities decided to extend the search to small towns, villages and remote areas with the help of volunteers. Another challenge was to locate and generate evidence from illegal detention centers which, at the time of suppression, also acted as public offices. Nevertheless, the biggest obstacle was cleared when Nunca Mas was made public instead of keeping it a government secret, as is the tradition of most large scale inquiries in many countries (p. 189).

Trial and Human Rights
According to experts, prosecutions will not deter leaders from carrying out such atrocities unless societies learn to uproot the cause of such conditions which allow these leaders to commit crimes. One of the main purposes of criminal tribunals should be to incapacitate the national leaders ability to carry out act of violence (Aldana, 2006, p. 119). The need for these laws became apparent when democratic governments, after sentencing two prominent leaders, General Jorge Videla and Emilio Massera, survived failed coup attempts. These attempts were carried out after the initiation of trails of junior officers. To appease military and prevent further disruption, authorities passed two amnesty laws, Full Stop and Due Obedience. Although slightly controversial, proponents believe that these compromises were necessary to evade possible future threats.

Such compromises are also evident in the parties involved in reconciliation process. For example, numerous human right associations of Argentina preferred a bicameral commission with a power to subpoena testimony but eventually relegated their demands by providing voluminous documentation of human right violations (Sikkink, 2008, p.7). Despite these uncertainties, CONADEP was a resounding success as it served for collective examination of social values and the future role of institutions in Argentina. The impact of strong legal and ethical restorative laws based on the recommendation of commission is apparent in recent court orders of restraining Jorge Videla and restoring his human rights convictions.

Amnesty to Criminals
On December 29, 1990, President Carlos Menem granted amnesty to top three military leaders of the Junta, namely Jorge Rafael Videla, Emilio Massera and Leopoldo Galtieri. Former President, Ral Alfonsn called it the saddest day in Argentine history. Due to the threats of military coups and constant pressure from armed forces, Alfonsos government passed Law No. 23492 Full Stop Law which created a sixty day deadline to bring further charges. Another similar Law No 23521 Due Obedience Law dictated that most defendants acted on the orders that they were unable to question. These laws were enacted in 1986 and 1987, outraging human right activists which they considered to be an outright disregard of the efforts by thousands of individuals who had so painstakingly tried to bring perpetrators to Justice.

Efforts to Overturn Amnesty
During repression period, several human right organizations had risked compiling hordes of evidence on atrocities. At the time, they had also filed several cases in National courts and petitioned foreign governments to help. After the establishment of democracy, human right organizations helped create an agenda for transition while continuing efforts to address pending cases.

Due to these two controversial laws, only 10 individuals were ever sentenced for their crimes who were later pardoned by President Carlos Menem. Still, the Human Rights Office of the Ministry of Interior continued their quest for Justice under Menem. The first major breakthrough occurred when some junior ranked military officers came forward to testify thus igniting debates to reopen the trials. Although, the courts were unable to prosecute criminals or reopen trials but several organizations such as Madres de Plaza de Mayo and Centro de Estudios Legales y Sociales continued their struggle to carry out judicial investigations (Accountability in Argentina).

Cases Reopened
Another significant event was the case of missing babies who were illegally adopted by people. Not covered by Full Stop Law, President Menem created a Comisin Nacional por el Derecho a la Identidad to build up a case for missing children. This landmark organization was mainly represented by human right groups who successfully reopened new trials against perpetrators who had escaped punishment due to the implementation of controversial amnesty laws.

By the end of 2001, human right campaigners had built up strong partnerships with other international organizations including United Nations and Inter American Human Rights Commission. Countries including Spain, Italy, Sweden, France and Germany were already persistent in demanding extradition of those who had committed crimes against humanity. Same year, Federal Judge Gabriel Cavallo declared that international laws and treaty obligations take precedence over local Argentinean laws therefore Full Stop Law and Due Obedience Law is void. The appeal was upheld which paved way for Argentinean Supreme Court to declare by overwhelming margin of 7-1 that the two controversial laws were unconstitutional.

Currently, Jorge Rafael Videla is being tried on accusations of 30 homicides, 552 kidnapping and 264 torture cases. His partner in crime, Emilio Massera has already been declared insane. Leopoldo Galtieri suffered heart attack just days after democracy was restored. Experts believe that successful trials of former military Junta and recent convictions of Miguel Etchecolatz and Christian Von Wernich will go a long way in confronting a bloody past (ODonnel, 2009, p. 350). In this regard, the roles of human right organizations have been instrumental who continue to take decisive measures against crime on humanity. They further believe that the actions of these groups have encouraged many Latin American and African countries to take similar stance in their respective realm.

The human rights condition in Argentina is far better than it must have been two decades earlier. According to Amnesty International Website, Argentina has made significant progress in improving its human rights record. Despite delays in conviction, 44 officials have been condemned since the 1980s notorious rules annulled. The only major human right problems today include deplorable prison conditions and women reproductive rights (Argentina Human Rights Watch).

Globalization Impact on Governance and World Economy

Globalization has had a huge impact on governance and the world economy. There has been marked increase in cross-border trade and a surge in investment opportunities. This is very vital as it is helping to raise living standards across the world as new technologies spread faster. The competitive environment has also changed significantly with multinational organizations repositioning themselves to reap the benefits of free mobility of labor and capital. Consumers   will also benefit from the low prices of commodities and a wider choice of cheap products. It will be possible for organizations to have access to rich-country markets and benefit from increased technical assistance. The World Trade Organization (WTO) and other global institutions like the World Bank will focus on promoting regional and global integrations through policies that enhance economic development.

Evidently, Globalization has broken the barriers to international trade. It has enabled governments, organizations and individuals to access resources and share information. One of the key issues that characterize organizations in the 21st century is the increased mobility of resources.

Globalization has benefited both developed and developing countries. It has become increasingly possible for countries and organizations to share resources. The free mobility of resources has brought many benefits. For one, the mobility of labor and expertise is a driving force for developing economies. It is notable that most multinational organizations are constantly utilizing imported skilled work force. There is a huge surge in the number of professionals and experts working in foreign countries. Governments have modified their Training and educational systems to reflect the changing trends. The free movement of skilled labor has helped to build and develop capacities in areas that lack professional expertise. On the other hand, local economies are diversifying and growing tremendously as organizations relocate to emerging markets. This situation has led to optimal use of resources due to enhanced capacity and minimized wastage of resources. One of the major challenges facing international trade has been transport and communication related barriers (Maltby and Richard, 1989).  It is evidently clear that with increased globalization, the distribution functions and supply chains of organizations will benefit. Certainly, as governments continue to work closely together, this will enhance free movement of goods and services. This will help organizations to reach the global customer at a minimal cost. The result is lower prices of commodities and improved living standards for people. In addition, globalization will have an effect on the international competitive environment. It is notable that as organizations relocate and expand their business operations, competition for resources and markets will get stiffer. This competition will help to bring prices for commodities down. Organizations will seek for cheaper and efficient business process in order to stay in the business. The free movement of capital is another factor that characterizes the globalization process.

The free flow of capital is one of the main factors driving new and emerging economies. This especially important because despite the huge endowment of natural resources, developing countries lack the human and capital resources to utilize these resources. With globalization, it has become possible for poor and developing countries to tap their natural resources. Experts agree that globalization and the formation of bilateral agreements have enabled African countries to invest in mining, agriculture, transport and communications (Tedlow and Richard, 1990).  In addition, the manufacturing sectors in most countries are on a recovery path. It is notable that the industrialization process relies on the efficient flow of labor and capital. The availability of markets and the ability to reach these markets at a minimal cost is another very important factor. Globalization plays a vital role in enhancing the free movement of resources and the creation of new markets. Globalization does not only benefit developing countries, but also developed and industrialized economies. Ideally, the availability of raw materials and other inputs drives the globalization process. These inputs include sources of energy and affordable labor among others. The industrialized nations obtain most of their energy sources from the Middle East and other African countries. International cooperation and globalization has made the trade in oil energy easy and economically viable. Imports from foreign countries power the nuclear energy projects in developed nations. In addition, most industrialized nations obtain raw material from foreign markets. On the other hand, industrialized nations export most of their products to developing economies.

Developing countries are a major importer of products from their developed counterparts. As countries work closely together, it is easier to solve global problems. These problems range from international insecurity to environmental degradation. On its part, insecurity is one of the main challenges to international trade. Organizations are spending more due to the increased insecurity along the Indian Ocean occasioned by piracy. This has affected distribution and supply chain systems leading to higher cost for goods and services. Terrorism is another security concern that is posing a big threat to international trade. A dynamic security issue is gradually affecting how organizations run their business process. In recent years, terrorism has changed face with organized groups coming up. The ability for terrorist groups to mobilize resources is one area that concerns all business people.

Increased globalization will not only present an opportunity for terrorists to strengthen resource mobilization activities but also complicate the fight against it. That is why governments should come up with joint security operations to scuttle terrorism and piracy networks globally. It is easier to eliminate the threat of terrorism and piracy through international security cooperation strategies. The fight against international insecurity should include closer engagement between government agencies like the international police and other intergovernmental surveillance and intelligence systems. There is also the need for governments to enhance capacity development by offering training and assistance in the form of security equipments especially for developing and prone nations. Apart from the enhanced ability to fight crime and insecurity, globalization will enable countries to tackle the thorny issue of environmental pollution. It is very clear that environmental degradation and global warming are a major concern for most governments. Clearly, the war on global warming is going to be effective if governments collaborate in the fight. It is therefore feasible that concerted efforts like the Kyoto protocol and the carbon trading programs will achieve a lot more if all governments step up their efforts to mitigate the effects of green house gas emissions and participate in these global campaigns. However, it is also evident that despite the huge benefits accrued from the globalization process, there are several challenges that this process has brought with it. One of these challenges is increased insecurity and crime. Criminal gangs are taking this opportunity to expand their networks. It has also become easier for organized gangs to mobilize resources and transfer them with ease. It is therefore imperative that governments should come up with efficient security systems to track and prevent any such activities.

To ensure security, it is important for the government to work together with non-governmental organizations, private institutions and local communities to strengthen security and judicial systems. Secondly, the increased interdependency of world economies presents another threat. Take for instance the recent economic recession. The major economies felt the impact of the economic down turn. Small economies were not spared either they were affected by the credit crunch, which led to decreased disposable incomes as organizations closed their business and people lost their incomes. The increased economic interdependency means that the business environment will get unstable due to the impact of changes in the financial front.

Governance and authority in the world economy, change and continuity
Governance and authority in the world economy is one of the key issues that shape the globalization process and international trade. Globally, governments are forming regional trade and economic blocks to enhance trade among partner states. It is notable that multinational and bilateral engagements have increased in the recent past. The major objective is to encourage the free movement of people and resources in the world economy. However, as governments come up with legislative structures and regulatory frame works, it is expected that several issues will surface. These include governance, capacity building, human rights and investment flows. Governance issues have a huge impact on trade regimes, a critical component of world economies. Trade regimes help developing countries to grow in trade and investment as well as shape governance, human rights and capacity building for manufacturers, suppliers, exporters and importers. Globalization will enable governments to take stock and to identify the major challenges and opportunities for strengthening international trade and investment relationship. Experts are increasingly convinced that increased trade via government intervention will strengthen the world economy (Oldroyd, 2006).

Governance is critical in addressing supply and demand side constraints that hinder international trade. The supply constraints include inadequate financing for suppliers in developing countries and inefficient manufacturing techniques. On the other hand, demand constraints include stringent government procedures for certification of standards and a poor and ineffective transport and communication network. Notably, governance has a huge impact on international trade. Take for instance the Africa Growth and Opportunity Act (AGOA). This is a unilateral offer of duty free and quota free market access to the United States market under the generalized system of preference.AGOA has catalyzed trade between the United States and African countries. It has helped to attract new investments to Africa especially in the apparel industry. It is clear that governance shapes the business and investment environments. It is vital to strengthen investor confidence to boost investments. There are several constraints on business and investment environment including poor communications, transport, energy and power services (Williamson, 2004).

In Britain, governance has a huge impact on the performance of the private sector. The attention should focus on how to address all factors that hinder private sector growth and competitiveness. The UK government should come up with private sector development strategies to address outstanding obstacles. This will ultimately lead to increased domestic and foreign direct investment.

In order to strengthen the world economy, it is imperative that economic powers like the US, European Nations and emerging economies like china, Korea and Japan, should fulfill their commitments towards trade promotions, technical assistance for trade capacity building and help developing countries to integrate into the world economy. It is also important to work with international financial institutions and export credit facilities to ensure that there is adequate trade financing especially for small and medium enterprises. In any case, market access alone is not sufficient to drive the world economy. There is need to enhance capacity and competitive ability especially in developing countries. There is need to build capacity in the agricultural sector particularly in the areas of research, infrastructure and technology transfer to combat the rising prices for foodstuffs in the global economy. Major economies like Britain and the US need to help build institutional capacity to enable countries meet specific market requirements. This is especially important to implement systems of mutual recognition of standards. It is imperative that leading economies need to institute targeted tax incentives for companies to attract foreign direct investments. Most importantly there is need to strengthen regional integration initiatives and regional projects to eliminate supply constraints.

Governance has a huge impact on the role of women entrepreneurs in global economy. It is therefore clear that governments and organizations should put in place systems that address the constraints affecting women entrepreneurs including dedicating certain percentage of trading finance and donor funds to women.

Globalization and challenges to national structures the German and Swedish social market economy under pressure.

Globalization has a huge positive impact on the social market economy. However, the process has posed a challenge to national structures. For instance, the German and Swedish social economy is under pressure due to globalization. On the other side, the idea of globalization is very welcome in Britain. Capitalism and globalization have influenced national structures in many ways. It is very clear that the competitive environment is stiffer as multinational organizations expand their business operations to cater for new markets. The result is a huge challenge for nations to have in place structures that ensure fair business practice.

Due to liberalization of international markets, it has become necessary for countries to develop systems to monitor local market trends. This is especially important to prevent dumping of sub-standard products.  It is also vital for European governments to have in place systems that ensure safety as well as prevent exploitation of the local consumer. Most countries focus on industrial protectionism and consumer protection strategies. The idea is to implement stringent import and export requirements and standards. To do this, it is important to be careful not to subject international trade to factors that will crumble it.

Experts say that globalization is the biggest issue that dogs the European Union in recent years. Some people claim that European integration will be affected by global forces with experts warning that if unchecked globalization could lead to more poverty and loss of national and regional values and identity. It is evident that globalization affects the social, economic and political structures in Europe.

This will have a big impact on cultural identity and peoples values and traditions. Globalization has the ability to create wealth disparity and that is why German and Sweden are going to be affected.
In German, experts claim that the countries economy is declining due to the effects of globalization. There are also calls to boycott goods manufactured from foreign countries. This is especially targeting goods from countries that have not put clear efforts to fight child labor. There is increased competition from emerging markets like china and the Korea. This situation has made most European countries to look inwards to find ways and means to cushion local industries. A special case is the effects of globalization to the British social, political and economic systems.

Britain social, political and economic systems
It is notable that the globalization process complicates the future of the British social market economy. The inter-linkage between British structures like industry, finance and local authorities is one of the greatest governance challenges. With globalization, the British economy will experience shifts in sectors. The UK will be disadvantaged in that developing economies will have access to affordable labor hence leading to temporary structural unemployment in Europe. It is clear that there are deliberate efforts to protect domestic industries and jobs through a well-orchestrated system that restricts trade and free movement of resources through the British economy and the European Union in general. However, it is also evident that Britain is keen to embrace globalization while insulating its economy from any detrimental outcomes. The European commission says that about a sixth of Europes wealth is earned from global markets. It may not be feasible for the European Union to agitate for deglobalization. It is therefore imperative that Britain can only mitigate the negative effects while maximizing on the benefits.

Over all, there are arguments that globalization has been beneficial to the UK economy. These arguments are focusing on positive trends like sustained economic growth, lower inflation, inward investment and productivity. On the other side, there are claims that globalization has contributed to loss of jobs, wealth inequality, environmental degradation and a worsening balance of payments deficit.

The effects of the globalization process on German and Swedish labor market are also very complex. That is why the European Commission has proposed a globalization adjustment program to help employees in large corporations who will be affected by relocations. One of the challenges affecting globalization process in German and Sweden is due to the reluctance to venture their economies to the services sector. Most European countries are keen to continue focusing on traditional economic activities like manufacturing (Jan, 2003).It is therefore understandable that these countries are privy of the effects of opening their markets.

In German, many people are concerned that globalization threatens the European model of capitalism. Experts say that globalization forces European governments to be directly competing with each other. Some claim that the European social market is also under threat from globalization. There are arguments that the World Trade Organization (WTO) is going to influence the trends in the European social markets by calling for dismantling of its structures to adopt a new model.

In Sweden, people are concerned about the effects of globalization on social health care and unemployment benefits. However, studies have shown that an efficient health system is likely to compete well in the global economy. On the other hand, economic integration and liberalization will boost trade and economic growth this will also create well paying jobs hence better living standards. People will have access to health care, education, good housing and adequate pension scheme.
There is no doubt that globalization and economic interdependency makes economies and local communities more vulnerable to global forces. However, on the other side British, German and Swedish workers and shareholders are benefiting form the American economic expansion. Clearly, globalization has increased peoples choices and freedom to choose.

Some critics claim that Italy is one of the biggest losers of the global forces. They point out that Italys mainstream sectors are now under threat from competition from emerging economies. Notably, the countrys fashion industry is under threat from imports. However, there is a debate in Italy over the effects of globalization in the local economy.

Governmental structuralism and market development
There is no doubt that governmental structures and market development have huge impact on the world economy. Capitalism led to market liberalization, which has further fueled globalization. The search for raw materials and the need to find markets for local products has made the UK government to push the EU to adopt market liberalization strategies. Due to liberalization, British based organizations have changed their business models to cope with increased competition for limited resources. In effect, the government is keen to ensure that local economies are not adversely affected. Market development is another issue that the UK government is concerned with in recent years.

Economic liberalization has created the necessity for the government to develop structures that ensure harmony, protect local consumers as well as strengthening local organizations to compete with other large companies (Robert, 2008).

Capitalism and its proliferating affect on governance
With the increased pace in globalization, one thing that is very clear is that capitalism will continue to have huge impact on governance. We should also not forget that capitalism is a political and economic model that is deeply integrated in the globalization process. This explains the rapid rise in popularity for economic and political liberalization. Notably, powerful capitalistic nations like the UK and the US are embracing economic policies that to a certain extent fuel globalization. Some of these practices include privatization of public companies. It is vital for countries to adopt economic and political systems that capitalize on the opportunities presented by the globalization process.

Economists agree that privatization of organizations and liberalization of economies will give capitalistic economies an edge over the others. Most importantly, liberalized economies are usually stronger, responsive to externalities and more stable than controlled economies. This means that liberalization enhances competitiveness for scarce resources. Evidently, the need for countries to tap the benefits of a global market fuels the rapid spread in capitalistic ideologies. Thus, capitalism influences social, political and economic environments with deep ramifications on the governance of countries.

Human behavioralism, market activity and governance
Human behavior has a huge impact on market activity and governance. Human behavior influences consumption patterns, purchasing trends and the demand and supply forces. In addition, human behavior influences trade and choice for products. Globalization will not only lead to free mobility of labor and capital but also closer interaction of people. In essence, this means that there is increased interaction of cultures, religions, values and lifestyles. As people acquire new cultures and better ways of doing things, the market activity will change to adjust to these dynamics (Salvador  Mahmoud, 2000). This will have an effect on economic activities practiced by local communities.

Several studies have identified globalization as one of the key factors determining market activity in Britain. These studies have also revealed that human behavior is a main driver of European market trends. It is therefore imperative that globalization has helped to shape market activity through changes in human behavior occasioned by cultural interactions between communities around the world.

Secondly, human behavior has a profound effect on governance. Apparently, human behavior shapes governance. The public has the power to develop governance structures that resonates with its social, economic and political characteristics. It is clear that governance has to address key societal problems. This can be possible without looking at the cultural aspects, social values, religious inclinations and lifestyle. Better still experts argue that public support is a vital element in determining how governments are structured and how they operate. Where there is no public support, the political regime will always be shaky. A strong and stable leadership derives its power and legitimacy from the people. It is also notable that the same force drives peoples voting patterns (Simon, 2008).

Erosion of democracy
The effects of globalization on the democratic process are one issue that creates a huge debate. Some critics argue that globalization will have a huge impact on the stability of democratic regimes. They claim that globalization will lead to economic and political interdependency. As a result, it will not be easy for governments to make unilaterally independent economic and political decisions. Moreover, globalization will not only lead to free movement of capital and labor, but also a closer interaction of social cultures, lifestyles, values and religion. As people interact with each other, they learn new ways of doing things and better ways of governance. In addition, these interactions between governments will ultimately influence governance. Regional governments will continue to adjust to the global forces. This involves the formulation and implementation of joint regulatory framework. The joint regulatory requirements will entice governments to stick to clear social and political values and hence restrict the democratic process. However, it is vital to recognize the significance of public support for sustaining democracy. Some studies have reported that public support for democracy can deter the manifestation of undemocratic processes. Some of the challenges to democracy include lack of trust in key political parties, the rise of undemocratic leaders and the influence of foreign governments.

Governance and the future
The future of governance will depend on several factors. These forces include the pace and trends in the globalization process and the social, political and economic environments. According to studies by North and Olson in 1990, it is very clear that a government with sufficient power to enforce contracts and determine the management of property rights is a very unsecure government (Colin and Wolfgang, 1997).However, it is also important to note that human behavior and capitalism will continue to influence the nature of governance in the future. I envisage an increased adoption of governance structures whose design taps the benefits of the globalization, integration and liberalization processes. These future governance structures will also seek to address the uncertainties arising from the negative effects of globalization in the world economy. It is therefore notable that the globally, governance issues will reflect the changing economic, social and political environments. It will also be interesting to find out how governments will deal with the challenges arising. Some studies claim that governments need to have in place systems to check unemployment, economic instability, financial instability as well as increased competition from products manufactured in foreign countries (Stephen, 2003).

Globalization will continue to have a huge impact on governance and the world economy. It is notable that as countries position themselves to benefit from the free movement of labor and capital they should also put in place systems to address any arising challenges. In addition, governments need to adopt social, political and economic strategies that are in line with the global trends. There is no doubt whatsoever, that governance is a key issue that will determine the success of countries and regional blocks in the near future. However, this will only be possible if governments appreciate the contribution of governance in improving the living standards of the people.

Importance of Private Security in Corrections

The role of the corrections in policy making
Correction centers facilitate behavior change and provide security in the society. This is not just through the punishment given to offenders of the law, but also through the skills learnt by the law offenders while serving their sentence. It is therefore administered by the government which sets the law. The intention of correction is to improve the character of citizens who are governed by common law. Some correctional organizations include prisons and juvenile delinquent correction centers.

The main role of correction centers is to make most productive use of offenders (Beck  Harrison, 2005, p.7). This has led to many changes in the policy making. In the past years, the policy revolved around locking the offenders and forgetting them. This mentality has changed with time due to economic demands in society. The number of offenders grows every day leading to swelling of prisons. Furthermore, the resources spent on correcting individuals are also high. The key target therefore should be to minimize the cost of managing corrections and to reap great benefits from the offenders once they are released into society. Correction should thus not be a way of banishing law offenders but a way of improving society economically and morally.  Policies developed out of corrections should reflect quality and efficient service by the government to the citizens. Good policies on corrections also ensure long term public safety.

According to Beck and Harrison (2005), the greatest numbers of offenders are the males below the age of thirty years this is also the most productive age of life. If this group is not transformed into useful human resource, the nation loses in the long run. Therefore, in creating policies on corrections, the administrators should aim at teaching the offenders social and cognitive skills that they can use while in the correction and long after the sentence is over. A good policy should also facilitate effective communication between administrators and offenders. Effective communication reduces mistrust and facilitates change of character in the offenders.

Issues that face correctional administrators.
Without correction administrators, policy cannot be implemented. However, there are many challenges facing administrators in implementing policies in corrections. They include overcrowded facilities, insufficient staffing and reduced funding. The rural correction administrators face the problem of lack of finances. It therefore becomes difficult for the administrators to implement policies and provide the inmates with suitable life skills (Kelly, 1999, p.35). The inmates end up leaving the correction in the same state they came in which can lead to relapse into crime. The correction officers and administrators also lack the professional development training which is required in improved delivery of policies. Through the increase of offenders, the work of administrators also becomes difficult thus the need for professional development programs is very essential.

Apart from professional training, the administrators lack training in identifying physical and mental health problems of the inmates. Another major problem is the large number of administrators who retire each year due to pressure of their work in dealing with a large number of inmates. The issue is that the rate of replacing these officers is low which leads to ineffective policy implementation. Many correctional departments also lack technology and infrastructure which is important in communication efficiency. Another major problem facing correction administrators is violence among the inmates. Violence is caused by a several reasons. For example, the denial of conjugal rights which is brought about by separation of inmates from their spouses can lead to violence.

Violence is also brought by poor communication between the administrators and the inmates. Violence slows down the rate of policy implementation since more time is spent correcting behavior rather than in obtaining useful life skills.

The role of private security in our society.
From this discussion, the need for a large number of professional correction administrators is needed to deal with the large number of crime in our society. Private security can thus be considered as a way of increasing the required number of correctional administrators needed to implement policies for behavior change. The private security industry is made up of professional security administrators who provide security to people and property under contract and for profit. Throughout the world, the industry is experiencing a period of rapid growth in crime. If the private security sector is effectively regulated and fully accountable, it can make a great contribution to the provision of security. On the other hand, the activities of an uncontrolled or poorly regulated private security industry can result to governance problems. In countries experiencing transitional or post-conflict eras, the private securities can act as an obstacle to peace building, good governance and sustainable development. (Armstrong, p.549 2001)

The private security industry can thus make a contribution in regulating behavior in society if it is regulated. Poor regulation of private securities on the other hand can lead to disruption of peace in society and even cause the government to have an additional responsibility of dealing with crimes from private securities. From the works of Armstrong, 2001, private securities comprise of those people who provide security on contract basis and for profit making. These private securities have to provide their services in accordance to human rights and the existing laws. The private securities should thus be regulated by the government to ensure that they adhere to the laws provided. Without regulation by the government, they may hinder law enforcement. Unregulated private securities can also lead to organized crimes and can be misused against ethnic or political rivals (Armstrong, 2001).

In conclusion, the role of corrections in policy making is to equip inmates with the life skills provided in the policies as a long term solution to behavior change in society. Policies are drawn from the needs of society, since it is the society that absorbs the law offenders when the sentence is over.

Policies should thus be modeled to correct crime but not to banish criminals. The correctional administrators are responsible for implementing these policies in the corrections yet they are faced by many challenges which hinder effective implementation of policies. Private securities thus play the role of supplementing correction administrators in our society. It is therefore important that every government should develop a national policy that regulates private security to ensure provision of effective and efficient security in society. It also ensures that corrections become centers of behavior change.

Public Opinion

In his essay titled  Leaders and the Rank and File  published in his book, Public Opinion, Walter Lippmann provides the readers with what appears to be an apparent pattern on how public opinion is formed and employed. He further adds that this is made possible through the use of symbols which can be visual such as illustrations and gestures, or words through the use of metaphors.  These symbols, though innocuous as they may appear, have a significant role to play in society especially in the development of public opinion. Lippmann notes that symbols appeal a lot to the  rank and file  of society which are the  working class,  or the  underprivileged  (234). Because of the powerful appeal these symbols have to the masses, political leaders, whether in government or in interest groups, and to a lesser extent, business leaders, make use of these symbols because they see that these symbols conserve unity.

What makes symbols  powerful  is they help arouse emotions, and when there are issues, they are often directed at a certain target whether to support or to scorn. Furthermore, what makes symbols more appealing is their simplicity. The masses are by nature simple-minded which does not necessarily mean they lack intelligence or the smarts. These are people who are impatient in paying attention to details, intricacies, and complexities of the facts at hand. These symbols help simplify issues and the tendency for the majority is to take it at face value and not read between the lines neither would they bother to even attempt it.  Instead of providing the facts, it offers suggestions which provoke the public on what to say or what action to be taken.  It could be said that the media is responsible for this conditioning as they continually bombard the public with facts that they wanted to hear and believe. Since the media has always been regarded as the reliable source of truth, the public has come to accept everything they see and hear from it at face value and regard it as the truth without bothering to look into the details.  More often than not, the people try to align these symbols to their own beliefs or outlook which Michael Maslansky would define as  their truth.   Looking at it from the perspective of the business world which is also affected by these symbols, it is unrealistic for leaders to impose their version of the truth on the masses. Maslansky warns that if this truth runs counter to their version of the truth, they will lose in the court of public opinion.  No amount of facts and detail will make the majority change their minds. It is here that Maslansky suggests that leaders, both in the business and government sectors, must not challenge or change the majoritys version of the truth, but rather accept it and work with it by finding the messages and symbols they can use.

It is because of its role as the emotional  glue  which keeps society together that powerful and influential leaders in politics and even in business try to capitalize on it by  riding  with these emotions to gain leverage.  Public opinion is the  pulse  of society, and anyone who wants the majority on his or her side must be able to feel this  pulse  and tuning in to the appropriate emotion to do so would establish that connection. Quoting Bagehot, Lippmann states that any attempt to  poke about  these symbols would disrupt the transference of emotion from the individual to that symbol which would lead to utter chaos (234). For instance, in the case of Tsarist Russia, the monarchy was overthrown by the Bolsheviks because everything the monarchy stood for, the symbol of stability and continuation of Russias heritage, lost its meaningfulness as a symbol and was replaced by a new one by the Bolsheviks (Lippmann 234-235). Another example given by Lippmann would be the issue of housing shortages (242).  In this scenario, the issue is often indirectly dealt with, which is to find ways to address the shortage through plans and appropriate measures to carry them out. Instead of doing this, what the government does is go after the perceived causes of the shortage in the form of greedy landlords and developers who profit from the misery of the masses.  The point that Lippmann is trying to make is that the latter is more visible and can immediately be identified as opposed to constructive policy which is very abstract and  boring.   The former becomes the (unwilling) symbol that will evoke the desired emotion which in this case is outrage and thereby turn peoples resentment away from the government and to the given  scapegoats  (Lippmann 242).

In conclusion, symbols are here to stay as a tool for forming public opinion. They have been a part of communication since the beginning and are considered the most effective form of communication because of its simplicity. Because of this simplicity, symbols enable the public to identify with an issue or align their own viewpoints with it, and it is not largely due to the facts but by the emotion it evokes whether it will inspire or inflame. It is because of this that it develops or reinforces the publics version of the truth. One other pattern that Lippmann noticed is that the public takes everything at face value and does not bother reading between the lines. Once the public is exposed to these symbols, emotions take over from here and no amount of argument or reasoning can counter it. It is for this reason that leaders try to  feel the pulse  of the masses in order to be one with them by subscribing to these symbols in order to find the meaning and message they can use to advance their agenda or goals.