Statistics in Politics

    Since the invention of polls, the media has taken the mood of a nation and tried spinning the results toward a possible conclusion. Trying to determine the pulse of a nationwhat they are thinking, who they are supporting (and opposing) and what issues are considered hot button. While people can debate the merits of a certain topichealthcare is a prime examplepolls have a unique opportunity to show those interested what people believe.

    When Barack Obama took office nearly one year ago, polls were tracking his every move. Because Obama is the first U.S. President of color, his every move was scrutinized. Just before the election, Sen. Obama had a 67 percent approval rating. (USA Election Polls, 2008) Obama was helped out by the struggling economy, a lame-duck president in George W. Bush and an opponent, Sen. John McCain, who was having trouble getting his key messages out to the mainstream media.

    Obamas poll numbers regarding his signature fightcomprehensive healthcare reformsuggest that this fight is still slightly in his favor. More than half the people surveyed in November, 2009 said they are in favor of overhauling the healthcare system. (USA Election Polls, 2009). An average of 54 percent said they would support a chance in the current system to account for the uninsured, underinsured, and businesses who are footing the bill.  Nearly 40 percent of those surveyed were opposed to having the current system changed. (2008)
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    These figures do not signal a mandate for the president to get something done. It does signal that the general public wants something done now. With unemployment rates rising nationwide, people losing their homes because they defaulted on their mortgage payments, people need to feel better about their respective futures.

    Statistics are used for numerous applications, such as gauging the feelings of a particular issue. We just saw the numbers for President Obama being favorable and those polled wanting changes to the current healthcare system.  What about some other issues that are considered hot button
    One of the hottest topics is abortion. Even with the healthcare issue, some people are fighting for legislation that would ban federal monies being used to perform abortions. Whether that would derail the entire program if enacted would be up for debate. What is known is the American people are divided over this issue. Recent polls performed in October demonstrate there are feelings on both sides. Newsweek polled Americans and found more than 65 percent of those questioned said they are pro-choice. (Polling Numbers, 2009) Conversely, only 24 percent polled said they consider themselves pro-life.

    Here is where polls can be manipulated depending on the source. FOX News conducted their own survey in which 47 percent said they consider themselves pro-life as opposed to 47 percent of those who introduced them as pro-choice. FOX News is considered a station with more conservative views, and thus, slants their research toward issues that they favor. Topics ranging from abortion to capital punishment would be biased towards prohibiting either event to take place on American soil.

    Since FOX is bent toward the Republican view, what if there is a survey indicating a
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preference of presidential hopefuls. One of those people mentioned in the November 17, 2009 poll was former Alaska Governor and recent vice-presidential candidate Sarah Palin. The question was asked, Is Sarah Palin viable as a future presidential candidate (Free Republic, 2009) The overwhelming response was, no, shes too polarizing, which was answered by 62 percent of those polled. 20 percent of those polled said she could be if she raided her game and 16 percent said she has the charisma to win. (2009)

    Given that her book tour did very well drawing large crowds, Palin does have a chance to make some noise in the 2010 mid-term elections and possibly on a national stage in 2012. That said, resigning as Alaskas top executive in the middle of her first term and refusing to answer media inquiries during her book tour gives pause to the viability of whether Palin has the goods to succeed nationally.

    Statistics can be shaped to sink a campaign to elevate to popular status. McCains selection of Palin was initially seen as a bold move as an outside-the-box selection. It was also seen as a slight to Obama, who selected Delaware Sen. Joseph Biden as his vice-presidential pick. Biden has been a career politician who is well connected with Washington politics.

McCain received a bump in the polls resulting from the move. Frank Newport wrote in Gallup that during the summer months showed that the Republican base was enthusiastic about a female vice-presidential candidate on the ticket (Newport, 2008) The numbers showed a rise in Republicans who were interested in voting in the 2008 election. Their numbers jumped by more than 20 percent (39 percent in July 2008 to 60 percent in September 2008). (Newport, 2008)

Adding to the mix was the Republican National Convention has just been held.

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Politicians often get a bump in the approval ratings after the several-day event concludes. This time was no exception for the McCain-Palin ticket. There was optimism for the ticket and their supporters to feel good about themselves.

    That was, until Palin begin talking. Her ill-fated interview with CBS News Anchor Katie Couric opened Palin up to ridicule, scorn, and the punch line on late-night talk shows. Looking flustered and combative, Palin lost style points and votes as she stumbled through a litany of questions.

    The end result was a drop in performance for the Republican ticket. McCains numbers slipped because of the interview (although she held her own during the debate with Biden). People did not see her as a viable candidate after the CBS interview and McCains bid for president took a nosedive.

    McCain was seen as pandering to women who may have felt disrespected by Obamas vice-presidential selection. Making matters worse, his selection backfired because Palin was not sticking to the message, found problems related to the Couric interview and just being reactive to the Democrats constant hammering.
    The results were beginning to reflect the Republicans fears. During the latter months of the 2008 campaign, GOP leaders were concerned about the ability of Palin to make a comeback. The consensus by GOP leaders was that Palin was doing more harm to the ticket than helping. (Burns and Alexander, 2008)
    While some people within the party asked the then-Alaskan governor to step aside, others came to her defense, saying that she was doing fine and that anyone could have been nervous during the interview. The problem was Palin being a novice on the national political stage   
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becoming a distraction for the McCain campaign. Although the party did not want to admit they might have made a mistake, they were secretly hoping that McCains VP choice was a sound.

    It proved not to be the case. When Election Night 2008 ended, Obama won with 53 percent of the votes to McCains 46 percent. This is the only poll that matters. Obama easily won the Electoral College vote as well to become president. The McCain camp can only wonder what went wrong after the conventionif choosing Palin was the best move or backfired.

    The hope is that stats tell a story at a particular moment in time. Sometimes, it is dead-on correct and other times, it is not that accurate. The 2008 presidential election was close leading up to the finals weeks. All four candidates (two presidential and two vice presidential candidates) did their best to use polls, the media and their supporters to get out the word and encourage people to vote. That is the good news. Unfortunately for McCain this numbers just did not add up to a victory in the only poll that mattersthe one on Election Night.

    What we can learn from this is to keep listening to the electorate because they shape policyto change or stay the course. Something this popular today might be background material tomorrow. Polls are useful tools that can have an impact on the issues at hand. How they are used and to what capacity determines who gets the final word.

Commodification of sports

    This paper seeks to determine the transformations that sporting activities have undergone during the process of commodification. Many critics of commodification of sports have argued that it has resulted in the degradation of sports. The debate over such transformations has been centered on the mass culture. The controversy surrounding commodification of sports has been basically focused on whether the modern sporting culture has been corrupted as it has been incorporated in the marketplace. As a result, sport has been perceived as bringing tension between its prospective as emancipator and as a commodity.

The commodification of sports

In our contemporary society, there are ways through which other institution like churches, schools, and multinational corporations reach the community and one of the ways is through sports, since sports is regarded as a special form of human venture. Sport is considered as an efficient institution since it appeals to human sense of emotion. While playing or even watching, sports brings about self satisfaction. Sport touches us at emotional and visual point of view and this is why some other institutions use sports in reaching the community since they are unable to provoke such senses (Sewart, 1987).

The importance of sports to media and corporate interests is creating a fascinating and also a disturbing condition for sport. Sport which is a very old human activity together with its own cultural importance in many societies is starting to lose its independence. Instead of people participating in sports because they enjoy, sports has been turned into a consumer commodity because of corporations and their media counterparts. The process of turning sports into consumer goods or services is called Commodification. Sport has been turned into an economic activity like selling goods, airtime, earning a living as a player or even a camera man. The sporting activities which have huge economic rewards grow while those which do not produce any reward are abandoned. Players whose skills are loved by many are allowed to play most of the times while those who are moderately skilled are discouraged from playing (Sewart, 1987).

Changes in rules, format, and scheduling
Evidences which show that the sport has been turned into economic activity include rising player salaries, high intensity of advertisement of sporting events and also in sporting uniforms, sponsorship and promotion of sporting events by commercial companies, and selling of stadium naming rights. In the process of Commodification, the parties involved are the laborer who is the player, the consumer who is the spectator, and the capitalist or the owner of the competing club. The competition of the trio of roles enables the capitalist system to succeed and form an arena for the exploitation of the laborers and the consumers (Sewart, 1987).

 All sports are considered as games but not all games qualify to be called sports. Sports are games where the physical component is highly needed and it is the physical component which make such games special. In such games, the players are expected to show their physical wit. Physical nature of such games is considered as a very important factor in Commodification since it is the physicality of the sport that enables it to gather many consumers more than other games since it is considered  fun seeing players outdoing one another as  observed in boxing, running after the ball as seen  in either rugby or football. In such scenarios, a spectator is a consumer he consumes the product or the service and does not pay for the right to consume the product. At times, such consumers pay for the service through paying for the gate pass to the stadium where the game is taking place (Sewart, 1987).

The sporting activity has been turned into a profession where one is involved in sports to earn a living. The rise in the number of spectators in various sporting activities has led to the ability to play sports to earn a living or even to generate some income. In the early days, the wealthy patrons used to pay athletes or even musicians so that they remain as artists or athletes, but currently the players are called professionals or even semi professionals and they have sports as their primary source of income. Emergence of professional sports requires the owners. The need for organized sports on regular basis with good players requires someone to organize matches, sell entry tickets and pays the players. The owners of the clubs make maximum profit from their laborers. In such a case, all the three players in Commodification process have participated, i.e. the laborer, the consumer, and the capitalist (Sewart, 1987).

There are a series of changes which have been experienced in the sports industry has it undergoes Commodification. The critics of Commodification believe that this process is leading to the degradation of athletic activity. The current situation in sporting industry is compared to the pre modern sports which was not contaminated by the mass commercialization and sensationalization that is associated with the modern sport industry. Today, technology is highly employed in sports like directives issued to fans and big electronic video screens instructing them when to cheer among other thing (Sewart, 1987).

 Scientific and technological developments which occurred in the 20th century have had a lot of influence in the sporting industry. The impact has changed all the aspects of sporting ranging from the management of athletic competition to the amount of money allocated for different sports events. There has also been a rise in the number of promoters of sports competitions which has led to increased public interest to such sporting events. We can therefore conclude that modernization and Commodification have contributed a lot to the current development in the sporting industry (Sewart, 1987).

Sporting events during the pre modern times were not organized but they were sudden and informally organized. The sporting competitions were arranged by the people who were involved either directly or indirectly. The rules which guided the sporting competition were simple and unwritten, made according to the local customs and tradition and were different from one place to the other. Because of technological advancements, current sporting activities are organized very officially, rules are uniform and official, practically and rationally elaborated, and legalized by organizational means (Sewart, 1987).

Currently, sporting events are conducted at various levels e.g. national, international and preliminaries which are based on local contest. This enables the participants to be known both nationally and internationally. Initially, there was no difference between participating in sports and observing. Coverage of sporting events which was previously done locally has also advanced with all information about sports being recorded on daily basis in the local newspapers, and journals and they contain detailed sports review. Statistic and records about sports are valued in modern sports and the information is kept regularly. Supporters of commodification believes that it has affected sporting industry in a positive manner since it has attracted many people to sporting industry. Commodification has also transformed every sporting event into a bright and exciting event (Sewart, 1987).

The abandonment of the ethic of skill democracy
It has been shown that the corruption and dehumanization of sport is as a result of both commodification of athletic activity and the social behavior and consciousness of sporting fans consumers. Sport was considered as a social occurrence linked to interpersonal ethical order. It has been identified as the ethical, aesthetic, and dramatic occurrence at the same time a way of individual satisfaction. A sport is meant to create interpersonal bonding (Sewart, 1987).

There have been tremendous changes in the rules, format and even scheduling of sporting activities. The media consider sports as an entertainment and will put a lot of pressure on the bodies governing sports to put up large advertising revenues. This leads to changing the rules of the game which will also modify the nature of contest, changes in scheduling, long playing periods among other changes. Commodification has had several harmful effects on the sporting world. It has resulted in bad morals within the participants. Since they are regarded as good, they try as much as possible to please their fans by engaging in activities like doping. The popular use of drugs by athletes is not an individual choice but it comes from the pressure put on them to win as well as commercialization of the games. Since sports have become business enterprises, then winning gold is a must for a participant since silver and bronze have very little commercial value. The drugs which the athletes use are potentially dangerous to their health like the currently popular erythropoietin which thickens blood in the night exposing the victim to heart failure (Sewart, 1987).

Commodification has turned sports into consumer goods and services making club owners to work very hard in order to attract most consumers. Success of the team is regarded as success of the spectators as well as the community where that team is coming from. With the sports changing its role in the society, its ability to represent the fans symbolically via the action in the field has been snatched away. The interest of the owners and the players have changed from winning the competition to making huge profits and this in return affects the ability of the spectator to feel like part of the team.

Turkey and the European Union-Case Study

In its bid of transformation, the former Ottoman Empire that constitutes the modern state of Turkey has undergone various modernization stages so as to read from the same script as its encapsulating unions. Ideally transformation is not a new concept to Turkey as it has seen three levels of modernization processes that attempt to redefine the state. These have been the Ottoman, Kemalist and the current Europeanization through integration in the European Union (Husamettin 2004). It is custom of the stage for all transformation processes to derive factors that either enhance or aggravate the process significantly. This factors range from political, historical, economic, anthropological as well as geographical. This case study attempts to define and assess Turkeys current bid for inclusion in the European Union under the lens of this factors. The double facets of nature rendering concepts with both progressive as well as retrogressive faces will enable the study to scrutinize Turkeys bid from the perspective of the above factors bearing in mind the divergent trajectories that meditate against as well as for the Turkish state. 

Political Dimension   
Politics is often viewed as the exercise of power over a compact majority. Political equations in Turkey are ideally constructed under the backdrop of social values that are adhered to by the wooed supporters. As such the sociological concepts that are unilaterally embraced by the target supporters are the basis upon which the respective party manifesto is drawn. As such the leadership and membership of this parties toe the party line. The party manifestos orient themselves around the sociological roots of their supporters. In this regard parties such as the Republican People Party (CHP) ideally define themselves as social democrats. As such their party ideology is primarily Marxist and Socialist furthering the element of the people as the most critical aspect of society. As such, this political aspect renders the party in support of sociological elements that further the policy of the welfare state. This socialist party policy pits Turkey against Europe that is opposed to socialism viewing it under the lens of communism. The conservatives in continuance of the trend set by the socialist, though somehow divergent in ideology with regard to policy framework, intends to realize a holistic culture that defines the modern state of Turkey. This concept clashes the Turkish state with the European Union as the conservatives see the states cultural homogeneity under threat from the western culture. The modernists and reformers in Turkey are the major agitators of the integration as they seek radical change as well as a surge in identity parameters to relate more with the modern liberal western styles. The compact majority of the modernists are embedded in the youths of the Turkish state (Gole 1997).

Historical Dimension
History is always defined as the recording of past events and their impact on the present. The emergence of the modern Turkish state has seen it transform through several periods in time The westernization of the Turkish state historically traces its wave back in time, which can be approximated to be around two hundred years (Inalcick, 1998). This historical process as such, came with its undesirable effects that play a significant role in the current Europeanization of Turkey. In its historical process of pursuing policies that ensured that none of the reigning European monarchs gained tremendous power that would see Europes unification, the history of the Ottoman Empire has been highly undesirable in Europes perspective of Turkey in the integration process (Ertugrul 2001).

Anthropological Dimension
Anthropologys stressing of social factors as retrogressive footsteps that echo inexorably in human society is eminent in Turkeys integration into the EU. In the earlier versions of westernization which saw the Ottoman Empire as well as the Republican revolutions impose western civilization on the proletariat in a bid to civilize them, ideally pitting the people against the state for it was seen as the action of the elite that interrupted established norms much to the aristocracys delight, the current Europeanization varies considerably with the former two revolutions that preceded it. As such the compact majority in Turkey which mainly constitute the modernists and reformists perceive the process as a the only means available for the state to integrate into modernity by embracing cultural diversity that is the product of western civilization embedded in European ways of life. In this regard most of the agitators of the integration perceive the integration as ultimate westernization that will act as a conduit that will enable them to practice cultural diversity without the threat of traditional backlash.

Economic Dimension   
To a considerable extent the modernization of the Turkish state bears economic overtones as a major factor in the states bid for inclusion in the European Union (Dagi 2000, Bora 2002). The prevalent view among Turks is that Europeanization is absolutely critical for the states teleological step in the universalization of the countrys economy. As such the countrys economy will borrow from the comprehensive framework exhibited in the EUs member states using them as models for its own economies diversification and expansion. The developed structures that form the system of the EUs economy will act as a platform upon which the country will launch its own economic prosperity. For the lower classes of Turks, the EU represents a hope for a better future as it will provide an opportunity for a better life through more job opportunities, trade as well as subsidies and other incentives that come with the EUs expectations of its member states with regard to health and other social amenities. The nationalists in Turkey though defer with the modernists by alleging that Turkey should assume an independent model in its economic framework (Alpay 1993). As such those who agitate for modernization of the Turkish state bereft of westernization that inculcates western economic policies are the major cause of discontent among the leftist (Keyder 1993). Among the leftists in Turkey theres a feeling of discontent for the Europeanization as it is thought to be the onset of the states abandonment of its traditional economic policies for the EU will dictate the economic conduct of the state.

Geographical Dimension
Turkeys current bid for Europeanization is also faced with the dilemma of Euroasianism as well as Europeanization which creates a quagmire with regard to its Geographical location. To the EU the central location of Turkey is absolutely critical in geographical strategies that may enable it function optimally on the global arena (ni_ and Bak1r 2007). To Turkey though it s a strenuous process of balancing within its needs, demands and benefits whereupon towards the west there is Europe calling in favors while to the east Islamic states that have been very much in tussles with the west are meditating allegiance with religious overtones.

Combination of Dimensions
On the domestic front of the former Ottoman Empire, theres tremendous pressure for the elite involved with the process of integration of Turkey into the EU to consider all political, historical, economic and anthropological factors as well as geographical while striving to maintain harmony and peaceful coexistence of secular elements in a predominantly Islamic state. The viability of the resultant strategy will have tremendous implications for the countries varied society. 
Dominant Discipline
The renowned strategic analysts Brzezinski perceived Euro-Asia metaphorically as a momentous chess board where regional countries and powers as well as global players are always in competition to improve their geographical strategies as well as entrepreneurial interests. Turkey is at the core of this grand chess board (Brzezinski 1997). The Geographical location of Turkey is the dominant factor in its integration into the European Union.

Approaches to improve quality of life in poor nations

Approaches to improve quality of life in poor nations
Third world countries are mired in abject poverty, hunger, disease and gross abuse of human rights. History has witnessed a break down of social order in lawless Somalia, human sufferance in war torn Darfur and political instability in Eastern Congo. As Europe, America and the rest of the developed nations make progress in social and economic life, Africa, some parts of Asia and eastern Europe are overburdened with these vices. Floods in Asia, humanitarian crises and displacement of people in Africa have become frequent sources of news headlines all over the world. More often than not, these problems are a result of human action such as wars and poor leadership, or inaction in the cases of floods, disease and hunger. It is possible, then, that the situation can be reversed if appropriate measures are taken. The paper aims to explore possible ways through which development can be achieved in poor nations, and improve the quality of life in the next twenty-five years.
Objectives and goals
    To end poverty, hunger, disease and abuse of human rights in poor countries, there is need for stakeholders to
Initiate agricultural development to increase food production
Formulate international trade rules which enable poor countries to reduce foreign exchange deficits
Increase donor aid for development projects
Foster democracy in leadership to avoid election related violence
Fund research projects in medicine, science and technology to fight disease and open new opportunities
Reduce the effects of global warming in poor nations
Africa, particularly, is not considered to have undergone any major phase of historical development. Europe has been through the agricultural and industrial revolutions from as early as the 12th century. The problems of food crises were solved in Europe centuries ago. Africa has got a potential for food production that exceeds Europe by far it boasts the best climate and most fertile soils in the world. Yet, her people die of hunger each year, as millions depend on food donations. It is what Europe did many years ago that will enable poor nations to feed their people. There is need to revolutionize agricultural practices to meet the food demand of their populations. Agriculture should be mechanized to increase food production, and utilize otherwise huge junks of idle land. The jungles of Congo and Southern Sudan alone can feed millions of people currently wallowing in hunger. To this end, irrigation schemes should be initiated to avoid over-reliance on unpredictable rains. Egypt, it should be noted, is almost hundred percent bare rock and desert land. Yet, with the waters of the River Nile, she is able to produce enough food for her people. Just across the Suez Canal to the North is another stretch of dry land, which the Israelis have turned into green fields. Irrigation, therefore, will go a long way towards improving food security in poor nations.
    Trading patterns in the international market are tilted in favor of the rich nations. The third world mostly relies on agricultural produce, whose prices often fluctuate from time to time. In addition, they compare dismally with the machinery and electronics which they import. Consequently, they end up in debt after trading with rich countries. The long term effects of this scenario are that poor nations find themselves in a vicious circle of debts, to which they commit subsequent earnings. The situation is made complex by the fact that even if all their international debts were to be forgone, the pattern will repeat itself. If any meaningful solutions are to be effected, then there is an urgent necessity to balance trade relations. Perhaps the starting point is to liberate and democratize the market itself since the Cold War years, the international market has been polarized such that nations deal with only particular trade partners. Countries that leaned to communism still do much of their business dealings with the East, while capitalists look to the West. This trend has narrowed market choices, forcing nations to sell their good at throw away prices, since they cant get market elsewhere. The day American manufactured toys and clothes will find their place in the streets of Beijing and Pyongyang is yet to come. It is unfortunate, again, that efforts to liberalize the market are aimed to square out differences among the big players. In this regard, Obamas agenda in his recent visit to China is not about getting market for coffee from Africa, but more of getting General Motors a share of Chinas a billion pockets market. Developed nations should seek to open up for products from poor nations, by way of lifting tariffs and import duties.
So it is official poor nations live by the mercies of charitable projects. When non governmental organizations take out their begging bowls for food, it is easy to guess their destination. Every year, Amref, Red Cross and other humanitarian groups pitch tent in Africa to supply food and medicine to displaced families. After that, they sigh in anticipation of another outbreak of war, floods or famine. From the time they were formed, it seems these organizations have only been giving out food aids to hunger and war victims. There is an old saying that it is better to give a man a net than a fish, for then he will fish for himself. My point is this donor aid to poor nations should be directed towards funding projects that will lead to long term benefits. Thus, instead of waiting to ship tones of food when hunger hits, it would be better to donate farming equipment and offer technical assistance in farming methods. Self sustenance is the only way that will bring about long term changes. To this, all donor and humanitarian efforts ought to be directed. Teach the hands how to get the bread that they receive.
Poor leadership, it is very clear, is to a large extent the cause of economic stagnation in poor countries. Zimbabwe is wallowing in hunger because of one silly move by one man. Darfur is a theatre of massacres because of a racist regime. Kenya almost collapsed because a power hungry elite intent to hang on to leadership. Congo can not benefit from its diamond resources because of a power struggle. These and many other nations suffer because of a failed leadership. It is necessary, therefore, to use international forums like the UN to promote democratic leadership in such states. Until such measures are taken, the world will never again hear of a Somalia state. Governments control and regulate business practices, either discouraging or encouraging investments. In politically volatile regions like Somalia and southern Sudan, it is impossible to initiate development projects. As such, democracy is necessary to create a conducive environment for economical growth.
In conclusion, it is to be noted that most of these initiatives are to be triggered by the developed nations. The US, Britain, Germany and other big economies should extend help to poor nations as they cant make any progress on their own. Let them aid agricultural projects, create a balance in trade relations and promote democracy in the third world. Only then will long term development be achieved.

Civil Rights Act of 1875

The author of this paper aims to do a research on Civil Rights act of 1875. The research is about the issues contained in the Act which country the Act was enacted and other basic elements of the Act. There were some contradictions about the Act between the congress and the Supreme Court. During this time of enacting the Act into law, there was a lot of racism and segregation of blacks in many civilized nations.  Every body in the society is entitled to the right of visiting public places and utilize public facilities in the right manner. Leaders came to understand this right and had to respect it through passing laws that helped in protection of human dignity.
    Civil Rights Act of 1875 was a personal bill proposed by Charles Sumner a republican senator and Benjamin Butler a congressman in 1870. The proposal was to be enacted into a federal law in United States of America. When the bill was brought in to the congress by the two sponsors, the congress debated on it and the act got a lot of support. It was passed on February 1875, where President Grant signed it into law on March 1st 1875. The signing of the act into law brought a lot of complications whereby United States Supreme Court declared it unconstitutional in 1883 (Goluboff, 44). The court raised issues of unworthy provisions provided by the act that were not constitutionally accepted by law of the land. Provisions of this act were passed into law in mid 1960s.
 Some of these provisions include Fair Housing Act and Civil Rights act of 1964 which were favored by federal power used as a way of regulating interstate business. These are some of the provisions that led to establishment of movements to fight for the rights of individuals and enlighten them about their rights. The act also represents the congress power to protect civil rights of black African-Americans for a period of more than half a century. The law is equal and applicable to every person who is governed by the constitution of a particular country. The government therefore has that duty to ensure that justice is administered uniformly to all irrespective of their religion, race, color, political background or persuasion. The government of US is mandated to enact any act that is deemed worthwhile into law (Pohlmann, Whisenhunt, 11). The enacted law becomes best object of legislation used to guide citizens for the purpose of maintaining order in the society.
      The president of United States during this time officially declared that all persons living within the territory of United states are deemed to enjoy in full capacity accommodation, privileges of motels, facilities, public land, theaters and any other places used for purpose of public entertainment without limitation to race, color, religion or ethnicity. African black Americans, republicans who were radical and other abolitionists worked hard to make sure that this act was passed into law since 1870. The major pressing issue was even and equal accommodation of all people in the territory of United States.  They wanted equality was to be maintained in the transport sector, religion, public schools and in cemeteries. These proposals were not received well by some republicans who took it as a way of fighting them politically. Finally, the bill passed the Senate but the House Representatives did not at any time consider it as law (, 2009).
Sumner the sponsor of the bill reintroduced it later in 1873 and there was still division among the Republicans. Some of the southern Republicans supported the bill in deference to their black African American people. Most people were not for the idea of amending the act rather they wanted the provisions in the act to be enacted into law. Insisting on the amendment of the bill led to killing of the bill and therefore republicans senators changed their minds to support the amendment process. Despite putting on penalizing the offenders, federal officers finally enacted the bill leaving most enforcement in the hands of private litigants (Pohlmann, Whisenhunt, 41). Supreme Court in the Civil Rights Case ruled out that the law is more powerful than constitutional powers of the congress. The only limiting condition to use of these facilities was the terms as put in law. It was a privilege for many blacks who had been discriminated from using these facilities for a period of long time.
 It was the start of liberalization in many communities that had been marginalized for a long period of time. They had equal rights as of those of the other Citizens in United States. The law  provided that if a person is found guilty of breaking this law a penalty ranging  from five hundred USD to one thousand Us dollars would be  charged on him or her or be imprisoned for a period of thirty days to one year. Enforcement of the law became hard until 1883 when the Supreme Court declared the act unconstitutional.  The argument of the court was that congress had no capacity or power of regulating individual behaviors and perhaps the fourteenth amendment of the constitution only allowed discrimination by state and not by individuals (Mohamed, 166). However, individuals are better than the whole state and any person who infringes this rule out be confined for a long period of time so as to learn on how to respect human dignity.
The acts provisions are essential tools because it acts as a defense mechanism for any party that feels to be aggrieved. Although the act was contradicted by some individuals who were driven by political desires it was a good and nice draft in respect of honoring the dignity of individuals in the society. Without such a constitution, the rate of racism and discrimination in US would be very high and the chance of blacks to travel overseas would be very hard. Courts however have been given the power of giving rulings in particular cases concerning the provisions of the act (Mohamed, 168). The respect of individuals is only achieved through enactment of the act because there are rules and laws governing how individuals should live with one another in the society.
Provisions of Civil Rights act of 1875
    The purpose of the act was to govern citizens and to make individuals understand that there is no person who is big or small before the law. In other words, it was essential that all men are equal before law. The Act provided that
    The assembly of Congress, senate and House Representatives of United States of America have enacted that all persons living within the states of United States irrespective of color or race are free to move in any particular state or enjoy public utilities without restrictions by any other individual.
    Any person who violates these provisions is liable for imprisonment or any other form of punishment that is constitutionally accepted. The act provided that any person who aids through financing or mobilization of individuals to violate these laws is deemed to pay the affected person a sum of between five hundred dollars and one thousand dollars or face a jail term of not less than one year. It also provided that any person who feels that he or she has been wronged by the state under common law can sue it in court for damages (Goluboff, 46). The penalty for such crime aimed at making the aggrieved party get back to the original state he or she was in before the injury was inflicted on him or her. This provision provided protection of all those who had not been recognized by the constitution for a long period of time. It was the beginning of new era in United States where the lives of many blacks changed completely.
    All the courts in district level and other circuit courts of United States shall be under the jurisdiction of states courts and should ensure that justice is maintained when it came to judgment of crimes, offences or violations of the provisions in the Act. District courts and circuit courts were given the power to penalize those who had violated the provisions of the act as provided by the previous provision. The act provided that any person who is found guilty of any offences can be prosecuted in any state he or she is found.  District marshals, their deputies, commissioners appointed by territorial courts were given the power to arrest and imprison any offender against the laws of United States.
 In addition, these officers were required to institute proceedings of a case that involved any person who shall in any given time violate the provisions in Civil Rights Act. The only thing that could prevent commissioners from prosecuting any offender was right of action that could accrue to that other aggrieved person. Any aggrieved party who feels that he or she does not feel wronged can only  prevent judges from taking action of prosecution. As per the provisions of the act, failure of district attorneys to prosecute any person who has violated the provisions leads to termination of his or her work and the same officer is forced to pay the aggrieved party five hundred dollars (Goluboff, 49). It also provided that judgment on aggrieved party against district attorneys or any judgment about indictment against district attorney shall be used a s a way of barring either prosecution.
    That every person who resides in United States has the right of receiving services from any  court either in district level, circuit courts or in any other state of America  irrespective of race, color, religion , political background or ethnicity. Any officer in these courts who is deemed to have acted in a way of denying any form of service provision is convicted and deemed guilty of misdemeanor and the fine to this act is five thousand dollars. In most cases, the judges of district attorneys are very corrupt and carry on their duties as per the race, color or religion of the victim. To avoid these practices in United States, the act provided for stern measures that aim at making these individuals work as per provisions of the law (Pohlmann, Whisenhunt, 17). The act provides for accountability and openness of the officers in charge of courts and any other legal system.
    All cases that arise as a result of violating or failing to respect the provisions of this act particularly in United states will be under the review of Supreme court of United sates without considering the sum of the subject matter that has been provided by provisions of the act and any other type of regulation as provided by law in the case of reviewing other causes found in district or circuit courts. The supreme court of United States is the highest court found in the super power country and has been established by the constitution to handle cases that cannot be resolved by other junior courts. The court therefore has the mandate of ensuring that all provisions provided in the act are protected and enacted to law as a way of maintaining order and ensuring that legal institutions perform as it is expected of law (Mohamed, 170). When the systems are not in order, then it becomes very hard to maintain equity which is equivalent to fairness.
     These provisions of the act have been inexistence even in todays legal system although most of them were enacted into law in the early 1960s. The law is a good measure of how individuals try to live with other individuals in the society and it is basically very simple to be followed otherwise any body who violators the provisions of law is deemed as a civil criminal and is legally convicted of wrong dong. The act is also in a position of enforcing constitutional rights of every individual to live in any specific state without fear of discrimination because the law is applied uniformly in all states without depraving the aggrieved party right of freedom. The blacks in America are the most beneficiaries of these reforms and nowadays they dominate many sectors in United States especially in job markets and production sector. The laws in the Civil Rights Act are very protective and make individuals feel very much comfortable when carrying on duties of economic importance (Goluboff, 50). Race, color, ethnicity, culture, religion and political background has been one of common elements used as a way of promoting discrimination of blacks in America but due to enactment of this  act into law every thing has changed completely and life is normal in many parts of United States.
Supporters and detractors of Civil Rights Acts of 1875
    Some individuals were for the act while others were against enactment of the act into law. The supporters of the act based their arguments on the arguments of court judges about the enforcement of contract law commonly known as common carrier. This rule was developed in other areas apart from the normal aspects of race, color, discrimination, accommodation in hotels and other social public amenities and the application of the law could not segregate any individual who was in a position of using these services (Mohamed, 174).
The provision of the rule was that individuals should be served on the first to be served are those who first came in search of service provision. In 1870s, common rule was applied in courts and it led to reduction of discrimination in hotels and other places of public accommodation. Federal Courts started to apply this rule and the rate of discrimination was reduced. This is what led to many republicans supporting the law. The constitution gave congress power to enact legislation as a way of enforcing the provisions of the act (Pohlmann, Whisenhunt, 23). Protection of individual life, property, liberty and immunity to the law was enacted and it was not possible for any individual to be denied protection of law or any process that is unlawful and could lead to death of an individual.
 On the other hand, some individuals were opposed to the act because they saw it as unconstitutional. They argued that the amendment of the act meant that the state is given more power and that the provisions of the act aimed at regulating the activities of private sector such as companies. Another area that led to many individuals fail to support the act was the inability of the act to protect law. For instance, a Supreme Court Justice said that the fourteenth amendment denied equal protection of law that involves both inaction and action of law. In addition, failing to protect the law involves omitting to protect as well as to pass laws for benefit of protection (Goluboff, 55). Others argued that the protection of blacks by giving them chance to share facilities with whites was like abuse of the dignity of the white people who considered themselves as superior people.
Challenges to the Civil Rights Act of 1875
    The Act was constitutionally challenged and this was evident by the many cases that were handled by supreme courts of which were decided under one collective name called Civil Rights Cases in 1883. Opinion of Justice Bradley about the cases was that the provisions in the act were unconstitutional because they only provided actions of private companies that owned theaters and hotels providing accommodation services but did not protect the action of the States (Mohamed, 173). That is the act has no power of correcting the state incase it acts in a way of violating the rights of its citizens. Enactment of the act into law meant that the state was not in a position of enforcing its laws to different states of America including those that had put good measures of protecting individuals rights and freedoms. Thirteenth amendment which gave congress power to enact Civil Rights Act and abolish slave trade was not effective and brought a lot of contrivances to the provisions of the act. This is because as it was agreed that slavery was brought to an end it was not the case in areas of accommodation because the whites did not want to share hotels with blacks thus this was a form of slavery (, 2009). It was not clear whether Civil Rights Act would help do away with any form of discrimination.
    According to the research, Civil Rights Act has brought changes in United States both negative and positive and the provisions of the act have been in application in the modern society. For example, in 2000 Supreme Court in United States has applied rulings of the Civil Rights Cases decisions in United States versus Morrison. That dealt with gender violence and gave women power who are the most victims to sue the offenders in Federal courts.

How Does Socialism Effect the Development of Venezuela

Venezuela has gradually become a socialist country after the election of President Hugo Chvez in 1998. The central focus of Chvezs Bolivarian Revolution is the establishment of his political goal of socialism for 21st century in Venezuela. This political shift has greatly transformed Venezuela from a semi-capitalist or mixed economy to officially socialist state, which led to the expansion of government powers, nationalization of private companies, and extensive regulation and interference of strategic sectors of the economy. Only a few years after he became president, Chvez moved for the nationalization of the oil sector, including energy corporations and large telecommunication companies. In 2008, the socialist government also moved for the nationalization of financial corporations, cement and steel industries.
President Chvez is pushing for a different form of socialism in Venezuela, which he called socialism of the 21st century (Wilpert). This type of Venezuelan socialism is founded on the principles of equality, liberty, justice, love, fraternity, and solidarity, and its purpose is the transformation of capital towards socialism. In spite of the vague definition of Chvezs 21st century version of socialism, what is clear is that the country is radically moving towards a post-capitalist order wherein the political goal is to transfer power to the people. However, whether this Chvezs version of socialism is different from the 20th century socialism, the political direction of Venezuela is all about government control of all sectors of the economy, government intervention, more public spending, and the continued nationalization of all private companies and industries. The underlying question now is not whether this type of socialism is working or bringing the desired goods to the people, but how does socialism affect the development of Venezuela. The goal of this paper is to identify and analyze the effect of socialism on the social and economic progress of Venezuela. Among the factors to be tackled are the economic environment of the country as a whole, its trade policy, the fiscal burden of the government, the extent of state interference in the economy, monetary policy, capital flows and foreign investment, banking and finance, wages and prices, property rights, and government regulation. A number of hypotheses will also be given at the latter part of the paper based on the issues discussed in the background of the paper. Finally, this paper ends with a conclusion in light of the issues taken and the hypotheses mentioned with respect to the impact of socialism on the development of Venezuela.
President Chvez brought socialism to Venezuela after his election more than ten years ago, by declaring a Bolivarian Revolution that is based on South American liberator and Venezuelan hero Simon Bolivars freedom for the oppressed and the poor and social equality (McPherson 84). The election of the Venezuelas socialist leader led to the rejection of free-market principles that paved the way for the adoption of populist policies. This political transformation resulted in the drastic expansion of government powers and regulatory policies, nationalization of oil industries and private companies, manipulation of price controls on basic goods and products, conversion of privately owned farms to social cooperatives, and exertion of a number of economic controls and regulations (Schaffer, Agusti and Earle 24).
By embracing socialism, which is all about extensive state control of all the means of production, Venezuela rejected capitalism as an economic system (Aronson 29). Capitalism, as opposed to socialism, is an economic system that is about private ownership of property and of the modes of production. Chavez himself declared war against capitalism and committed his government to the state control of private companies and corporations. In 2005, Chavez officially revealed the direction of Venezuela, as his socialist government was ready to establish a democratic socialism in the country. Chavez said, Either capitalism, which is the road to hell, or socialism, for those who want to build the kingdom of God here on Earth (Kozloff 70). This declaration suggests that Venezuela was going to embrace socialism, a socio-political system that would transform the country in the years to come and would affect not only the lives of the people, but also all sectors, including the economy, education and the private sector.
Many supporters of and advocate for socialism applauded this populist move of Chavez to transform Venezuela into a socialist economy that is primarily committed to the provision of the needs and welfare of the poor and the oppressed. The countrys ongoing Bolivarian Revolution is widely seen as an effective catalyst of change in Latin America and as an alternative to neo-liberalism and globalization (Gott 273). It is clear that the economic theory that dominates Venezuela is Karl Marxs economic structuralism, otherwise known as Marxism (Brown 97). Economic structuralism is a power-based theory whose popular practitioners in Latin America are President Chavez and Bolivias Evo Morales who both believe that economic equality can be solved by seizing all private property and the means of production and redistributing them to the poor (DAnieri 89).
Venezuelas Oil Sector
The economy of Venezuela is entirely dependent on oil, which contributes about 80 percent to the countrys total export revenue and about half of the income of the national government (Alvarez). As a result of the political shift in Venezuela, Chavez ordered the nationalization of foreign companies-operated oil fields in 2006. Government officials however argued that Venezuela was not mainly focusing on oil production, as the country has also invested in non-oil sector, which include agriculture, manufacturing and mining.
After the failed coup to remove Chavez from power in 2002, Venezuela experienced a significant economic decline. The government responded to the coup by dismissing more than 17,000 employees of Petrleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), a situation that led to a rapid decline in the countrys gross domestic product between 2002 and 2003. However, the country was able to recover in the following years thanks to the increased oil prices in the international market.
The national government economic policy when in comes to oil is based on the practice of rentismo. Rentismo or rentierism, a term derived from the Spanish word renta, which means revenue or income, is the practice whereby a state utilizes a single source of revenue as the pillar of the national economy and its primary apparatus to stimulate progress and country-wide development, rather than broaden the horizons the economy in order to establish the future of the country (Hidalgo).
There is no doubt that any economic progress in Venezuela is largely linked to its oil production. The revenue or income, which the government derived from oil production, is devoted to public spending, which cut unemployment rate and reduced poverty. One of the positive results of the Bolivarian government is the significant increase in employment rate (Weisbrot and Sandoval). There is a big difference between the period of 1998, or prior to the election of Chavez, and the period after the national government took control of the oil industry in 2003. The nationalization of the oil industry did only provide the national government with enough income or revenue, it has also increased its public spending, including spending on the areas of education, food and health care. For instance, the now state-owned oil industry provided the national government the amount of 13.3 billon for its public spending in 2006 (Petrleos de Venezuela). This means that without nationalizing or seizing the oil industry for the sake of the poor and the oppressed, the national government would not be able to provide goods and services to its more than 24 million population.
However, despite the fact that Venezuela is known as a country with the largest oil reserves, the country started to experience serious water and electricity shortages (Romero). As a result of the ongoing electricity and water crisis, President Chavez has been confronting a public protest. This water and electricity crises are mainly attributed to the deterioration of services in the country. Apart from the shortages, the national government also confronts grave economic crisis and declining oil revenues, which prompted the issuance of emergency measures, including setting caps on the price of products and goods and the importation of air-conditioning systems.
After nationalizing the oil industry, Chavez has been using the countrys vast oil reserves to win allies by selling oil to friendly countries at low prices. Of all the big costumers of Venezuela, only the United States, which Chavez openly denounced as the empire, buys oil at the full market price. Before the election of Chavez in 1998, PDVSA, the state oil company, as one of the largest producers of oil in the world, with production output of 3.2 million barrels per day. Following the establishment of socialism in Venezuela, which led to government control of the PDVSA, as well as government corruption and inefficiency, oil production has now reduced to 2.4 million barrels per day (McDermott).
The effect of socialism on the countrys petro-industry is telling. While it is true that the national government derives vast income or revenues from the state-run oil corporation, its policies hurt the company over the long run and fail to capitalize on short-term revenues. Several problems were seen that caused the current inefficiency of the PDVSA, such as the lost of substantial technical expertise of the company following the 2002-2003 strike and the inability of the new employees to sustain previous production levels. One of the main problems confronting the PDVSA is its continued politization by the socialist government. For example, the national government is using the PDVSA as a way to alleviate poverty and economic crisis by forcing it to sell to domestic market at a subsidized price, which costs at least 9 billion annually (Romero and Krauss). This shows that socialism has a negative effect on big industries like the PDVSA since the national government is mainly focus on political efforts, such as public spending, appointment of government czars to manage the company instead of technical people, and subsidizing the peoples needs, rather than purely economic matters, which may include sustainable production, diversification of the economy, and more profitable investments.
Trade policy and government intervention
Venezuelas trade policy is mainly based on socialism, that is, a system that allows the national government to exercise extensive interventionist and regulatory measures over the countrys economy. This is part of the countrys macroeconomic policy. This economic measure covers the policies on oil, which include nationalization or cessation of privatization and the establishment of new state-owned corporations. Social policies, on the other hand, include the creation of new institutional reforms, international policy, as well as the promotion of popular and social policy (Kolko 143). Since the national government operates on socialist or populist policies, it has the power to control or manipulate prices of gasoline and other basic necessities like food and medicines (Arnone and Cottrell 233).
In terms of regulation, since Venezuela is a socialist state, the national governments regulatory powers or interventionist policies can be applied arbitrarily. Both domestic and foreign investors complained of the inefficiency of government regulators, who were poorly trained and inexperienced and who based their decisions on political considerations rather than technical criteria (Views Wire). A few years after he was elected as president, Chavez used government powers in confiscating privately-owned companies like a Heinz plant that manufactures ketchup (Kozloff 70). The company protested the governments takeover and argued that it was a violation of due process, free trade and property rights. In its response, the national government declared that Heinz company had been operating illegally, had ceased operations for many years, and that at least its employees had already owned eighty percent of the company.
The national government also changed its constitution in order to pave the way for its socialist aspirations. For example, Article 115 of the new constitution created under the term of President Chavez mandates that private companies and property must serve general interest and welfare and the public good (Ellner 142). This only means that socialist or populist policies only works on the destruction of the economy and the nation as a whole. In a socialist regime, interventionist and regulatory policies are being used by the national government to control and manage the economy. Socialism is a social or economic system that disregards the rights of individuals and rejects ownership of private property and companies. Under this system, only the government can operate and manage business establishment for the promotion of public good and welfare. This was the goal of President Chavez when he nationalized the countrys oil fields previously managed and operated by foreign companies. The central government also nationalized banks and other privately-owned business institutions in the name of social welfare and public good.
However, more than ten years after he became the countrys chief executive and declared Venezuela as a socialist state, the country now suffers deepening economic crisis at a time when most countries start to recover from global recession. For instance, the countrys economic output fell 4.5 percent in the third quarter. Since the Chavez did not provide any exact data on its economic activity, most analysts presumed that the decline was even worse than expected (Crowe and Luhnow). When oil prices declined last year, the national government tried to counter this by engaging in aggressive public spending. Also, businesses that were nationalized by the government failed to perform, as they were hardly affected by the global economic downturn. The poor economic performance of the Venezuelan government also affected President Chavezs approval rating, as it slipped to 46 percent in October this year from 53 percent only in September (Crowe and Luhnow).
In this regard, socialism is not an effective tool to stimulate national and economic development. Since this system rejects the concept of property rights and ownership of private property or business, every business or property must be under the control and regulation of the national government. In most capitalist societies, businesses perform well, generate profits and produce more jobs because they are managed and operated by business people who know their functions and who acquired adequate training and expertise for their respective positions. In a socialist society like Venezuela, companies and businesses are under the control and management of bureaucrats or government-appointed people who most of the time base their judgment on political concerns rather than technical considerations.

The table above shows the GDP growth in Venezuela between 2007 and 2008.
Massive public spending
The Venezuelan government usually resorts to aggressive social spending to stimulate the economy, to counter the effects of poverty and unemployment, and to gain the trust and approval of the public. It is in essence a very effective political tool to maintain the prevailing status quo. Due to massive public spending, various sectors have dramatically improved, like the country health care sector. For instance, there were only 1,628 physicians in 1998 compared to 19,571 in 2007.
The national government also offered extensive access to subsidized food as a way to counter poverty and widespread hunger. More than 15,000 stores were put up in 2006 throughout the country to make food items at subsidized prices accessible to the public. President Chavez also focused on the area of education, as the central government made it accessible to poor students throughout the country. This move led to the increase in the number of total enrolment at all educational levels. However, the result of this aggressive public spending is increased taxes imposed on non-oil businesses.
199819992000200120022003200420052006Public Spending23.724.529.631.629.431.028.428.531.0Total social spending8.29.411. Security1.4 Development, Participation0., Social Communication0. and Technology0. Spending ()34.738.537.338.438.239.041.440.644.0Source Sistema de Indicadores Sociales de Venezuela (SISOV) and Banco Central de Venezuela (BVC).

However, despite the fact that Venezuela currently benefits from the revenues of its state-owned oil company, the country is now faced with rising inflation and other economic perils. With the current economic situation, the populist policies of President Chavez are now under close scrutiny. Some economists and analysts observed that Venezuela is experiencing a period of stagflation (Money Morning). This economic scenario characterizes frustrating high inflation and languorous economic growth. It must be recalled that prior to the current economic situation in Venezuela, the period of 2004-2007 was characterized by rapid economic development, which was highlighted by an amazing 19.42 increase in 2004. That was the time standard of living was at its highest peak in Venezuela. However this economic fanfare did not last lost after the national government engaged in widespread nationalization of private companies and businesses, restrictive price controls, and risky social spending that all led to rapid inflation and economic crisis.
Today, President Chavez has already admitted that Venezuela, which is one of the largest oil exporting countries, is experiencing deepening recession (The Star). This shows that after almost ten years of socialism, the country, which nationalized private companies, became vulnerable to economic incidents like recession and inflation due to national governments inefficient economic policies.
Other negative consequences
After Venezuela nationalized the countrys oil companies and other private businesses, it gradually gained influence on several countries in Latin America through its benevolent petroleum industry (Sanders 455). Before 2005, there was an only flimsy trade relation between Venezuela and the Caribbean Community, inadequate transportation linkage, virtually no tourism connection and insignificant investment. After taking control of the countrys oil industry, President Chavez gradually gained the attention of most Latin American nations, which consequently became Venezuelas main trading partners.
However in the business sector, most companies had difficulties operating in the country, particularly in 2007 when the national government issued a new wave of socialist economic policies (Carroll and Buchholtz 438). These interventionist economic policies sought to undermine the autonomy of private businesses, such as power companies, telecommunication industry, and multinational oil corporations, to surrender the control of their assets to the central government. This resulted in the exodus of multinational corporations, particularly ConocoPhillips and ExxonMobil, and other global private companies.
Furthermore, a country that rejects private ownership and stifles and extensively regulates private companies can hardly attract foreign direct investment. The ongoing wave of nationalization in Venezuela worries foreign investors. One of the banks nationalized by the central government last year was the Spanish-owned Banco de Venezuela, which concerned most investors who had prospects of investing in the country (Oxford Analytica). During his first year as president in 1999, the country suffered a 42 percent loss in foreign direct investment, but it recovered in 2000. Foreign direct investment in Venezuela dropped to 800 million in 2002 due to political crisis. The nationalization campaign of the central government also drove away foreign investors. This indicates that socialism stunts economic growth and the inflow of foreign direct investments in Venezuela.
It is clear that socialism has enormous impact on the development in Venezuela. Since socialism is about public or state ownership of private property and businesses, the economic and social policies of President Chavez were centered on social welfare, public good and common ownership of the means of production, which led to the governments issuance of populist laws and policies. The result of these policies and economic measures harmed a number of sectors of the Venezuelan society, particularly the business sector. After only a few years in office, President Chavez moved for the nationalization of the countrys biggest and most profitable industry, the oil sector, including other privately-owned companies like banks, manufacturing plants, among others.
There are a number of reasons why the country is experiencing deepening economic crisis in spite of its vast oil reserves. This paper came up with three hypotheses on why socialism impedes or waylays development in Venezuela.  These hypotheses as follows
First, socialism impedes both economic and social development as it discourages private businesses to operate and expand.
Second, a government that controls the means of production has no technical and manpower capacity or capability to manage and operate a business enterprise that requires the skills and competence of technocrats and businesspeople.
Third, populist policies and regulatory measures that aim to undermine the autonomy of remaining private businesses dissuade the entry of foreign investors and prevent the inflow of more foreign direct investment.
The aforementioned hypotheses suggest that socialism is anathema to political, economic and evens social development. A country needs productive business enterprises that freely operate in an economic environment that is free from excessive government regulations, oppressive state interference, nationalization, and absurd and arbitrary economic policies. There is no doubt that the success of a nation lies in the willingness and effectiveness of private businesses and companies to produce goods and wealth and to generate jobs without any government intervention.

In a socialist state, economy is subservient to the will of the bureaucrats. In Venezuela, the functions of private businesses have been made subservient to the good of the people and to the will of the one who issues political policies and economic measures. This is the reason why most private businesses across the country, particularly the multi-billion-oil industry, were taken over by the state in the name of common good and social welfare. It is the ideological belief of the socialists to control and manage the means of production and to redistribute wealth to the people. This is what Venezuelan President Chavez exactly did. He used the countrys socialist legal system to seize private property and businesses and issued intrusive economic measures to regulate the economy.
Only reality can tell whether the socialist experiment of President Chavez is economically effective and necessary for Venezuela. Today despite the fact that the socialist government of President Chavez controls and manages the multi-billion dollar PDVSA, Venezuela was still hardly hit by the global economic downturn. The country is also beset with high inflation rate due to its unsustainable government spending. Furthermore, most political and economic analysts have been asking whether the countrys worsening economic crisis is the beginning of the end of President Chavezs socialism rule. What is clear is that the central government has been using its multi-billion-oil money to subsidize the peoples education, health care, housing, and social security, including basic needs like petroleum products and food items. This means that without having control of its income-generating oil industry, the central government would not be able to maintain its socialist ideals, as well as the trust and approval of the public. Thus, the current economic predicament in Venezuela only means that socialism failed to stir both economic and social development that the people really need.

FEMA and Katrina

FEMAs response to Katrina, a raging sea of water that pounded the Gulf Coast, raised eyebrows as people assessed its performance as it carried out its disaster management programs in reaction to the fearsome level 5 rated hurricane. Many pitfalls in FEMAs response rose questions that primarily queried whether plans, regulations as well as procedures and policies together with guidelines and laws were sufficiently operational to see the success of the program in salvaging both American lives and property. The structure of the organization that FEMA embraced also came under heavy fire as people questioned whether the model that it took was a stumbling block in its functional execution, consequently exacerbating the already direful situation in New Orleans or whether it supplemented in the process of the organizations ability, thus enhancing its functioning.
    FEMAs ability to back by supplementing state emergency management and to anticipate for the governments response as well as restoration in a disaster with the magnitude of Katrina were immensely lacking. The hardships experienced as a result of FEMAs ineptitude with regard to its grant programs, its personnel, skill entrenchment programs, disaster preparedness programs and integration of previously recommended programs agitate for a reformulation of its organizational framework as well as policy formulation. As its expected role in availing grants to the various states in the union as well as pre-empting natural disasters has been weakened, new policies need to be formulated to address the current trends as the policies in place are backdated. This will improve its ability in disaster response situations and contain its correlation with the states and the personnel charged with first response.
    The first recommendation would be that FEMAs Director together with his companion in the Office of Operations Coordination clearly and openly state and describe the federal governments National Response plan. As such, the two directors should draw up an operational framework formulating the systems substructures that are to be charged with specific level dissemination of information to make the whole disaster response program a coordinated effort with a singularity in the finality of its function. The information should arise from a single point and effectively and efficiently flow down to the intended systems by way of a well established information dissemination in the system. This will eliminate multiplication of information within the system as well as alleviate contradiction as a result of information coming out of various sections ranging from HSOC (Homeland Security Operations Center as well as IIMG (Inter-Agency Incident Management Group), (Office of Inspections and Special Reviews 2005).
    FEMAs Director in conjunction with the Assistant Secretary for Policy should clearly state the functions of the Principal Federal Official together with the federal governments officer in charge of coordination. In addition to these principle officers, the function of the Federal Resource Coordinator together with those of the manager in charge of recovery should be exemplified and particularized. This will provide a framework that clearly underlines the respective officers circle of operation with regard to disaster response activities and practices. If these organizational restructuring is undertaken, it will eliminate conflict of roles that often results into delayed action much to the demise of the victims on the ground as the officers charged with salvaging them from their direful circumstances are often confused as a result of the unnecessary division (Federal Emergency Management Agency 2005). Additionally it would be helpful in circumstances and given specific scenarios that warrant modification of roles. The restructuring will formulate a comprehensive framework upon which the role modification is based resolving conflict. This will be as a result of the given frameworks timetabling of the appropriate time for activation of given roles. The respective officers will be trained in adequate time so as to act with utmost speed in time of disasters.   
    The Department of Homeland Securitys chief officer in charge of operations as well as coordination together with the Chief Information Officer should formulate a framework for managing information that allows fast and accessible flow of information. This formulated management plan should be able to enable the victims on the ground directly and indirectly affected by the disaster, to trace and distribute adequate and reliable information among themselves through reliable and efficient established systems. The established information management center should be standard so as to allow the information being relayed in varied areas affected by the disaster is the same alleviating instances of contradictory messages that are likely to incite panic among the victims (Department ff Homeland Security, 2006).
FEMAs Director should establish Emergency Support Function Six (ESF-6) which should constitute of a team of emergency skilled personnel. This group should come up with a working plan that primarily exemplifies the key tasks that each agency within FEMA is charged with. In addition, the working group should formulate an operational framework clearly stating the nature of procedures to be executed in given scenarios. As such the disaster management team will be sent into the field knowing specifically what is expected of them and not engage in solving the ensuing crisis in a haphazard manner that is primarily pointless without specific defined goals. The plan that the team comes up with should clearly delineate response characteristic practices that span through the whole range disasters levels. This will eliminate occurrences where response mechanisms are not in tandem with the ensuing disaster. As such equipment, machinery and other aids, will consequently match the ensuing disaster adequately living to the challenges that it presents.
One reality that stems out of disasters of the rampaging Katrina and Rita is that the magnitude of its damage will never be estimated for a fact. This is as a result of the immense reckless havoc that the two mighty storms left the Gulf Coast with. Despite this fact, efforts should be made to salvage whatever can be ascertained that forms the property of the residents of the gulf coast as engendered in the long-term recovery effort of FEMA. As such, the emergency manager in efforts endeared towards the long-term recovery process on the Gulf coast should focus maximum priority on assessing of new methodologies as well as technology that could ascertain the extent of the damage. In addition to the damage, the formulated methodologies and technological innovation should address issues regarding occupancy and ownership. This is because of the failure of traditional methods to ascertain the extent of damage together with their incapability to resolve issues regarding occupancy and ownership. This methods as well as the applied technological instrumentation must be tested through feasibility studies that sufficiently pass the test of their viability through an open, transparent and accountable process. This will ensure that that the tendered equipment is able to meet their intended program requirements.
    FEMAs Director together with the Under Secretary for Preparedness collaborate their effort that will see interlinking between the process that encompass purposeful and efficient swift reaction to disaster. As such, the two should come up with an implementation plan that embraces continuity between preparedness, which primarily is the initial response and response. As such, the preparedness face of disaster management should make sure that all adequate measures are taken into account that could salvage property and ascertain the extent of loss. Much in the same way, the response should be swift, coordinated and efficient thus allowing the goals such as lives and property to be met. Finally the continuity should flow into the recovery face of disaster management. Ensuring that this process is not broken up into segment parts allows established trends to be followed and thus the outcome of such efforts is tentative enough to reflect an almost complete picture of the initial conditions. For this process to be successful it needs the policy of engagement of all stakeholders that sufficiently provide the management and recovery process adequate skills and knowledge. This calls for the directors relationship with the emergency management agencies that are found in the victim state. This state agencies play a crucial role as they have an on the ground knowledge of the disaster area and they bring in the critical element of primary knowledge. The management agencies also supply the directorate at the national level the various methodologies and designs that are employed when administering grants. Adhering to the states established models eliminates controversies as the resident victims might receive the new model by the directorate with an eye of suspicion (Department ff Homeland Security, 2005). The continuity also enhances harmony in the directorates planning as well as training and technical assistance together with other exercises.
    The emergency manager in coordination with the Assistant Secretary for Policy, in the long-term recovery process on the Gulf Coast should establish assessable qualitative as well as quantitative standards for the expected recovery outcomes. In addition they should also provide the critical financial assistance. This will ensure that the quality of the recovery process is not compromised as a result of meagre resources that do not provide the necessary means towards tentatively ascertaining the level and extent of the damage. Moreover the coordinated effort between the manager and the Assistant Secretary for Policy should provide for the necessary technical needs. This call for hiring of efficient technical support in form of sophisticated machinery made possible by the funding that the two principles ensure is provide. The sophisticated technology is able to ascertain the level and extent of the damage in the recovery process. More importantly the two principles should also ensure that they have adequate and efficient staff members that are able to oversee the implementation of the formulated plans engendered in the recovery process. 
    September 11, terrorist attacks though unnatural, realigned the Federal Governments formulated framework of response to natural disasters. Government legislation primarily the Act of 2002 regarding homeland security that created the Department of Homeland Security reshaped FEMA, a formerly autonomous body (Public Law 107296 2002). As a result FEMA was somewhat empowered with the supplementary help of additional bodies offering new and critical services such as National Disaster Medical System but lost very critical arms such as the arm that was charged with the selection and assessment of grant benefactors. This underlines the extent of the disorganization that is engendered in the system. This calls for swift action in its policy as well as organizational restructuring.  

Policy is Global Discuss

UCLA defines the term public policy as decisions made by the government to address issues of public concern. The policy must achieve its objectives and do so for the greatest benefits at the lowest cost (Curtain 2000). In addition to this, people, at whom it is targeted, must actively participate in the process. According to Smith, the role of government in formulating Public Policy is changing (Public Policy and Public Participation Engaging Citizens and Community in the Development of Public Policy). The emphasis has shifted from solely governmental supervision over the process to the involvement of stakeholders and partners.
In providing public policy high profile issues are given priority, and hence it is formulated to resolve issues and problems, to allocate resources, to address crises and to take into account decisions made by other governments or agencies etc. Thus, the key criterion in formulating public policy is the public interest, effectiveness, consistency, fairness, and equity (Smith 2003). However, governments in different regions of the world formulate policy using various methods.
General Overview
Cockrel explains various models used to make public policy. The first one is called The Stages of Decision Making and it presupposes the presentation of future probable projects to the authorities (Cockrel 1997). The authorities then make a decision based on the comparison of the suggested projects with counter proposals made by opponents. In this model, individuals have little impact as compared to groups whose influence will vary depending on their size, political effectiveness, and financial resources (Cockrel 1997).
Another model, the Iron Triangle, has been effectively applied in the US policy making in such areas as agriculture, housing, medicine, transportation, and the military area (Cockrel 1997). The three types of power possessing bodies according to the Iron Triangle are the executive ones, the Congress, and other institutions, participating in policy making. Within this triangle policy is discussed, the agenda being determined by the legislature and decisions being announced and implemented. Power clusters in this model include administrative agencies, legislative committees, special interest groups, professionals and the public.
Cockrel also explains the Kings and Kingmakers model of public policy making, kingmakers, who have the financial and intellectual resources to determine public policy, being at the top of the hierarchy. Kings, being on a position lower than kingmakers, are elected and appointed leaders in the government and organizations. They work in close consultation with the kingmakers. They are followed by activists and interested citizens, the former being members of special interest groups and national organizations and the latter being the citizens, who are fairly well informed on issues of public policy. The largest group, indifferent citizens, are not interested in public policy issues and do not participate in its policy making.
The comparison of the ways countries make public policy
Policy making varies from country to country. According to Osman, an unpredictable socio-political environment influences formulation of Public Policies in developing countries (Public Policy Making). The low standards of living, poor health and illiteracy have shrouded public policy into a cloud of pessimism due to the ineffectiveness of government programs. Unlike developing countries, the developed ones are predominantly pluralistic with many centers of power. Therefore, diverse interest groups shape public policy.
Societies in developing countries are not well organized to have much influence and  the theories of public policy applicable in developed countries are irrelevant in developing ones. Consequently, the elite controlling the state bodies is the most influential factor in prioritizing issues, evaluating alternatives and implementing policies (Osman 2002). In addition to this, a lack of resources in developing countries gives investing agencies much influence in public policy.
In the USA, for instance, the executive bodies, the Congress and special interest groups debate policy before it is adopted and implemented (Cockrel 1997). Related groups act independently or merge to influence public policy. These are administrative agencies, special interest groups, professionals and the attentive and latent public. There is an intense debate and decision making process within these different groups ahead of their collective proposals. The US process is representative of many developed countries.
Japans system of policy formulation is inaccessible to the public and special interest groups. Administrative branches generate policies, which they introduce to the legislative branch, referred to as the Diet in Japan. Members of the ruling party are briefed in order to garner their support. From there the bill is debated during a cabinet meeting, and if is approved, it is handed over to the House of Representatives as a cabinet proposed bill. Then it moves to the legislative committees before it is decided on by the full Diet (Bazzell 1998). In many parts of the world, policy making models are based on what position representative public institutions and interest groups have in society.
The Role of InstitutionsDecision Makers
The role of institutions and decision makers can be best understood using the policy making models expounded by Cockrel. According to the Stages to Decision Making model, institutions, which may be for or against a certain policy, merge with other interest groups to formulate a proposal to support or to oppose to the policy. In this model institutions are mainly non-governmental. On the other hand, in the Iron Triangle model, institutions are comprised of the executive bodies, the Congress and special interest groups. Debate on the policy takes place within this circle until a certain consensus is reached.  According to the US Department of State, various institutions influence public policy in America making.
The Media
This institution constantly scrutinizes government policy decisions and educates the public by conducting analyses on policy issues.
Special Interest Groups and NGOs
These are private sector organizations support environmental protection, the rights of minority groups, trade policies etc. Their influence is felt through advertising campaigns, opinion polls, and expert opinions. They encourage their members to vote for candidates, who will influence their public positions.
Public Policy Research Organizations
Public policy research organizations conduct research, discuss public issues and publish books and articles. Examples of institutions actively participating in public policy research and discourses are the Brookings Institution, the Heritage Foundation and the Cato Institute.
In addition to this, there are trade associations, which represent the interests of an industry or profession, and labor unions, which speak for their members and participate in policy making concerning environmental, trade and health issues etc. Others are political parties and multilateral organizations, influencing the American public policy through treaties, which eventually become the US law, for instance, by imposing duties having an effect on the US trade policy (The US Department of State 2008).

Criticisms of Certain Theories in Public Policy
According to Bianco, using theories in public policy diminishes the expression of values and contributions of communities and affected groups (Process of Policy Making and Theories of Public Policy). The theories alienate those concerned and the power to implement policies belongs to classes of experts rather than ordinary citizens. Rational policy making techniques anticipate the cost benefit analyses, risk assessment, opinion surveys and yield objective, scientist advice. This expertise views criticism as biased and unscientific. In addition to this, the principle used in making a decision is based on cost versus benefit, devoid of human emotion or input.
Hayes criticized incrementation as a model, which is not radically different from past practice, and all that the system yields is minor modification (Incrementalism). He goes on to say that the model does not address the underlying issues or problems, but it is the most likely outcome of policy formulations. Incrementalism is usually preferred because, unlike a total overhaul or the rational approach which expend huge amounts in capital for research and analysis, incrementalism consumes little in capital resources. Furthermore, those who control the micro agenda prefer minor policy changes in order to stifle the opposition (Hayes 2002).
Public policy is effective when all stakeholders participate in its making. The models expounded by Cockrel illustrate the different approaches used in policy formulation. In the Iron Triangle model of policy formulation, decisions are made within a group comprised of the executive bodies, the Congress and such institutions, as administrative agencies, legislative committees, special interest groups, professionals and the public, exercise power.
In the Kings and Kingmakers model, the power exercised by the kingmakers at the top of the hierarchy determines public policy direction. They have the intellectual and financial resources. In contrast to this model, the Stages of Decision Making model is more inclusive. Those people who are for and against a certain bill formulate their proposals for consideration by the authorities, which compare the two before reaching a final decision.
Institutions also influence public policy in the USA and many developed countries. The media acts as the vanguard of public interest by constantly scrutinizing government policy and educating the public on policy issues (The US Department of State 2008). Other institutions include special interest groups and NGOs, which support policy implementations that will favor, for instance, environmental protection, public policy research institutions, and trade associations and labor unions which support their members interests.
These approaches are, however, rare in the developing countries. Overall poverty and the lack of resources leaves the role of policy making to financing agencies and the elite, which are the most influential factors in deciding on issues. In addition to this, societies in developing countries are not well organized to form effective interest groups, which can have an impact on policy (Osman 2002). Between the two extremes there are such countries as Japan, which do not include the public or special interest groups in the process. The debate and final decision making is confined within the administrative branch, the legislature and the ruling coalition (Bazzell 1998).
Theories in public policy making have, however, been criticized. According to Bianco, they ignore the contributions of communities and affected groups. They are impersonal and very few cases of successful policy analysis can be identified. They also consume huge amounts in capital expenditure that is directed to research, analysis and implementation of the outcomes.

In all countries of the world public policy is made for the good of the community. The US with the democratic system of government includes all stakeholders in the process. Policy implemented without stakeholders input can only bring benefits to the proponents of the policy. This happens in developing countries where few members of the elite are able to impose their will on the rest of the population. It is also doubtful how effective theoretical approaches are in policy making. The impersonal nature of figures and statistics do not generate optimism of the outcomes in policy analysis.
Public policy debate and formulation must go hand in hand with democratization of public institutions. Without them policies can become irrelevant for societies which need them most. In the developing world, for instance, democratization must come first before enacting public policies so that special interest groups and other various institutions could act as supervisors over the excesses of the government.
The only true test of the effectiveness of public policy is the benefits resulted from its implementation. A good example is the US Health Care Policy, which is currently under intense debate. If enacted, it may grant insurance coverage to millions of Americans and improve the healthcare system that has been plagued with problems for years. However, results take time to evaluate. It is therefore important to involve as many stakeholders as possible in policy making so that all interests are taken into account. Only in this way the policy can be made that can stand the test of time.