Anthrax and its Effects on Public Health

Anthrax which is a communicable disease that affects both animals and humans is caused by the Bacillus anthracis and its effects are lethal to the infected organism.  The Bacillus is usually found dormant in some soils in form of spores and may be inhaled by some organisms then they become reactive with their bodies multiplying in at a high rate where after infection it results in skin lesions (Miller, 2002).  From the herbivorous animals, humans may get the disease through feeding or coming into contact with the affected flesh whether cooked or uncooked.  The mode of transmission is through the spores which can be transferred from one organism to another through clothing, skin, inhalation or ingestion.

As mentioned earlier, anthrax enters the human body through the skin (cutaneous), lungs (inhalation) and intestines (ingestion).  When humans are affected they are usually separated from the rest or quarantined as a precautious way of avoiding chances of infection of the unaffected humans (Zubay, 2005).  Within the public health arsenal isolation and quarantine are two basic procedures in the case of an outbreak of anthrax. Quarantine and isolation form the most basic yet significant potent tools and procedures of control and prevent of anthrax in todays public health armory. Quarantine and isolation as procedures are not synonymous.

 Isolation is most probably applied on patients who have been confirmed as having the illness while by extension quarantine and its procedures are usually administered to persons who have to yet been infected with the disease but they are presumed to have been exposed to the threats of infection (Miller, 2002). These two procedures, that is quarantine and isolation, are carried on concurrently, and the major focuses is geared towards restricting movements from infected areas to uninfected regions in order to slow down the rate of infection or stop it completely.

Commonly affected animals are the wild animals, such as zebras, gazelles, and domesticated herbivores because those bacilli spores are found dormant in the soils.  The disease doesnt spread directly from one animal to another or form one infected person to another to another unless by the conduct of infected products like fur, skin, or blood.

For centuries anthrax has been found to kill numerous animals and people especially those who were in the concentration camps in the US, Europe, south Vietnam, Africa and Australia during the first and second world wars (Zubay, 2005).  It was not until the discovery of vaccines and immunization programmes for animals and people that the disease effects have been tamed.  

The disease has a variety of strains that are curable while some are found to be resistant.  The inhalation strains are found to be more virulent.  Once inhaled or ingested the bacilli is transferred to the intestine or lungs from where it may further move to the blood stream and the lymph nodes.

While the spores are in the lymph nodes they breakdown the immune system within few hours and propagate so first that in two days death may even occur (Miller, 2002).  The organism affected, otherwise called the host, is may have blood oozing from any body opening before it dies.  When the antibiotic are administered to the organism before severe attacks then it may survive when the bacilli is eradicated but if it is administered late the host may still die, depending on the severity of the effect caused by the bacilli before administration.

For the lethal factors and the edema to penetrate the body cells, they use a special protein that is generated by the bacilli to inactivate the neutrophils hence weakening the cells in large numbers. The body swells and cells rupture hence bleeding and death of the organism.

There are known cases of death of people who contracted the disease from their work stations. For example a drum maker who worked with untreated leather died in the United Kingdom in 2008 November and it was reported to have died from anthrax infection. Also in December 2009 an adult female was confirmed to have the infection while she worked in New Hampshire health and human service department (Zubay, 2005). To prevent such occurrence there is regular vaccination programmes for those working in anthrax prone areas.  Anthrax outbreak was also recorded in Glasgow Scotland in the midst of heroin fanatics majority of whom died in the same year.  Upon thorough research it was realized that in Afghanistan, the heroin was usually blended with bone meal which would have been contaminated with the bacilli spores.

Unless one knows the symptoms of the disease it is difficult to suspect it. For example if one is infected they may think they were suffering form the common flu or common colds which many people dont think of treating because it clears by itself (Miller, 2002). The disease is characterized by instances of flu that starts in a mild form and later develop in to severe thorax infection, pain in the chest, and a fatal respiratory collapse which may be followed by blood spots in the mucus and tonsillitis that may eventually to general illness and death. Inhaled bacilli are found to cause more than 90 of the anthrax deaths.   Most of the inhaled infections are from exposure to the infected hides and skin or breaking of animal horns and bones.

The gastrointestinal anthrax results from ingested material that is affected like flesh, blood, and can be noticed by symptoms like vomiting blood, acute inflammation of the gastro intestinal tract relentless diarrhea and low appetite. Once this spreads to the blood stream it is fatal (Zubay, 2005).  Gastrointestinal anthrax is treatable but usually causes more that 60 of deaths if it attacks humans.
The skin related anthrax is spread through the spores that are as a result of skin contact. This one exhibits symptoms like, lesion on the skin that appear like boils then after sometime they develop into ulcers that has a dark scar at the center yet it is rarely painful. This type of infection is curable and rarely causes death.

Large dosages of oral antibiotics as well as the intravenous antibiotics are a good treatment of the infection. Some of the antibiotics that are commonly used include, fluoroquinolones, such as cipro, erythromicyne, penicillin, doxiphylaxis and vancomycin. Inhalation anthrax can be treated by the use of drugs like the ABthrax (raxibacumab) that is a recent drug towards treating emergency cases.
It is medically proven that anthrax does not spread from one person to another by just using a common environment but quarantine has to be done the reduce chances of spread of the bacilli spores through the air which could be a potential hazard (Miller, 2002). The contaminated persons clothes are washed thoroughly by the use of antimicraibial soap and plenty of water then the effluent further treated by a bleaching agent that can destroy the spores completely.  The washed clothes or utensils are then boiled in water for more than half an hour.

Clothes of the infected person can also be burnt to kill the spore completely. Dead bodies are to be handled with care if they arte suspected to have died form anthrax.  Even the simple burial practices can not kill the disease.  It should be noted that these dead bodies should first be fully inspected of any traces of the disease then upon full realization of the cause of the death if anthrax the body should be sealed in special non perforated rubber bags that are airtight then disposed by burying deep in the ground to prevent any further contamination (Miller, 2002).  The dead persons clothes should be burnt.  Those handling the patients should be very careful and use protective masks to avoid possible contamination.  The preferred protection is the use of disposable masks.

It is also important to understand that once the disease attacks a patient they should be treated at once because any delay makes the cases untreatable and more communicable. Therapy of this infection should only be attempted in a biohazard laboratory that is fully equipped and with well trained and qualified personnel.

Anthrax affected animals may die without significant signs but with people, mild cases of headache, bouts of common cold, mild fever, experiences of sore throat, and painful muscles may be noticed initially.  Most humans die from two days of infection, while the majority may die in 8 day and others taking even a month.

More so in order to contain anthrax infections and its spread, there are measures that should be taken for public safety (Zubay, 2005).  A number of notifications need to be done.  The procedure for solution to anthrax exposures includes investigation, to find out if the there is possibility of the exposure of suspected patients to the disease.  Investigations are done in the clinical laboratories that are specially designed to carry out these investigations.

The investigation process may include going to the field to collect samples from patients in the suspected area then testing the samples.  If traces of the bacteria are noted then treatment should start at once to avoid the spread.  Different departments at this level must then be informed that of the findings so that alert messages to warn the different officials concerned with the public safety health are informed.

These departments include the epidemiology department, the local department of health, FBI and the CDC.  When all these notifications are made, the affected patients whose diagnosis is complete should be transferred to the isolation chambers for treatment and further tests.
The next procedure up on the notification of different medical departments and the public health department, the public health officer then issued a notification to the government warning that there is an outbreak of the disease (Miller, 2002).  When this information is validated the government through the ministry may issue a warning towards isolation and quarantine of the infected persons from the health ones.  Quarantine may be regional that restricts the movement of people from one place to another until the quarantine exercise if terminated up on the assurance of safety once the disease has been controlled. Quarantine may also involve short term or long term termination of movement of animals from infected zones to others and the vice versa. Once the disease has been managed, the quarantine warning may be withdrawn.  

The responsibility of the public health sector in the control of the disease is to ensure that appropriate investigations are on any suspected cases of any such infection then ensure that the appropriate medical investigation forms are filled out and submitted to the necessary  authority (Zubay, 2005).  Also the department is charged with the responsibility of providing education regarding the disease outbreak its effects and control measures to the all citizens, clinical officers, and possible emergency controllers.  The public health department also should commence active surveillance at once when suspected cases are notified.  They should also carry 0out active research sessions to identify the cluster zones with the infected cases, and ensure fast stoppage to more exposure and transmission.
Vaccinations can be used as preventive measures especially to people working in leather, hides and skins as well as fur handling areas (Miller, 2002). Those who work in military force in areas prone to the disease and those working in the organism laboratory should also be vaccinated. Immunizations are also available for prevention of the spread of the disease although infected persons should not be immunized, they should only be separated and treated separately.

Contaminated site from which the dead body was found should be cleaned thoroughly because the spores of the bacilli can survive under adverse environments even if the infected body has been buried.   The best clean agents to the site contaminated with anthrax include oxidizing agents for example the peroxides, bleaching agents, chlorine dioxide, and sandia foam and ethylene oxide among others. EPA is the most recommended bleaching agent for cleaning sites (Zubay, 2005).  Chlorine dioxide is now a well known biocide to use while cleaning anthrax contaminated surfaces. It is more hectic to clean animal ranches or domestic animal areas because it requires one to keenly collect the carcass plus any remnants of the dead animal and burn them completely to be consumed by fire.

This process is difficult in forested areas in wild animal ranges because it may result in the destruction of the environment if fires are not carefully managed. Formaldehyde solution is used to soak the carcass to kill the spores although this has been discovered to be an environmental hazard. In most cases the site clearance involves block burning of anthrax infested vast lands which deters any scavengers and hyenas from feasting on the carcass and possibly spreading the disease to other areas in he field.  This is the only effective way of clearing a forested site that is contaminated by anthrax.
 Anthrax is not only a health hazard in normal environments but it has also been used in wars (Miller, 2002). For example, the Japanese were the first people to carry out tests on anthrax in 1930s in which some of the tests were carried by intentionally subjecting the infection to war prisoners, majority of whom died. In the 1940s anthrax was used as a biological warfare when the US used weaponized anthrax in wars which were later destroyed in the 1972.

Anthrax has been used many times in weapons during warts to attack enemies for example, the British attacked Scotland with such weapons in the 1942 and the contamination lasted until the 1990 when decontamination was effected. The Germanys are also known to have used this biological warfare in the 1944 while Rhodesia used it in the 1978-1979 when it fought with the black nationalists (Miller, 2002).  Following these attempts to use the biological warfare, the American military are vaccinated against it frequently to, protect them against severe attacks in case of wars.  This also applies to the British armies.  It therefore true that these spores can be cultivated for terrorism events.
In conclusion anthrax is a communicable disease and while handling the patients or contaminated surfaces one need to be carefully protected and handling of dead bodies should be carefully done.  It should also be noted that anthrax can survive in harsh conditions for long and surfaces and contaminated sites need to be decontaminated with care.


The information requested is voluntary and is solicited under authority of 5 U.S.C. 3302 as promulgated by E.O. 10577, Rule VII, Section 7.1. This form will be the primary source document used to evaluate your qualifications and to rate and rank you for a specified position. If you decline to provide the information requested, it may not be possible to evaluate your qualifications fully.NAME (First, middle, last) (Please print)PRESENT POSITION (Title, grade, divisionservice)

This form will be used as the primary source document for determining basic qualifications and for rating and ranking purposes.  This information you give on this form will be a main source for evaluating your qualifications and for determining how may points you receive in the rating and ranking process.  Be sure to give complete and accurate information.  If you dont furnish the information or your information is incomplete or inaccurate, it may not be possible to determine your qualifications or to give you full credit under the rating procedures.  Additional guidance in completing this form is available from the Personnel Office, upon request.INSTRUCTIONSCANDIDATE - The rating factors of job elements listed below are those which will be used for this job.  You should, therefore, describe in detail your experience, education, training, awards and other activities that demonstrate your possession of the rating factor(s) (KSAOs) or job element(s). Also, indicate with each response (1) the document (SF 171, award, performance requirement, etc.) (2) the location of the document (Official Personnel Folder (OPF), etc.) and (3) the past activity or employment (e.g., ABC Company, Washington, D.C., from November 1975 to March 1978) which will support your response.PERSONNEL - This form may be used for VA jobs by listing the specific rating factor(s), consisting of knowledges, skills, abilities, or other characteristics (KSAOs) or job elements, in the space below.  The method of response desire for each rating factor (narrative, specific questions, check lists, fill in the blanks, etc.) should be clearly indicated.ELEMENT 1 Demonstrated knowledge of and ability to apply, Federal and private sector acquisition regulations, principles, procedures and contract law.  Specialized Experience  Experience in design, construction, and leasing is advantageous.

As Assistant General Manager for Supreme Group, I negotiated, optimized, and administered contracts for the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD), NATO, and the UN.  In working with these Federal and International contracts, I gained knowledge of the Federal Acquisition Regulations (FAR), submitting Requests for Proposals andor Information (RFPRFI), and wrote and became familiar with contract language and legal requirements for contracts, as part of the general Federal contract management process.  Extensive experience with ACMI wet and dry lease operation and development.

ELEMENT 2  Demonstrated knowledge of various contract types methods of contracting and selection factors to plan acquisition strategies in order to procure complex requirements.

Administered several of aviation-related contracts for Supreme Group.   Planned acquisition strategy for contracts.  Developed financial factors and requirements to safeguard against raising fuel prices, crew availability and even future ICAO, US MIL, NATO, UN and host nation CAA directives, aircraft modernizations, and costs.  These contracts were complex in nature and required intimate knowledge of the aviation industry and experience in international relations.

CERTIFICATIONI CERTIFY that all statements and information furnished in this Statement are true, complete and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief, and are made in good faith.  I understand that statements or information furnished on this form are subject to verification and I agree to furnish supporting documents or information when sorequested andor names, addresses and phone numbers (if known) of officials or other individuals who can substantiate the qualifications described above.  I also understand that intentional misstatements or falsification may result in disciplinary action.SIGNATURE OF APPLICANTDATE FORMTEXT       FORMTEXT      

ELEMENT 3 Ability to communicate effectively with a variety of individuals using tact, diplomacy, and negotiation strategies on complex subject matters.

As AGN, liaised with senior leaders from NATO, US DOD, ANA, ISAF, etc during acquisition planning, requirements gathering, and negotiations.  Worked with local agencies in Afghanistan in order to negotiate best contract terms.  All contract negotiation in Afghanistan required regional knowledge and international diplomacy.

After completing this form, read it over carefully to make sure you have answered all questions andor completed all items, your name is on all pages, and you have signed you name below.  Since this form will be used as the primary source document in evaluating your qualifications, be sure that you have completed it as thoroughly and accurately as possible.CERTIFICATIONI CERTIFY that all statements and information furnished in this Statement are true, complete and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief, and are made in good faith.  I understand that statements or information furnished on this form are subject to verification and I agree to furnish supporting documents or information when sorequested andor names, addresses and phone numbers (if known) of officials or other individuals who can substantiate the qualifications described above.  I also understand that intentional misstatements or falsification may result in disciplinary action.SIGNATURE OF APPLICANTDATE FORMTEXT       FORMTEXT      

ELEMENT 4  Ability to analyze, comprehend, interpret and apply complex data and information.

In assessing aviation industry best practices for contract terms and costs for supplier-related acquisitions, I had to research, analyze, and interpret data around costs, quantities, and data requirements needed for planning and execution of several contracts.  Much of this data gathered was to support the international negotiations.  This required an extra level of complexity to assess International monies against U.S. dollar (currency conversions and analysis.)

After completing this form, read it over carefully to make sure you have answered all questions andor completed all items, your name is on all pages, and you have signed you name below.  Since this form will be used as the primary source document in evaluating your qualifications, be sure that you have completed it as thoroughly and accurately as possible.CERTIFICATIONI CERTIFY that all statements and information furnished in this Statement are true, complete and correct to the best of my knowledge and belief, and are made in good faith.  I understand that statements or information furnished on this form are subject to verification and I agree to furnish supporting documents or information when sorequested andor names, addresses and phone numbers (if known) of officials or other individuals who can substantiate the qualifications described above.  I also understand that intentional misstatements or falsification may result in disciplinary action.SIGNATURE OF APPLICANTDATE FORMTEXT       FORMTEXT      

ELEMENT 5  Knowledge of program objectives, technical terminology, uses of hospital equipment, services and construction sufficient to actively participate, lead, negotiate, and administer contracts

My position as a medical evacuation helicopter pilot required knowledge and use of emergency medical equipment, patient care in-flight, and hospital requirements and regulations.  Part of my role as pilot was to ensure an adequately stocked aircraft and that appropriate equipment was on board.  This was in addition to the duties for managing and controlling the safety of the aircarft.  Combined with my experience in contracting, I have sufficient knowledge and experience with technical and medical terminology, use of equipment, etc to effectively administer contracts with the VA.

After completing this form, read it over carefully to make sure you have answered all questions andor completed all items, your name is on all pages, and you have signed you name below.  Since this form will be used as the primary source document in evaluating your qualifications, be sure that you have completed it as thoroughly and accurately as possible.CERTIFICATION6J

Political History of Marijuana

Marijuana which over the years had acquired different names such as hemp plant, weed, and cannabis happens to be one of oldest psychoactive plant which is known in the human era. Over the years, it has become one of the most diversified and widespread plant. In some parts of the world, it grows as weed while it is cultivated in others. However, it exists in practically all the parts of the world. Due to this fact, it can be said to do well in a good number of different climates in the whole world. Over a long period of time, this plant has been used as remedies in some parts of the world and in others it has been used to tackle a number of different medical conditions. (

From this, we can say that cannabis has been in use for quite some time throughout history. This has been grown and used by different cultures so as to change perception, mood, and consciousness. The effect of the drug is known to increase creativity so as to provoke mystical experiences, heighten the capacity to share, sense, and feel. After students complete their schooling, this drug happened to be the most popular of what is referred to as the recreational drug. From this, it is a clear indication that people previously had a positive attitude towards marijuana. It also means that marijuana was legal and to use it, one would not find a big deal or end up in jail. This is not the case in current times as marijuana is termed as an illegal drug in most parts of the world. Then a question comes on how marijuana which is also known as cannabis did become illegal This calls for a brief history of marijuana and the way it has grown to become what it is today. (Guither)

Most of the people in the world assume or rather think that marijuana became illegal through a process which would involve medical, scientific and government hearings. In addition, some think that the main reason for making marijuana illegal was to protect the citizens from what can be referred to as the dangerous effects of this drug. This may not be the case and these reasons may not the actual reasons as to why marijuana was made illegal. It can therefore be argued that there is a chance that all those people who actually voted for the legal fate of cannabis did not have the facts. Instead, they can be said to have been depending on some information that was supplied by some few people who had an agenda of deceiving the law makers. These were the few people who knew the truth and did not want to put it in practice. The truth is that the very first vote that was casted concerning the prohibitions of marijuana was based on some documents that had some false information. These documents can be said to present the lies to the senate which passed it basing it on falsehood. (

In most parts of the world and in most of the human history, this plant had been used as a legal plant. It is clear that out its lifetime, marijuana has only been illegal for less than one percent of its lifetime. This is because it is said to have been in used for the first time at around 7,000 B.C. From this time, it has been legal up to some recent time, which is estimated to be the time when the former president of the United States Ronald Reagan was a boy. (

This plant is said to have a number of uses starting from the earliest use of weaving fabrics and later uses as food over a couple of centuries. Later on, the plant was used as rope, incense and much more as the years goes by. These uses are known to add to the already existing confusion concerning how the plant was introduced in the United States. It is believed that marijuana was in use in the United States in as early as the 17th century but it was not that open to the public awareness. The public only came to know about it and also to use it as a recreational drug in the 20th century. (

When such an activity or rather a plant comes into being with so many uses and so many effects on the users, it calls for some law to be enacted so as to control the usage and the effects of the drug. It is due this reason that there was a need for the law that would control the usage of marijuana. Therefore the very first law in the United States that concerned the use of marijuana was enacted at Jamestown Colony which is located in Virginia in the year 1619. This law is said to order all the farmers during that time to grow marijuana seed that had originated from India. Later on, there were some other must grow laws that had to be in effect for the next two centuries in the United States. This was a serious case as by 18th century one would be jailed for refusing to grow the plant especially during the time of shortage. This crop was so important that one would use it to pay the taxes. These were the laws that allowed growing of marijuana. (

In the beginning of the twentieth century there was an influx of the Mexicans into the United States. This is known to cause a lot of dispute between the large farms which were known to use labor from Mexico and the small farms which did not use it. It is during this time that the great depression came and this caused even more tension as there were no jobs. In addition, the welfare resources are said to become scarce. Another main dispute of the between the farmers was the fact that most of the Mexicans smoked the weed and they would carry it along. It is due to this reason that the Government of California passed the first law that prohibited the use of marijuana. (Abramson)

This is not the only reason as to why the very first law that outlawed the use of marijuana may have been passed the main reason may also have been the fact that the Mormons also used the drug. All those Mormons who traveled to the Mexico at around 1910 are said to come back with marijuana. In addition, there were some sharp reactions from the church and this may have played a part in the formation of the first law on marijuana. It is after this that a good number of states followed suit with the laws that prohibited the use of marijuana. The laws were specifically targeting the Mexican American population. It was believed that if the Americans stop growing the plant, they will prevent the increasing population of Mexicans who were migrating into America. (

Since the emergency of these laws that prohibits the use of marijuana, there have been a lot of controversies concerning its use. It has therefore appeared or rather happened that most of the places in the whole of the United States have decriminalized non medical marijuana. This has made marijuana which is also known as cannabis to be illegal. This is clearly presented in the Federal Laws Act. In the case of Raich vs Gonzales which was in the court in the year 2005, there were a 6-3 decision that one of the commercial clause that is found in the constitution of the United States gave powers to the federal governments to ban all forms of the use of marijuana. This included the use of cannabis for medical purposes no matter the fact that the local laws allowed it. (

There has been some form of punishment or corrections that has been associated with this. Among the different forms of punishment or correction that have been associated with this are the civil fines, drug treatment or drug education especially in those places of incarceration. In other places, there are criminal charges that are attached to all those people that are found in possession of marijuana, or even those who have made a number of offenses which are linked to the use marijuana. (

All these were enabled by the fact that there was a mass ballot initiative that succeeded concerning the decriminalization of marijuana. For instance, Massachusetts voters were said to pass a ballot initiative which decriminalized all forms of possession of very small amount of cannabis. The ballot that was passed postulated that if a person will be caught in possession of marijuana that is less than one ounce, he or she will face a fine of one hundred dollars. In addition, this initiative was expected to maintain the current penalties concerning the growing and the subsequent selling of marijuana. The initiative was also meant to keep in place the current penalties concerning the trafficking of cannabis and also keeps the law that prohibits driving while one is under the influence of the drug. (Abramson)

This initiative was just a proposition which was proposed by the federal government of Massachusetts. However, this proposition was expected to become a law thirty days after it was passed. In addition, it was expected to go through the Governors Council which is known to ordinarily meet in November. In addition, the legislature is known to amend or even repeal the law as it had done in the past with the other laws. The Boston Globe proposed that the proposition required all the persons that are under the age of eighteen to complete a program on drug awareness and then attend a program on community service.  The agency also proposed that all those people who will not want to complete this program will have to be fined in court with a fine that will go up to a thousand dollars. (

It is not all places where marijuana can be termed as having very negative effects to the nation. Other places for instance California can be said to benefit from the use of marijuana. It is due to this reason that California is fighting to have marijuana legalized because it believes that if marijuana is legalized, the state may yield the taxpayers over 1.2 billion dollars in a year. This may be helpful to this state which is currently having a swelling budget deficit. It therefore turns out that the legalization of marijuana in this state stands as a very attractive form of raising the ever needed money.  (The Health Risks  Benefits Marijuana)

The reason behind this is that, if marijuana is legalized in this state, it will fetch about 50 dollars in one ounce of marijuana in form of excise tax. In addition, the state may be in a position to save over a hundred million dollars that is currently used on prisons, prosecutions and arrests of people with cases concerning marijuana. There would also be increased spinoff industries and increased employment opportunities. This is said to have a very positive impact as the marijuana total retail sales may be the order of between three and five billion dollars which has a total impact on the economy of about twelve and fifteen billion dollars. This value includes spinoff industries such as tourism, coffeehouses and some industrial hemp. (Abramson)

Despite all these, there are some health effects or rather risk factors that are associated with marijuana. There are some short term physical effects which are known to vary from one person to the next depending on the qualities of the marijuana that was inhaled or ingested. Some of the common effects are muscle relaxation, euphoria, altered state of consciousness and increased appetite. Some of the medical benefits that are associated with the use of marijuana are the treatment of various diseases which include treatment of nausea which in most cases is associated with cancer, reducing the pressure in eyes especially on people with glaucoma which is the main reason for blindness in the United States, relief of some pain that is associated with cancer and nerves protection from damages caused by multiple sclerosis. (The Health Risks  Benefits Marijuana)

There are also some risks factors that are closely associated with the use of marijuana such as the impaired memory and thinking, increased chances of having heart attack, respiratory tract cancer, lung cancer, and mouth cancer, diminished coordination and balance, possible hallucination. Another negative effect is that there exists a possible connection between the use of marijuana and fatal accidents. Other than these, marijuana is known to be addictive in most cases. (Abramson)

In conclusion, having said all these and analyzed the history of marijuana, it can be said that no matter the number of benefits that the drug may have, it should be illegal and illegal it should remain. Even though the hemp industry looks at it as the only hope for states such as California, there are some other ways in which it should gain the much needed income. This should not be the reason to put the lives of very many people at risk as it is clear that marijuana has more negative effects those positive effects. However, it should be used for medical services and there should be some system that would make sure that it is used for only that purpose.

Commercialization of Rap Music and the Afro-American Subculture

For the first time in the history of the United States, an Afro-American was elected into the Office of the President.  In a nation composed mainly of Caucasians, this is indeed an extraordinary historical event.  It is expected that history will always cite this chapter as a proof that America has finally gotten over the specter of racism, which has been an issue that has often marred its image as a model of democracy in the community of nations.  The American people are hopeful, especially the Afro-Americans and other racial minorities, that this is the start of a healing process, a solution to a long festering wound in society.  They have thought positively of this not just for its political implications but also for its consequences on culture and economy two aspects in which racism remains more pronounced.  However, it will be impossible for President Barack Obama to solve this problem even with the powers in his hand.  In fact, he is himself a product of such culture.  Racialism persists despite the anti-slavery struggle that culminated with the Civil War and the Civil Rights movement of the sixties.  There are signs it has abated significantly, with an Afro-American in the White House as a proof.  However, a great number of Afro-Americans still live in a subculture that brings about disparity.  As a result, this disparity will continue to accuse blacks of inferiority and whites of racismthus refueling our racial politicsdespite the level of melanin in the presidents skin. (Steele)
This paper discusses about rap music and the subculture being upheld by Afro-Americans, its effect on their psyche, and how it has also resulted in racial tension.  It also points out that the fact that behind the current promotion of rap music, one of the most popular products of the Afro-American subculture is the capitalist drive to make money.  The result of which, therefore, is the no longer just the realistic depiction of the life and struggles of the Afro-Americans but the commercialization of their identity.  This explains the point that racialism thrives in a capitalist society.

When racial discrimination exists in a society, it is natural for stereotyping races to occur.  Many people, not just Caucasians but even other minorities, such as Asians and Latinos, perceive the Afro-American male as someone whose propensity for violence is very high.  Oftentimes, when someone imagines an Afro-American, he immediately gets an image of a gang member, or what the Afro-Americans call as a gangsta.  While such is indeed plain stereotyping, there is basis for it.  In the nineties, the media has been highlighting stories of gang-related crimes perpetuated by Afro-Americans.  This was primarily because of the criminal activities which involved gangs composed exclusively of Afro-Americans.  The most notorious among these are the Crips and Bloods, which both originate from the streets of Los Angeles.  These gangs started to grow in the eighties.  In the nineties, these gangs had achieved a membership of roughly 65,000.  (California Department of Justice)  What made them even more infamous is not just the astonishing membership growth rate but their involvement in the drug trade.  Both the Crips and the Bloods had established control of the distribution of crack cocaine in many cities in California as well as in other states.  The once neighborhood groups of youths who formed gangs to protect themselves from other groups and to commit petty crimes more for the pleasure of it than for the money had become big-time drug dealers.  Once a group of gang members arrive in a city, they do not approach other Afro-American youths to expand membership.  They go there to study the demand for drugs, to identify competitors in the drug trade, and the feasibility of starting their own operations.  (California Department of Justice)

The gangsta or the gang members lifestyle was not hidden from public.  Just as crime stories and intra-gang violence are being provided enough space in newspapers and airtime in the broadcast media, gangsta was glamorized through rap music.  This happened because many Afro-American communities saw gangsta members rose from poverty due to the drug trade and other criminal activities.  In the absence of an alternative model for successfully struggling against the impoverished life in the ghettos or the hoods, gangsta life had become a dream of many Afro-American youths.  Hip hop music, which played a significant part in the entire their subculture, used to be a means of expressing the social, economic and political realities of their lives (Aldridge).  However, when gangsta life began to be glamorized, rap and the entire hip hop genre were used to describe it as a quick method of crawling out of poverty.  Many of the rap hits in the nineties, during the height of the gangs strength, contained explicit descriptions on making money from drugs.  These also depict the intra-gang violence, which are often caused by their respective efforts to control drug trade turfs.  Nevertheless, while these were seemingly narrations of gangsta life, these never failed to relate to listeners the plight of the Afro-American communities in the major urban areas in the country.  When these told listeners of the police abuse on racial minorities, these do not just relate it to drug-related arrests but also to the general problems of poverty, lack of social services, and other discriminatory practices.

However, what the music industry promoted further was not the situational factors that led to the rise of the gangs.  Instead, it gave opportunities to rap artists who write and portray the life of the gangsta without mentioning the social conditions that bred it.  As a consequence, it presented a detailed account of why, for black men, the illegal sector so often trumped the legal one. (Coates)   Ice Cubes Alive on Arrival spoke about a seriously wounded gang members unfortunate fate in a hospital.  Already struggling for life after being shot by the police in a drug bust, he was denied immediate medical attention because of his color.  Alive on Arrival might have started with a description of a scene where drugs are pushed by homies but it ended with lines that depict the discrimination suffered by Afro-Americans in hospitals Why oh why cant I get help Cause Im black, I gots to go for self.  For those taking another perspective, such as those who have not gotten over their racist tendencies, they would certainly point out that such fate would have been avoided had the person not been involved in the gangs.  That would certainly be missing the forest for the trees on two counts.  Hospitals are supposed to be the least likely to discriminate patients.  It was precisely the lack of social services and poverty that drive the young Afro-American to a much-glamorized gangsta life.  With media and government sensationalizing on the issue of gang violence and related crimes while hardly mentioning the conditions that breed it, it became convenient for people to view blacks as the source of the problem (this is in the 1965 Moynihan Report, which blames black women for poverty and it is so on the attack on young black men, who are blamed for a breakdown of civic life). (Prashad p.170)

Hip hop and rap music used to be an urban cultural form that belongs to the Afro-American peoples subculture.   What punk music is to the disenfranchised white working class youth, so is rap to the discriminated Afro-Americans.  Rap music is an artistic narrative of their lives and daily struggles in the ghettos of New York and Detroit or in the hoods of Los Angeles and Miami.  However, beginning in the nineties, rap music began to be commercialized by big music labels.  At first, the recordings were made by independent outfits but soon the big recording companies took over and controlled many of rap musics popular artists.  During that time gangsta rap was the only rap.  Because it was selling well, the music industry, by imploring freedom of expression, managed to bring out into the market gangsta rap in its pure form.  This was not because the industry was really serious about liberal democratic ideals nor was it because they believe in the music and its message.  It was merely because it was raking in money.   In a society under the grips of a capitalist system, the desire for profits blurs the line between what is right and wrong.  Americans seemed to adore anything with sex and violence as themes, a fact that transcends races.  The capitalists in the music industry have found in rap music a magic formula for delivering more profits not just from the Afro-Americans but from the entire American society and even from other countries who have been heavily influenced by American culture.  Rap music, which used to belong solely to the Afro-Americans as their distinct cultural form of expression was transformed to become capitalisms own.  It used to be favorite venue for saying aloud their protestations, now its purpose is to bring in the money for the music industry moguls with token rewards for the artists.

Soon, however, gangsta rap received much criticism from conservative sectors.  Politicians found in it the necessary excuse for the alarming crime rate.  Instead of dealing with the problems of poverty and neglect of many people in decaying urban quarters, the dark side of capitalist America, certain politicians and government officials have exaggerated the effects of gangsta rap and, in fact, considered it as a major factor for street violence.  The capitalists in the music industry had to tone down the contents of rap music so that it will maintain its appeal even among the Caucasian youths.  In fact, it had to manufacture a full-blooded Caucasian rapper in the person of Vanilla Ice just to reinvent rap.  True enough, rap departed from its gangsta origins but, even worse, it also became farther from the essential character as a form of protest.  Currently, rap is treading the path of hip hop.  It has become so much part of pop culture.  It now deals with superficial and irrelevant themes such as sex and drug use.  The once heavyweights of gangsta rap, such as Snoop Dog, have become gurus of casual sex.  Nevertheless, this is still reflective of the inequalities that exist in a capitalist society.  In capitalism, despite the lip service about their rights, women are still suffering inequalities in the workplace and raps sexist lyrics are part of a rampant and viciously normalized sexism that dominates in the corporate culture of the music business. (Rose p.16)  While this has degenerated to such themes, it has grown into one of the largest money-making genres in the music industry.  In fact, it has been evolving into another subculture.  It is being used for other commercial activities such as the marketing of sports and clothing lines, colas, and other consumer products.  Many rap artists no longer come from the streets while those who did have been tamed by the dollar.

In 2003, with the introduction of 50 Cent into the music industry, there was an attempt to make rap music return to its gangsta roots.  However, times have changed and the attempt failed because it could no longer fit in the new conditions.  Gangsta revival did not sell as much as it did in the nineties as the number of Afro-Americans who have completed the level of education necessary for employment had risen significantly.  The employment rate for women had risen to 52 percent in year 2000 from just 37 percent in 1989.  (Coates)  Amidst these changing conditions, rap music still has not made the current reality of the Afro-American as its theme.  Although the gangs still exist, its influence has waned so much.  This situation is supposed to inspire a new theme that of the Afro-American wearing a suit and taking on jobs inside a corporate set-up.  With Obama as the president, rap music is supposed to describe the new Afro-American in a society that has finally rid itself of any trace of racism.  It is obvious that rap music cannot evolve towards this direction because rap music no longer represents the real situation of the Afro-American people.  In fact, it is already meant to fill the minds of its listeners with totally untrue stories of the conditions of the majority of the Afro-Americans.

Racism still exists.  It is true that the lynch mobs are gone, the buses are no longer segregated, and any young Afro-American can enroll in a university of his choice.  However, job opportunities are not yet equal and economic conditions are still not satisfactory for Afro-Americans. What they need is a cultural weapon, one that must raise their consciousness unite them again in the continuing struggle for racial and social equality.  Therefore it is necessary for rap music to be freed from the clutches of capitalist owners of the recording industry.  The Afro-Americans can use this again as an artistic form of protest.  This time, they can employ this beyond the purpose of narrating the issues that continue to hound them as a race.  They can use rap music as a tool for changing society into one that no longer see the differences of race and color.

Performance Measures

In highlighting important performance measures for an Immigration services officer, it is essential to look into corresponding duties and responsibilities that determine the scope of the particular profession. Together with this, scenarios wherein the individual can be held accountable and liable must also be pointed out accordingly. Seeing this, the acceptable performance measures include
Competence of related Immigration laws and protocols  one important capacity of an Immigration officer to perform in its optimum involves having a firm background about the corresponding rules and protocols for action. In here, it revolves around the appropriateness in carrying out specific tasks related towards applying these principles towards the line of work. Seeing this, one is made accountable provided that violations occur under the control and jurisdiction of attending immigration officer. Likewise, failure to apply or use these precepts also contributes to the inability of the person to address further hisher tasks.

Sufficient Education and Training  alongside the need for competence in immigration rules and policies, performance measure is also gauged in the technical expertise by Immigration officers particularly in handling administrative tasks and documentation. Due to this, the performance of this employee is determined by their educational background and training that is adherent to the standards set by the state with regards to immigration practices. On the other hand, accountability revolves around having insufficient knowledge and capacity to address key issues in Immigration and failure to provide appropriate services to potential clients.

Truthful and Complete Documentation  another significant performance measure is the ability of the Immigration office to create reports that are complete and truthful. In here, particular protocols and standards are followed to ensure that key issues are addressed and provide reports and information that are thorough and comprehensive. People are made accountable if scenario showcases limited or incomplete information concerning a particular event. Likewise, immigration officers can also be held accountable with the presentation of false or tampered information which is in direct violation of Immigration standards.

Implementing Immigration Programs  the capacity to apply and synthesize information and strategies within the immigration sector is also another indicator of performance for an Immigration officer. In here, they are gauged in their capacity to apply related rules and regulations in accordance to the protocols set by the State and the corresponding approach in handling technical issues related to practice.

With these, Immigration officers are held accountable when they make decisions that bypass the mandated Immigration protocols. Similarly, they are also held liable if they acted beyond their scope and responsibilities without prior approval from their corresponding supervisors or department heads.
Adherence to Proper Conduct and Behavior  this last section seeks to administer the ability of an Immigration officer to handle him or herself accordingly. This is in relation to the prescribed Code of Discipline or rules given towards professionalism and work ethics. These then expands from the compliance of functions and responsibilities to the way communication is made among peers and supervisors.

Accountability stems from the inability of an Immigration officer to function according to the expectations of his work. Similarly, considerable attention is also given towards conflict escalating among peers andor supervisors. In here, proper investigation shall take place wherein conflicting parties will be given the opportunity to voice out their concerns over a particular issue.

Jenners Vaccination Against Smallpox and Darwins The Origin of Species

Edward Jenner and Charles Darwin are two of the well-known scientists to have discovered a scientific theory that is of great use until the present time. Their findings are published in Vaccination against smallpox for Jenners work and Origin of Species for Darwins work. While their topics are relatively different, it is noticed that their arguments and their scientific arguments are tied together.

Edward Jenner on Vaccination
Jenners name is attached to the promotion and research of vaccination with the purpose of preventing diseases, which during the scientists time often turn into an epidemic. From Jenners scientific theory, he concluded that the protection derived from cowpox is not limited only to smallpox but can be transferred to another person in order to enhance the other persons mechanism of protection against the disease. However, it is to be noted that he is not the first to work with vaccination but became significant because of his dedication towards promoting the use of vaccination and in researching for proving that it can prevent diseases.

In order to prove his conclusion that vaccine is an effective tool for the prevention of the spread of diseases, he conducted several studies involving different respondents. During his first study, he solicited the participation of Sarah Nelms, a young dairymaid, and James Phipps, an 8-year-old boy (Jenner). Jenner took fresh cowpox lesions from Nelms and inoculated Phipps using the matter taken from Nelms. The boy experienced fever, loss of appetite, and feeling of coldness but developed immunity from smallpox after being inoculated with a smallpox lesion after the cowpox inoculation. The results of such experiment proving the validity of his conclusions were submitted by Jenner to the Royal Society but were still rejected. He distributed the vaccine to several of his friends and received great commendation for its effectiveness. Thus, the use of experiment has been the primary tool of Jenner for showing that his conclusions are indeed valid and reliable despite the rejections and ridicule he received.

Charles Darwin on the Origin
Charles Darwin, in his book entitled The Origin of Species, argued that the species existing today are not created independently but descended from several different species. According to him, the species did not come about independently but can be traced back to different species that have existed in the past. His argument, in simple terms, posits that what exists today came from a simple organism that has been subjected to evolution as a result of artificial variation, variation in nature, struggle for existence, and natural selection. Based on his arguments, it can be derived that species are not created uniquely according to what they are now and thus, has been the subject of change since the time of their inception. Over time, the factors of adaptation, natural variation, artificial variation, and struggle for existence have led to the existence of a multitude of species.  For example, the elephant as we know it today is not created as a unique specie in the past but is an offspring to a variety of species that belong to a family of ancestors carrying different characteristics than the present-day elephant. Over time, the living conditions, food, and other similar factors have produced the elephant as it is known today. Another classic example to demonstrate the origin of species today is that of man. Human beings are known to have shared the same ancestral lines as chimpanzees but factors of variation, natural selection, and struggle for existence led to the characteristics shared today by the human beings. In terms of variations that led to the changes in the species, Darwin further observed that there is a pattern that is usually followed. First, the variation is produced as a response to the stimulus. Second, there is a selection of variation that the specie would follow based on its suitability to the stimulus. Third, the variation is inherited and passed on to the succeeding generations.

When he was on board the H.M.S. Beagle, he made his most interesting observations that challenged the current status quo of scientific theories proposed by the naturalist scientific paradigm. It went against the general idea that the species have come through as distinct from the time they are first known until their present-day existence. Based on the fossils excavated from the past, the naturalist scientist offered the idea that these species have existed as they really are and no agent of force or nature have allowed them to evolve into other species. In order to prove his theory that the multiple species known today came from a set of species, he compared the fossils and observed the existence of animals and plants in certain geographical conditions.

Moreover, Darwin also supplemented the idea of the naturalists, which is that the external conditions affect the characteristics of the species. As for Darwin, the concentration on external conditions is not enough as there are still the variable of coadaptation among the organic beings and the physical living conditions (Darwin). Darwin would not accept the proposition that it is external environments alone that contributes to the changing living conditions of the organic beings. The consideration of external environments alone undermines the existence of coadaptation among the species that allow them to help one another and maintain their existence in the ecological environment.

Jenner and Darwin Human Beings and the Natural World
The theories of Jenner deal mostly with the separation of human beings from the natural world. He has shown that it is possible for the human beings to be taken away from the natural world through human intervention, which in his case involved vaccines. Despite the success of Jenner in persuading people that vaccine is an effective tool for the prevention of diseases, Darwins theory is able to show that the human beings can not be separated from the natural world.

Based on Darwins theory, the human beings are in constant interaction with the natural world. The external environment of the human beings serves as the factor that allows the species to undergo natural selection. The natural world is in constant interaction and is inseparable to the existence of human beings as it affects their characteristics in order for the species to evolve. In essence of Darwins theory, the events, including the diseases, are considered to be part of the processes involved that leads to the evolution of species into beings that are capable of enduring the conditions presented by the natural world. Aside from this, the diseases are also constantly evolving from a single strain into various types that affect the existence of the human beings.

Both Jenner and Darwin provided important scientific theories that helped in explaining and improving the lives of human beings and other species. Jenners main contribution lied on the formulation of a means of improving the lives of people and aided in minimizing the threats to humanity. On the other hand, Darwin explained the existence of multiple species and the origin of these. The books written by the two scientists have similarities in terms of the scientific inquiry such that both indulged into scientific research. On the other hand, the findings on human beings and the natural world are different and are found to be in opposing poles.

Military-Industrial Complex Domestic Steel and International Political Motivations

Although some scholars have traced the origins of the military-industrial complex merely to the Second World War, the actual causes which gave rise to the formation and the maintenance of the military-industrial complex go back much further.  More specifically, the formation of the military-industrial complex was caused by the American navys relationships with the steel industry in the nineteenth century, by the evolution of military and industrial lobbies, and by the external threats that America faced in an era of increasingly violent competition for colonial possessions and global influence.

While some have argued that the Military-Industrial Complex grew most directly out of the Second World War, broader-minded historians and political scientists generally agree that the origins of the military industrial complex can be traced to naval rearmament projects in the late nineteenth century and international political considerations and pressures (Ross, 1991, p. 10).  As the United States moved further away from its civil war it began to view its national security interests in a more international context.  One of the Navys primary concerns was creating a domestically available supply of strategic materials the reasonable premise was that the American Navy did not want to be dependent on foreign suppliers of strategic materials if hostilities broke out.  Indeed, as one scholar has noted, Although steel armor and improved ordnance signalled the way of the future, no viable sources of supply existed in the United States and the technology and material that initially gave rise to the military industrial complex was steel (Hackemer, 1995, p. 704).  This was because the Navy required steel for the construction of new naval ships to be used in defending American national security interests abroad and ensuring national defense readiness closer to home.  At that time, the majority of Americas naval fleet was designed for shallow water and riverbed operations.  Thus, a deal was struck between the American Navy and the American steel industry.  The American Navy, with congressional approval, promised to steer lucrative contracts to the steel industry if it concentrated on improving technology and production capacity.  The steel industry, sensing impressive profits, accepted and the Military-Industrial Complex was born.  The initial cause underlying the formation of the Military-Industrial Complex, therefore, was the American Navys need to produce better ships using a domestically created supply of the steel, a strategically significant material, rather than a need to sustain employment following World War Two.

The Military-Industrial Complex may never have arisen had the initial contract between the American Navy and the steel industry not proven so beneficial for the military and so profitable for big steel.  A number of lobbyists took advantage of the successful contracts between the American Navy and the steel industry in order to pursue their own particular objectives.  The military began to lobby for more contacts with different types of industry in order to satisfy legitimate military objectives.  Members of industry began to lobby for naval expansion in order to generate more profits.  This became a mutually reinforcing process in which a more comprehensive and interdependent relationship arose between the American military establishment and American industry.  As the Military-Industrial Complex grew in complexity, and as American military activities overseas became increasingly wide-ranging, this phenomenon went largely unchallenged through two world wars.  It was not until 1961 that a military insider, President Dwight D. Eisenhower, warned the American people of the dangers of the military and industrial lobbies more particularly,
In a nationally televised address on January 17, 1961, only four days before John F. Kennedys inaugural, Eisenhower warned of the dangers of undue influence exerted by the military-industrial complex. He cautioned that maintaining a large, permanent military establishment was new in the American experience, and suggested that an engaged citizenry offered the only effective defense against the misplaced power of the military-industrial lobby.  HYPERLINK httpwww.questia.comPM.qstaod98942975(Hartung, 2001, p.  39)

In short, the second cause underlying the formation and the maintenance of the Military-Industrial Complex was the rise of lobbies advocating the expansion of contracts between the American military and private industry.

Finally, the American Military-Industrial Complex was also caused by an extraordinarily competitive external environment in which nations fought for and fought to defend colonies and regions with national security implications.  America confronted a number of these external threats.  They fought, for example, with the Spanish over colonial possessions in Cuba and as far away as in the Philippines.  America fought in a world war.  These external conflicts created a need to improve and to expand American military might.  These needs to improve and to expand, in turn, required a dependence on the ingenuity and the productive capacity of private industry.  Had these external threats not existed, the need for intensive and pervasive relationships between the American military and private industry would have been far less necessary.  One pair of scholars has noted, for instance, that the central premise is that a state of continual military preparedness must be maintained to achieve an international balance of power necessary to preserve peace HYPERLINK httpwww.questia.comPM.qstaod95136592(Isaac and Leicht, 1997,  p. 29).  In sum, the external threats facing America led to policies which advocated a state of continuous military preparedness in turn, this continuous state of military preparedness was supported and propped up by the rise of the Military-Industrial Complex.  The final cause of the creation of the Military-Industrial Complex, therefore, was the global political environment of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in which America was confronted with a number of external threats.

In the final analysis, the Military-Industrial Complex arose as a result of certain causes which occurred in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.  These causes included the American navys desire to build better ships using a domestic source of steel, the rise of increasingly influential military and industrial  lobbies, and the existence of external threats that encouraged America to pursue a state of rather continual military preparedness.  The truest causes, therefore, are deeply embedded in American history rather than an outgrowth of the Second World War.

Definitions of Law

There are numerous definitions of law.  Austin Ranney (1995) defines law as the body of rules emanating from the government and enforceable by the courts (332). On the other hand, according to laws are the rules established by a governing authority to institute and maintain orderly coexistence.  (Law, p.1) defines laws as the rules of conduct or procedure established by custom, agreement, or authority. (Law, 2010, p.1)

The Legal Services Commission of South Australia defines laws as the products of the social conditions at the time they are made. The law is not static. Just as relationships between people or between people and the Government are not fixed permanently, so the law changes by responding to the current social and political values of the dominant culture. As societies become more complex so too does the law. It governs our private relationships through contract,  HYPERLINK l id4106109 o A civil (q.v.) wrong, an act which causes harm, intentionally or otherwise, for which the remedy is an action for unliquidated (q.v.) damages. tort, property, succession, trust and family law as well as our public relationships with the State through criminal, constitutional and administrative law. (What is a Law p.1)

Sanchez Roman defines laws as the science of moral laws based on the rational nature of man which governs his free activity for the realization of individual and social ends, and which by its very nature is demandable and reciprocal.

Andrei Marmor (2007) defines laws as normative social practices that purports to guide human behavior and gives rise to reasons for action.

These definitions however are quite complex.  In order to simplify the definition of law and to make it more understandable, laws can be defined as the rules of conduct which are just and obligatory that are promulgated by legitimate authority for the common observance and benefit.
This definition is comprehensive enough to encompass the previous definitions but it has more clarity.  A law is a rule of conduct because it governs human behavior.  It regulates the behavior by defining what acts are legal and what acts are illegal.  It also states when an act or omission is illegal. Thus, if a law says that a particular action should not be done the act should not be done otherwise a corresponding punishment shall be imposed.  In the same manner, if the law says that a particular action should be done then the act should be done otherwise a corresponding punishment shall be imposed.

Laws must be just.  If law were to regulate human behavior it should be just.  A just law is one which is for the common benefit and applies to everyone regardless of a persons class, social status, rank, nationality, race, or religion. A just law is passed for the benefit of the public not the authority who passed the law.

Laws are obligatory because it is everybodys duty to obey the law.  No person is exempted from the observance of a law.  In fact, it is not a defense that a person does not know the existence of a particular law to be excused from compliance as stated in the Latin legal maxim which is Ignorantia legis non excusat. Thus, a person cannot allege that he does not know that there is a law against driving under the influence of alcohol to be excused from compliance with the law.

Laws are promulgated by a legitimate authority because all laws are passed by the lawmaking bodies of a country.  In the United States, the House of Representatives enact, amend, and repeal laws.  Under the constitution, it is empowered to enact laws that shall be obligatory upon everybody.  This authority is constitutionally conferred upon the House of Representatives.

Laws are promulgated for the common observance and benefit because they are passed for the benefit of everybody.  Laws seek the promotion of general welfare so that everybody will benefit from it.

Organization Behavior and Managerialism

The purpose of this presentation is to provide information on how current issues are affecting the policy area of an organization, behavior and managerialism. This inquiry is therefore intended as reference for future government and public administration.
This study therefore will be an inquiry on the current issues affecting policy area of an organization, behavior, and managerialism using appropriate literature. This will be more or less a twenty minutes presentation of information on the issue.

This study is expected to provide benefits to government and public administration through the information that will be presented in this report.

The term organization is very common and we often hear people from different social classes speaking of this term which seemed to suggest that everyone has knowledge what this term mean.  But this may not really be the case as there are various components that are needed to include or satisfy in defining organization. Defining what an organization is can help determine issues affecting policy area of an organization. The author defines organization as a social structure meaning those activities, relationships, and interactions that take on a regular pattern. Managerilaism on the other hand is defined as a set of beliefs and practices, management will prove an effective solvent for a wide range of economic and social ills.  This definition is based on five beliefs that, (a.) Social welfare can be maximized by continued economic, (b.) Economic growth can be sustained through productivity increases using technological innovation and information technologies (c.) technologies require a workforce devoted to increasing productivity (d.) Management is an important and distinct function, and (d.) Good management is creative and dynamic. Given the context above, there are surely issues that are affecting the policy area of an organization that may have an impact of the future of government and public administration.

In Chapter 1 of the reading, the author cited W. Richard Scotts (1987) assertion that the elements of an organization include social structure, participants, goals, technology, and environment. The author pointed out that social structure refer to those activities, relationships, and interactions that take on regular pattern (p. 2). Given this context, any issue that arises will surely have an impact on the policy area of an organization because the organization is the people bound to interact with each other through activities. Thus, issues such job description and organization chart will certainly affect the policy area and will have an impact on future government and public administration either positively or negatively. Positively perhaps when the job description matches with those who filled them, but negatively when there is a mismatch.

One that could surely have an impact on the policy area of an organization and managerialism is the participants or the people in the organization. This is logical because organization simply depend on human labor power. Without the right people, organization cannot meet its goal.

On managerialism, the author once more cited Scott which devices scheme based on three major perspectives. These were the rational system perspective, which is oriented in the pursuit of specified goals. The natural system and open systems perspective, participants have common interests in the survival of the system. The author asserted that through this perspective, organizations are collectivities oriented to the pursuit of specified goals (p. 4).

There are certainly many issues confronting policy area of an organization that will have an impact on government and public administration, because an organization is social structures which aim to fulfill its goals. In line with fulfilling its mission and goals, managerialism is a management system that will ensure improvement and productivity.

Collaboration and Its Increasingly Important Role in Business Today

Many organisations are demonstrating a lot of collaborative initiatives. This need arises because not all organisations have their workforces in centralized areas, neither are they capable of accessing all their needs from within their organisations. Due to the need of sharing information horizontally and vertically, many organisations recognize then need for information and task collaboration so that the end users can develop themselves while propelling the organisations productivity and returns. Thus, any organisation not embracing collaboration risks push out of their market by other competitors.  One way which most organisations perpetuate collaboration is via innovation, which goes hand in hand with partnering. This paper will dwell on the role that collaboration plays in the businesses today. This paper outlines that intelligent organisations such as Cisco Systems Inc. acquire and share knowledge about their business environment so that they can come up with products and services that are likeable by the customers. This paper concluded that such collaboration must be technology grounded in order to be successful in the globalization process.


Chapter 1 Introduction

1.1 Overview  Description of the problem
This research aims to provide information that proves that collaboration plays a significant role in business today. According to Chris Huxman and Sir Evy Vangen (2005, p. 4), collaboration is the process of attaining a specific end by working across organisational boundaries. It involves the collaborative relationships that organisations have apart from this, this notion of collaboration is not related to conflictual or competitive relationships that are directed to the fall of a common enemy. It is a positive relationship between organisations, such as joint ventures, alliances, partnerships and so on.

However, despite all the positive aspects of collaboration, why is it that there are some companies who hit a blank wall whenever they collaborate with other companies The answer lies in the fact that some companies are not fit to do collaboration (Hansen 2009, p. 11).

According to Michael Porter (1998, p.21), people view their competition pessimistically, and sometimes, there are companies that try to collaborate with their rival companies in the hopes that their collaboration would produce great results and ultimately lessen the competition. However, doing such ambitious plans need a lot of plans and may eventually backfire. If a company wishes to collaborate with another company, it must consider every aspect of the other company and try to see whether the collaboration would indeed be beneficial (Hansen 2009,pp. 11-12).

Some organisations also underestimate the costs of the collaboration process. Some collaboration, which require sharing customers can cause a lot of problems, for most individuals, tend to distrust the other side, resulting in competition instead of collaboration. There are times when managers are not able to foresee such problems and made financial projections that were faulty. Working with other organisations requires projecting finances that will be able to address potential problems in case they occur the manager must always anticipate potential problems and this includes having the finances to troubleshoot these problems (Hansen 2009, p 13).

Another problem that collaboration may pose is that it primarily involves a lot of meetings between the collaborating companies. Nobody likes meetings for a lot of people are cynical regarding the capacity of a lot of people to reach a consensus, given that they have different opinions. People may interrupt or talk over each other during these collaborations and there are those who may manipulate and dominate the discussion. However, this problem is not an inherent problem of collaboration itself, but of the people involved in the collaboration. Most people do not understand how collaboration works and it has to be learned. People have to work together in order to make the process of collaboration effective for their organisations (Straus 2002, p. 3).

1.2 Research Question

How is technology changing the way international businesses collaborate

1.3 Further research aims
What are the advantages and disadvantages of collaboration for the collaborating organisations and how can collaborating organisations ensure that these advantages will be achieved and that these disadvantages will be avoided

How does collaboration with another organisation affect the performance of the organisations and its employees

What are the conclusions and recommendations to international businesses about re-engineering their collaboration processes

1.4 Study Objectives
1. To establish how collaboration spurs business performance when embedded with technology, systems and cultures.

2. To recommend to organisations ways in which they can implement collaborations in order to achieve desirable return on investments and returns on collaboration.

1.5 Significance of the study

The significance of this study is to demonstrate how business collaboration positively impacts on the common organisational resources such as time management, talent development and new idea and product development. Thus, the outcome of this study will be useful in motivating various business leaders and managers to spare resources and investment for the sake of collaboration. Once such strategies are in place, it is predicted most large-scale businesses will realize about 4 million worth of return from a 1 million worth of investment on collaboration. Most significant, this study is keen on guiding organisations to ground their collaboration on culture. In fact, this study predicts that the return on investment could yield up to 7 times more returns when the collaboration is culture led as compared to 4 times more returns when the collaboration is command and control led.

Chapter 2 Literature Review
2.1 Collaboration as a business culture with probable returns
According to King (2003), collaboration is very important to the upcoming businesses because the internal departments may be experiencing insufficient capacity to execute roles such as engineering, technical development, communication. Thus, the best outcomes from business collaboration are likely to be realized when the core business goals and the specialization skills are identified independently (IBM 2008). Further observation by King (2003) states that collaboration enables key organisational staff to concentrate on what they do best whether they are in administration, product development or sales. King (2003) also notes that most organisations will be successful because their show social traits since the inputs required differing interdependencies. In this way, collaboration encourages business support and sharing of secured collective knowledge (IBM 2008).

King (2003) credited the culture of collaborations as coming from initiatives such as Wikis, Blogs and WELL, which enables people to share information from a virtual perspective. To that effect, it is common to see all disciplines professional employees narrowing the information gaps across the globe (Brannback, 2003). Further collaborations is evident when companies rate and protect each other against the trust issues especially is the ventures like eBay, and others. Using appropriate software and systems development, these organisations are capable of collaborating individuals, teams, companies and locations (Ferris 2010). The Java is one such format of collaboration.

Research by Austin (2001) concluded that there are three major classifications of business collaboration. These are the transactional, integrative and philanthropic collaborations, as shown in appendix I.  the more effective collaborations are characterized by clear purpose, mission congruency, high and mutually balanced value creation, effective communication, and deep reciprocal commitment. Austin (2001).

The philanthropic collaboration is one of the most popular strategies whereby organisations donate to the society or support their workforces. The philanthropic collaborations play the important role of giving the organisations a positive image such as caring, sharing and corporate social responsibility (Austin 2001). The Transactional collaboration is by exchange of values that are not available within and individual organisations. Such values may include roles in marketing, sponsorship and strategy sharing, even though the most widely known form of transactional collaboration involves the financial exchange (Austin 2001). Finally, the integrative collaboration involves the coalition of smaller business entities as long as they share mission and visions. This is characteristic of mergers and acquisitions. The integrative collaborations play the role of availing core competencies to the partners in joint ventures, formation of common markets and the creation of product values and standards (Austin 2001). It is important to note that all the above-mentioned collaboration by Austin (2001, could take shape either in isolation or in overlap modes across many organisations.

 Rosen (2009a) was cited in asserting that any organisation that does not embrace collaboration will eventually face internal competition, which in the long run has undesired cost. This is true because when workforces and teams start competing internally, they may end up conflicting and the business values will diminish with time. However, if such business entities are for collaboration, the various departments will exist in harmony and issues like customer dissatisfaction will reduce. Rosen (2009a), favour collaboration rather than competition because the conflicts evident by blame games will not be manifested to the customers and on the returns on investment. Therefore, the creature and perpetuation of the workforce stars if not desirable because it antagonizes workforces as opposed to when the culture of collaboration is encouraged.

Studies show that establishing the collaboration culture is proving to be the most difficult venture in most organisations. According to the Cisco Systems Inc. CEO, culture causes most organisations leaders a headache, and Rosen (2009b), agrees with the following observation, without a culture of collaboration, the best processes, systems, tools and leadership strategies fall flat.

No wonder many organisation do strategies fail at the culture level of collaboration and reverse the strategy all together. Organisations like Cisco have been successful in the introduction of more than 60 collaboration products without much hitch in the systems. Cisco is very aggressive in the introduction of video cam coders as a way of expanding their market telepresence across the globe. According to Rosen (2009), such technology as videoconferencing has come along way in supporting business collaborations since past attempts to introduce it in the market met stiff opposition on the privacy breach grounds. However, this problem resolved by the sense of conference schedules.

A study by Frost and Sullivan aimed at measuring Return on Collaboration (ROC) (Rosen 2009). Whereas the previous performance indicators such as Return on Investment (ROI) was keen in quantifying investment gained or cost, the ROC on the other hand relayed the improvements yielded after departments or organisation collaborated in business. Hence, the RD, sales, and marketing ranked higher than most departments in the sampled organisations (Rosen 2009).

An earlier study to establish the best way forward for business collaboration revealed that most organisations that collaborate in business gain more than double as compared to those that do not. Second, this study sought to establish how many organisations uses latest technologies such as Voice-Over-Internet Protocol and video conferencing and Cisco telepresence among others to collaborate and get tasks accomplished. Third, this study was successful in establishing a Return on Collaboration index to be used as a benchmark for future research and identify the areas of improvement. Thus, most organisations scored 4.2 on this scale, which has implications that they received above for time or returns whenever they collaborated.  This study also established that most organisations favour unified communications collaborations systems as compared to those in similar business segments that did not have such collaboration systems on a scale of 74 in terms of returns on collaboration. This study also established that 4 in every 1 organisation have advanced plans of implementing the communications collaborations systems at most by the third year from the date of the study (Verizon 2009).

The Frost and Sullivan Study (Verizon 2009) established that VoIP was the most popular mode of communication collaboration that helps many professionals to steer away from stress. However, the study noted instances where the employees were not friendly with technology due to concerns about confidentiality. The study was upbeat about the growing preference for telecommuting since the environment was conducive in many cases. Overall, the study concluded that collaboration was more effective in the regional settings wherever there was deployment with varied responses from the basic, intermediate and advanced collaborators (Verizon 2009).

2.2 Cisco Systems Inc Case Study on Business Collaboration
2.2.1 Ciscos Collaboration and Communication

According to Cisco Systems Inc. (2008), modern communication and collaboration is the key to workforce satisfaction and nature of inherent talents. Hence, if the communications is well entrenched with technology, the business prospers with few gaps and motivation flexibilities to accomplish tasks. Such collaboration also guarantees the businesses stable operational environment where their short and long-term strategies execution, productivity multiplication and innovations harnessed.

Research shows that most business entities are leaning towards communication technology to track development trends and search for new markets (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008). Cisco, as a case study engages communication technology to achieve various objectives. First, Cisco is keen in embracing globalization concepts that will enable their business to expand beyond the borders with the value chain processes like outsourcing, data warehousing, marketing, human resource management and supplies taking a leading role. This initiative enables Cisco to match and exceed the current market expectations.

Second, Cisco is aware of the advantages that communication up scaling can offer to their business due to the inherent collaboration. This awareness stems from the possibilities and realities that the Cisco market segment experiences in terms of constant changes. Therefore, in order to stay ahead of the competition, Cisco seeks to be a market communication innovator. Cisco accomplishes this goal by alignment with the real time technologies to shrink the geographical distances and enable efficient decision-making processes (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008).

Third, Cisco is keen on empowering and collaboration their workforce to make them competent, reliable and adaptable to emerging work technologies (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008). This step has the goals of making the workforce move efficient to the delivery of customer expectations and skilled in the operations of common applications such as Web 2.0 with minimum breach of security details and ability to support the stakeholders in the systems.

Fourth, Cisco would like to achieve optimum business results without much modification on their existing systems (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008). Hence, Cisco is exploiting the advantages of collaboration using IT to leverage their technology strengths to the market. This process ensures that the Cisco systems are serviceable on a 24-hour basis from any locations in the world. Thus, the employees are encouraged to used common communication platform such as social networks to enhance collaboration for the need of connectivity.

Fifth, Cisco is concerned that historical communication tactics such as e-mails are experiencing much difficulties such as merging, archiving and bulkiness (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008). Hence, Cisco would like to champion innovations that will make such communication and collaboration efficient and effective. Therefore, Cisco trains the workforce in flexible applications such as blogs, video conferencing and technical presentations as a step towards compliance with business cost and time optimization goals. Instant messaging is one such initiative. Cisco believes that a mobile workforce is just as good as the business application contents in use because this feature makes everyone comfortable from within and outside the organisation.

2.2.2 Ciscos Emerging Collaboration Technologies
Cisco is a market technology leader in communications and collaborations. The company uses communication technology to spur productivity, inspire innovations and expand business scope. Thus, Cisco utilizes Information Technology to meet their business goals while collaborating with all the stakeholders. Such collaborations impact a lasting experience to the Cisco workforce since they are capable of optimum resource utilization, within the shortest time frame (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008).

Ciscos communication and collaboration strategy offers better outcomes because the workforces have access to relevant parts of the system and tasks. Previous approaches such as power point and bulk mails are considered time consuming and inefficient (Cisco Systems Inc. 2009). Emerging collaboration technologies at Cisco target internal and external areas. This strategy links the Cisco suppliers, customers and the workforce as well as set pace for the continuous improvement process (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008).

2.2.3 Ciscos Collaboration in business and inherent problems
While collaborating with other stakeholders, Cisco prefers to adopt a generic implementation of  new technology that tests the features as the systems is under trial so that the adjustments can be appropriately recommended and effected. This strategy also enables the workforce to upgrade the collaboration network within the shortest time possible (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008).

The Cisco collaboration process attempts to offer most solutions from a robust architectural platform. However, this process has range of problems (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008).The first problem is how the communication strategy will enable the workforce complete their tasks effectively. The second problem is how Cisco will be able to recruit and retain the best workforce capable of adapting to the systems. The third problem that Cisco attempts to address is how the collaboration systems will succeed in integrating the pilot and virtual groups of the organisation. The fourth problem is the bigger quest to collaborate with the rest of the world since Cisco would like their system to be as compatible with the other machines and technology from any location all the time.

A solution to all the above problems facing Cisco collaboration for business excellence will enable the company to achieve the desired goals. This process also highlights the companies tools that are available as well as the logistical strengths and weaknesses of the company. The system enables the top management to identify any immediate and future needs without duplication of the operational areas (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008).

2.2.4 Ciscos Collaboration for innovation and competitive advantage
Cisco boasts of an internal innovation architecture that shapes the business strategy and solution development. One such innovation is the widely used Wikis which enables people from inside the Cisco organisation and from outside to store their information and data in a collaborative manner. The Wikis platform has a competitive advantage over other systems because it enables frequent editing of the documents therein (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008). Cisco has a range of collaborative technologies such as Web 2.0, business applications, contents and other services. These technologies have the capability of linking the Cisco workplaces, data archiving, search engines and overlap between the customer contents. The Cisco platforms also enable innovative customers to upload documents via RSS feeds, video conferencing, Wikis, Cisco Blogs, instant messaging and social networking and meetings.

The Cisco system is an innovative platform for collaboration that is capable of multitasking various business processes. Apart from offering a robust security platform, the Cisco system is a network on its own, which is easy to use with the integration of various software (Cisco Systems Inc. 2008). All users have secured system access that keep of intruders and malicious hackers. Using the innovative Cisco Unified Communication, the workforces are able to share solutions and instance messages. The Cisco Directory 3.0 has proved a success in the social networking arena with the workforce being able to locate each other or their peers in the wider organisational structures (Weinwright, 2007).    

Past research by Bunker  Zick (1999), revealed that collaboration was important in business institutions to enable stakeholders communicate, carry out situational research share relevant information with the public. Hence, the establishment of public libraries aides the learning institutions in running their businesses, whereby, there is room for analysis and feedback for continuous improvement. Such libraries acts as a bank for authenticated information where generations can archive and download data based on their areas of interest. The libraries further utilize multimedia technology to enhance collaboration across a wide base of user applications.

Chapter 3 Methodology
This study will adopt both design and development theories in to examine the impact of collaboration on the current business landscape (Saunders, et al, 2007). The study will follow a sequence of philosophy, approach, strategy, choice, data collection, horizon, and data reliability and validation. This conceptual framework of the study will investigate how collaboration spurs business performance, when intertwined with culture, business systems, and advanced technologies.

Research philosophy

The fact that this study falls in under business performance and marketing, calls for various ways of data collection and analysis. There is need for adequate knowledge of the problem, which starts affecting organisations right from the inception day. The divergence and convergence of the results interpretations, explains the approach applied in the study (Saunders, et al, 2007). This studys ontology covers the nature of collaboration in the business arena today, while the epistemology concerns the extent to which organisation embrace collaboration in the business field today. The epistemology of the study will further dwell on the impact of integrating collaboration with the culture, business models, and technology. The study also considered the positivism, realism, and humanistic approaches in the study about collaboration in the business today.

The theoretical framework of this study will have deep insight in the related literature to establish the effects of collaboration to business arena today. The study will explore the related literature on how collaboration achieves Return on Investment (ROI) and Return on Collaboration (ROC). Based on the existing theories in the literature, the study will aim at crosschecking such theories with the occurrences in the real world to ensure validity of the data concerning collaboration. The study will specifically investigate the best implementation ways of collaboration in the organisation that realize tangible ROI and ROC.

Research strategy
The study will adopt the data collection, analysis and testing strategy (Noor 2008). The data concerning collaboration in businesses today will be collected from both secondary and primary sources, and then analysed to come up with distinctive results concerning the extent of collaboration in the business today. The study chose Cisco as the case study hence most of the data will be collected and analysed from Cisco Corporation on how collaboration has assisted the company to achieve the competitive advantage in the dynamic business.

Research design
This study will adopt two major research dimensions, which include the empirical and design cycles. The study objectives, aims, data collection, and analysis, among other aspects conform to empirical cycle. However the study limitations and delimitations, among other aspects fall under design cycle (Saunders, et al, 2007). This study will therefore conform to the elaborate procedure to examine collaboration in business today as shown in the outline below

Figure 1 Theory application and development structure

Source Saunders et al. 2007.
There are always higher chances of encountering new variables in the process of research theories exploration (Glaser  Strauss, 1967). Different variables arising from the empirical literature during the development of the questionnaire will assist in evaluating collaboration in the business landscape today. The main objective of the study is how collaboration spur business performance when interwoven with technologies, culture and business models. Therefore, this approach should evaluate the performance of various organisations, but Cisco will be the case study for this research.

Figure 2  Study design
Source Saunders et al. 2007.
This study will use research questions in the empirical cycle, where there will be exploration of both literature and empirical research on the significant roles collaboration play in the business world today. Crotty (1998) believes that much data about the research problem dwells in the empirical cycle. The study will then proceed to the design cycle, which entails much explanation of the data collected from both primary and secondary methods. This is the phase where methodology of the study comes in handy assist in interpretation and in-depth explanation of the collected data (Saunders, et al, 2007).

The testing phase plays integral roles in research due to the capability of methodology validation (Knox, 2004). There will be interrelation between design and empirical cycle during then process of methodology validation in the testing phase. This phase will test whether collaboration impacts positively in the organisation when embedded with advanced technologies, culture, and business models. The last part of the study will be to draw conclusions and recommendations for the study about collaboration in the business domain. The conclusion part will cover brief summary of the study about the role of collaboration in the business today. On the other hand, recommendations will entail the best implementation ways of collaboration, which organisation will apply to achieve better ROI and ROC.

The Research onion
The research onion offers the best study approach because of the elaborate states covered (Ticehurst,  Veal, 2000). (Saunders, et al, 2007) were the brain child of research onion, which covers time frame, research choices, research strategies, Research approaches, and finally research philosophies. This research onion will explore the research requirement, hence coming up with coherent results about the significance of collaboration in the business today.

Figure 3 The research onion
INCLUDEPICTURE httpwww.thesisexpress.comimagesfig3.jpg  MERGEFORMATINET

Research approach

The study will follow both deductive and inductive approach (Saunders et al. 2007). The study will examine the significance of collaboration in business today through the application of inductive approach. Both the inductive and deductive approach is very significant in this study because of the ability to achieve the required results of collaboration in the organisations today. The study will again apply the triangulation approach to deduce the questionnaire, case study and the literature review (Breitmayer  Knafl, 1991).

Exploration phase

The study will review literature on collaboration of businesses today. At this stage the researcher will be able to breakdown the sophisticated issues concerning collaboration of businesses today. Many businesses that succeed in the competitive market collaborate and incorporate advanced technology in their routine operations. The researcher will be able to access previous studies about collaborations and their significances when embedded with divergent cultures and advanced technology. The researcher will collect data from Cisco Corporation on how collaboration assisted the company to achieve the competitive advantage in the challenging business landscape.

Testing phase
The testing stage will try to validate whether the triangulation approach is effective in evaluating the collaboration in businesses today. This testing stage will form coherent theories that interested companies may adopt to improve their collaboration based on culture and technology to uplift their performances. The action study will involve the collection of data from Cisco Corporation on the significance of collaboration in their business operations today. The study chose Cisco Corporation to get tangible experiment on how collaboration assisted the company to increases their capital base, and subsequent increase in competitive advantage. The survey approach offer evidence on how collaboration uplifts organisations competitive advantage in the challenging business world. The Study identified Cisco Corporation to act as the case study, thus realizing true impact of collaboration in businesses today.

Research choice
The study will adopt the approach that involve reviewing the related literature, case study of Cisco Corporations, and the interpretation through triangulation to ensure that the study is accurate, valid, and reliable. The study will review literature on collaboration at Cisco Corporation and evaluate the significance of such in the current business situation. The study presumes that collaboration improves the performances of various business units therefore the case of Cisco will validate such hypothesis.    

Research horizon
The study will base on both horizontal and cross-sectional horizons. The cross-sectional horizon is the best because much of the information about Cisco is available from the secondary sources. The horizontal horizon will not be appropriate because some companies will not divulge their information about collaboration, which causes ambiguity in the study. The study will take approximately three months, which encompasses data collection, analysis and compilation of the collaboration issues in organisations today.

Reliability and validity of data
Saunders, et al, (2007) believes that research approaches, which include reviewing of related literature and case studies have some weaknesses in realizing effective results. This implies that the study should incorporate multiple approaches to minimize the possible errors that might surface. The data will very reliable because Cisco Corporation has adequate records of their business performances, which will be very significant for the study.

Research reliability

The study will get reliable data from Cisco Corporation. The study will collect data from both secondary and primary sources about collaborations in the business today. Such data will come from books, journals, magazines, internet sources, and questionnaires. The study will review the literature about Cisco Corporation to realize reliable information about collaboration in then business today.

Construct validity
The case study of Cisco Corporation will enable the study to gain construct validity through the review of related literature. The adoption the triangulation approach will result into appropriate result in this study. The study will acquire primary data from questionnaire administered to top management of Cisco Corporation on the significance of collaboration in their business operations today.

Internal validity
The study will gain internal validity from both the secondary and primary sources, because Cisco Corporation has adequate information on their business operations. Cisco Corporation frequently updates their business operations, hence evidencing the validity of the research. The study adopts positivism approach, hence believing that collaboration improves the operations and marginal returns of different organisations.

External validity
The results of this study will need some external validity. This is because of the extent of collaboration in the businesses today. The external validity will automatically result from this study because collaboration basically improves organisations performance. Taking Cisco as the case study, the external validity will be more elaborate because of the availability of appropriate information about the significance of collaboration.

The collection and analysis of data
The study will adopt variety of data collection methods. Even though the study embraces much of the qualitative approach of data collection, the quantitative approach is equally significant in this study. The data will originate from both primary and secondary sources. The primary sources will be questionnaires administered to top management of Cisco Corporation on collaboration issues, while the secondary sources will be related literature from books, magazines, newspapers, journals, and internet sources. The data collected will basically concern the impact of collaboration on business today.

Figure 4 The structure of questionnaire development
Source (Saunders, et al, 2007).
This study will adopt the statistical analysis of collected data about collaborations on businesses today. The study will analysed the collected data in various perspectives, which include multiple variation and mono variation, to ensure the realization of adequate objectives about collaborations. This validates the implication that data on collaboration in businesses today are put on various assessments, which include multiple or single mechanisms to ensure that data is appropriate.

Figure 5 The structure of data collection
Source (Saunders, et al, 2007).
Ethical issues of the study

The basic ethics of the study will be to develop strong trust between the respondents and the researcher to ensure the release of appropriate data concerning collaboration in businesses today. Being true to the respondents will enable the collection of appropriate data because of clear explanation of the study intention. Personal biasness will not appear during the study to ensure equality among the respondents. The researchers obligation is to observe the researchs progression during data collection without unnecessary interventions that may alter the required data on collaboration.

For the study to be effective, resources are needed, such as foolscaps, funds, and pens. These resources will be combined to ensure adequate collection of data concerning the significance of collaboration in todays business operations. The foolscaps and pens will be for recording data while funds will assist in logistical issues of the research. These resources will ensure appropriate collection, compilation, and analysis of data concerning collaboration in businesses today.

The required personnel involve additional individuals who will assist in data collection, compilation and analysis. For the effective collection of data about collaborations in businesses today, the researcher is responsible for contracting skilled personnel to assist in data collection, compilation, and analysis.

Seeking clearance is of greatest significance in any research. The clearance comes from the supervisor when the study is for educational purposes. Clearance can as well come from the concerned body, which does not necessarily mean an institution. This study got clearance from the supervisor, who confirmed the significance of the research. Clearance seeks to control the studys validity and significance.