Political Participation

Hope for the future vs.
A desperate clinging to the past.

Differences between the 2004 and 2008 United States elections are myriad to say the least. Some of the more apparent examples being non-incumbent candidates during war time, stark age differences between the leading candidates and the apparent in-fighting of the democratic caucus. However, there are two key differences or events that seem to define the political cultural changes between the two elections. In the following, both the seeming total economic meltdown of the US just prior to the election and the nomination of the first racially hyphenated candidate will be discussed. These two differences bring out the fundamental differences between the 2004 and the 2008 elections.

The sub-prime mess and subsequent stock market run just prior to the election dramatically changed the atmosphere of the respective campaigns. Whereas during the 2004 elections, the economy was relatively stable, the very real picture facing both candidates and Americans alike, was a great depression style melt-down. Unlike the great depression which had been overseen by Herbert Hoover, then 7 months into his term, this economic downturn found an out going president and two would be candidates facing the biggest economic crises in the century. Again, contrasting this too the 2004 elections, outside of a war, that was at best nebulous, most Americans were not yet fearing for their jobs or lively hoods. It is within this fact alone that the 2004 and 2008 and related political cultural were drastically affected and changed.

Probably the most obvious factor in the change of political culture between the 2004 and 2008 elections was who was running. The fact that during the 2004 elections the American people were presented by the classic two white males paradigm and subsequently, were faced with a new more inclusive paradigm in 2008 shifted the atmosphere and in some respects the debate itself. Furthermore, the fact that Obama is a hyphened American most certainly led to McCains rather odd choice of Sara Palin, an unvetted Alaskan governor, as a  vice presidential running mate.

From all white to a plurality of ethnicity, from economic stability to near total collapse of the finical sector these key components mark motivating forces in the change of political culture between the elections of 2004 and 2008. Had these factors not been present, the differences between the 2004 and 2008 elections might have been in players only if even that. In contrast, it will be telling to see, what the 2012 elections hold.

Part II Political  Leaning.
Although I came up with a result that I liked the test itself is flawed in many respects. The fact that my near communist leanings coupled with Gandhi like political leanings speaks volumes. Personally, I have no issues with using force, when force is needed however, in our current political climate, force is often used as the first means of dealing with issues rather than the finial means. As for the economic side, perhaps the reason I have communistic leanings lies in the fact that the free markets has been so warped by large corporations, that the only power left to equalize the playing field is the state.  Over all, the test is fun, and should be seen as an entertainment type test and not that of actual data gathering. In conclusion, many of the test questions, were biased, and presented all or nothing type questions. It is in this way that the test itself was biased towards a way of thinking that is both harmful and dangerous when dealing in politics. The fact that former president Bush, dared speak the line You are either with us, or with the terrorists is an apt example of the dangers in thinking and acting in such a manner.  

Democratic form of government and different kinds of government

According to Merriam-Websters Dictionary of Law (1996), a democratic form of government is the one through which the political leaders are elected by the citizens in multiparty multi candidate free electoral procedures. The leading and the opposing parties have equal legal chances of participating in and attaining power. This is the form of government where leadership is reliant on the voice of the people either directly from them or through their representatives. The responsibility of acting on behalf for the common interest of the people is vested on these representatives. These representatives however do not act as an alternative representative of the people.  The United States and Canada are some of the best examples of democratic governments. In democratic form of government, the winning candidate in the election must garner more votes than all the other contesters in the race. There exist different kinds of democracy.

Representative Democracy
This is a type of democracy whereby the responsibility of representing the people is vested on a few elected individuals. There are two types of representative democracy. That is presidential and parliamentary democracy (Wissen, n.d).

Presidential democracy
Wissen, (n.d), states that presidential democracy is the kind of democracy portrayed in the United States. In this kind of democracy, there is a clear distinction between the parliament and the president. The executive president is voted into power separately form the parliamentary elections. Democracy Building (2004), states that the president is the head of state and also the leader of government. In this kind of democracy, the president cannot dissolve the parliament and also the parliament cannot vote out the president. The president nominates the ministers and stays in office for a specified period of time. In presidential democracy, it is not a must that government members are members of parliament.

Parliamentary democracy
According to Democracy Building, (2004), this is the type of democracy portrayed in countries such as the UK and Germany. In this form of democracy, the head of state is an elected person. The government is elected by the parliament and is based on the majority. The parliament is elected for a specified period of time but may be dissolved in cases where a clear majority cannot be established.  It is a requirement that the members of the government in parliamentary democracy be elected members of parliament. The political parties have got a very strong position as opposed to the position of the people. The parliament debates all the laws and passes them.

Liberal democracy or constitutional democracy
This is the form of democracy whereby the decision making power of the elected representatives is dependent on the rule of law. The ability to make these decisions is also restrained by the constitution. The constitution puts more emphasis on individuals rights and freedom protection (Democracy Building, 2004).

Direct Democracy
In this mode of democracy, members of government posses equal rights and are elected by the parliament. This is done in such a way as to represent a majority of all parties. The parliament is elected for a specified period of time and is not subject to dissolution. It is not a requirement for members of the government to be members of parliament. The people pose a very strong say in the government decision making hence produces very effective checks and balances. The intense public debates held during law making process ensure that everyones views are well represented in the constitution.
Examples from current events can you identify by providing evidence of democracy at work in America

According to Democracy building (2004), the US president exercises more powers and he may act immediately in all matters that need urgency. In the US, where the form of democracy is presidential, the president is supposed to appoint the members of parliament. This is the exact case that happened when president Barrack Obama took office. He appointed the ministers who included the current secretary of states for the United States, Hillary Clinton.

The president as the commander in chief of all the armed forces authorizes the armed forces to go to war. This is the case as it happened with George Bush who sent the American forces to war in Iraq and Afghanistan.

Different kinds of democracy are practiced by various countries in one way or the other. The different kinds of democracies show that democracy has been in existence for a very long time and that it has been practiced in diverse means. It has been shown that democracy is not fixed on an idea or the structure of a state but it is subject to change. The United States and Canada are some of the best examples in the world where democracy is practiced.

Effects of globalization on crime

Globalization refers to the integration of national economies, cultures and societies. It is a process through which national economies are linked to the international economic networks. Through globalization, many people all over the world are able to exchange ideas, goods and services. Several factors affect globalization such as technology, diversity in culture, political systems, and economic conditions, social and biological elements. Through globalization, countries become interdependent on each other and no single nation can be self reliant.

Globalization has increased criminal activities due to the efficient communication and the ease in movement of people and products. Some crimes have developed due to globalization while others have been reduced. Criminal activities have been accelerated by the expansion of economies and the changes in political systems all over the world. In some instances, globalization has been used to combat crime.

How globalization has increased crime
The ease in transport has caused many criminal activities to take place. The movement of terrorists has been made easier since many countries have allowed people from other countries to cross their borders. The September 11th terrorist attack could not have been possible if all the points of entry into the American nation had been properly monitored.

Drug trafficking has been on the increase due to globalization. Many criminals are using modern technology to traffic dangerous drugs all over the world. Some criminals hijack human beings to be used as agents for trafficking drugs. Some drugs are legalized in some counties while they are illegal in other countries. This has caused many people to export drugs to other countries since their governments support such activities.

The political systems of some countries have supported crime. Some countries give financial support to criminal activities so that they can achieve political support from these people. Terrorists use politicians to conduct their activities. For example, Al Qaeda has been supported by some countries to terrorize other countries. This group gets financial assistance from these countries so as to finance their criminal activities and to terrorize enemies of these countries.

Communication has become easy with the increase in global activities. People can pass information more easily than before. The internet and the mobile phones have recently flooded the international market. This has enabled criminals to expand their network in many countries. Criminal groups can set up networks from different countries since they can communicate easily. Information concerning efforts to combat crime is spread easily and this has enabled criminals to hide out of attack.

Corruption has been on the increase in the international scene due to globalization. Use of technology to hide corruption has been realized. Modern criminals can access materials through the use of corrupt deals without the knowledge of the people concerned (Winter, Sznaider,  Beck, 2003). The flow of illicit goods in the international market has been made easy by the effects of globalization. Use of bribery through hidden transactions has become more possible with the increase in methods of communication. A network of individuals is involved in the transactions so as to conceal the activities. Such activities may be carried out across many countries such that it is impossible to trace the circle. Superior government officials are involved in such deals and other prominent individuals. This makes it impossible to trace such activities since the people responsible to combat such crimes are involved in them and cannot put any effort to reduce them.

Tax evasion has been on the increase and many economic systems are incurring great losses. Improvement in technology has created new methods of avoiding and evading tax. Tax is the main source of income to many economies. When this tax is not paid adequately and timely, the government is unable to make good financial plans. This may lead to breakdown of economic systems. This crime has been facilitated by the increase in global technological advancement.

Cultural integration of many communities has increased crime. Culture is a component of beliefs, values, and customs of people living in a community. Cultures differ to a great extent and some practices are acceptable in other cultures while others are not acceptable. People from different cultures have different views about life. Some cultures support some activities which become crimes when introduced to other countries. Globalization has made people adopt cultures from different communities and this has caused conflicts. For example, some cultures support commercial sex while others perceive these activities to be crime.

Immigration has been on the increase due to globalization. People move from one country to another in search of better opportunities. Some countries restrict immigration but illegal immigration still takes place in these countries. The immigrants cause economic imbalance and introduce new lifestyles which end up introducing new forms of crime. Some immigrants carry with them lethal arms which cause threat to the national security.

Illegal brokerage businesses have increased. Prostitution has become an international business. Commercial sex workers use the international links to attract customers all over the world. This business is being advertised over the internet and other sources. Children are exported to perform some sexual businesses. Child labor is practiced by some tycoons who use their international networks to buy children and use them to perform their jobs with less or no pay. Smuggling of goods is done by brokers who are able to bribe their way into the international markets. Such goods affect the economic status of the countries concerned since they cause inflation and create losses to the government since no tax is paid upon them.

Environmental destruction has been on the increase due to globalization. Countries have continued to cause harm to the environment so that they can meet the increasing demand of commodities in the international market. Use of harmful chemicals in the industries has created great havoc which has resulted to global warming. The use of nuclear weapons has increased and this has created a great negative impact on the environment.

Theft of intellectual property has been on the increase. Intellectual property refers to the exclusive rights of a person to use a property. Such property may be software, written works, and movies, among others. Many people who have put a lot of effort to develop their intellectual property are being stolen of their work. Some people are using such works for their own gains without considering the plight of the originators. Though many countries have continued to put restrictions on the use of intellectual property, the vice of stealing such works has been on the increase. Efforts to regulate misuse of other peoples works have almost failed due to the widespread theft of such materials.

Financial frauds have increased due to global activities. Criminals are using frauds in the international markets so as to acquire wealth from such activities. Criminals have acquired new methods of hiding money by the use of modern technology. Some banks are compromising their activities, for example, lending beyond the acceptable capacity, so as to make abnormal profits. Terrorists are given assistance by some financial organizations which are against the will of many countries. These activities have led to economic meltdown that has been experienced in the recent past.

Weapon dealers can access international markets very easily. Terrorists can access such weapons easily since there is a ready market for such products. Many countries are facing the problem of insecurity due to the many weapons which have found their way into their markets. Such weapons are used by criminal groups to conduct crime within and outside the countries.

How globalization has reduced crime
Since World War II, many countries united to reduce chances of any war occurring. They broke down the borders which hindered trade and formed organizations which were to act on international matters affecting the member countries. The international community is concerned about the welfare of the member countries and any problem facing any of them is solved amicably.

Globalization has created free flow of information. People are aware of their rights and they know where they can seek help in times of problems. This has reduced crime since lesser cases of fraudulence are being reported. Information is power and this has enabled many people to access things which were difficult to access.

Through the international community, many countries have joined their efforts to fight against environmental destruction. A meeting in Copenhagen held last year was discussing about the impacts of global warming and the possible measures to reduce it. Many international organizations have come up to educate people about the importance of environmental safety to human beings. It is through globalization that many countries can share ideas on how to carry out environmental friendly activities.

The ease in access of weapons has enabled many countries to fight crime. Modern weapons can be bought so as to attack criminals who have advanced methods of spreading crime. Terrorists can be targeted and their operations can be monitored using modern machines. Many governments have been able to train their security agents about the international methods of dealing with crime. Many states have bought weapons and training officers in order to combat crime.

International criminal court was established to act on criminal activities happening all over the world. This court has enabled many crimes to be reduced since it offers justice to the international community. The court was established to oversee the efficient running of international economies and to reduce conflicts among countries.

Economic interdependence has increased as nations continue to trade with each other. Developed countries have assisted the developing countries through loans, donations and many other means. These countries become partners in trade and interdependence on each other becomes a common thing. Technological transfer from countries which have advanced to less developed countries has been made possible. Capital movement across the borders has increased since countries trade and exchange capital equipment. Third world countries have been able to make great economic improvements due to their link with developed countries. Developed countries have been able to access markets for their products due to the globalization.

Globalization has brought about rise in international actors which challenge state authority. Non-governmental organizations have come up to fight for the rights of people and to provide services which are poorly provided by the government. Civic groups have spread all over the world to protect the interests of the community. Financial markets have been established to prevent the government from establishing rules which affect the local and international business activities. Production networks are machineries formed to protect the interest of manufacturers in their countries of operation.

Governments have been restricted to use international standards of governance. This has been established to ensure no human rights are misused. The international community has pressured governments to maintain regulations that have been set up so as to ensure transparency and accountability are adhered to.

Globalization has brought both advantages and disadvantages in relation to crime. Many criminal activities have emerged with the increase in the global market. There are many people who have benefited from globalization due to reduced insecurity. Nations have been able to expand their economies since the criminal barriers to the success of economic development have been removed.
New methods of reducing crime have been invented and have been tested across the countries. Nations have achieved weapons to combat crime. Flow of information has enabled countries to expand their crime detection tactics. Thus, globalization can be said to have contributed to a great extent the reduction of crime. The rise in transnational problems has generated the need to come up with new methods of solving problems. Such problems require multinational cooperation to resolve.

Falklands War The Results and Consequences of the Campaign

The conflict that ignited in the Spring of 1982 between Great Britain and Argentina had made the world upside down. Even in the present generation, there are a lot of emotions which are triggered whenever the Falkland Islands, the British or the Argentine name is used  or even mentioned.  

Falklands War which is also known as Falklands Conflict or Crisis was a war between Argentina and United Kingdom in battle with the disputed Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. Falkland Islands, which is the main reason of the conflict between the two countries, lies 300 miles east of the Street of Magellan at the southern end of South America and 8000 miles away from the United Kingdom.

The war, which lasted for 74 days, was started when the Argentine invaded and occupied the Falkland Islands and South Georgia on April 2, 1982. This was considered as the most recent conflict by the United Kingdom in the absence of the allied states and the lone war in the Argentina since the 1880s.

It is believed that the main reason of the conflict between the two countries was the protracted diplomatic confrontation on the sovereignty of the islands. Argentinas invasion of the islands was considered by its people as a re-occupation of its own territory. The reason of the United Kingdom, on the other hand, on its declaration of war against the opposing country was an invasion of a British dependent territory. This conflict between UK and Argentina resulted into the deaths of hundreds of British and Argentine soldiers, airmen, sailors and even innocent civilian Falklanders and the massive destruction of the naval ships and aircrafts of both country.

This paper tries to explain the embedded reasons of the conflict encountered by the United Kingdom and Argentina which resulted to the war for the possession of the disputed Falkland Islands. It also highlights the influences, lessons learned and impact of the campaign in the many aspects of both country engaged in the war which created a great chaos and threat to the peace of the world for several years.  

The campaign military or strategic success
Questions as to whether the Falklands War should be considered as a military or a strategic success should be clarified and answered as well. In this sense, it would first be appropriate to differentiate the terms military success and strategic success in the context of the aforementioned war since the use of such terms may differ from one case or point to another. To further expound, military success would refer to being able to win the war through the superiority of the military force, which of course directly pertains to the factors such as military training and individual skill, the number or the relative size of troops, as well as technological dominance and the availability of effective weaponry. On the other hand, strategic success refers to a victory that has been achieved mainly through means of intelligent and practical planning in terms of how forces should be utilized and efficiently situated instead of mainly relying upon sheer power and troop size. Hence, in order to determine the answer to the question of whether the Falklands War should be regarded as a military success or a strategic success, aspects such as the troop size and military power should first be taken into account and evaluated.

In terms of military prowess, the British forces were not necessarily superior to their Argentine counterparts. As a matter of fact, in terms of number and size of military forces present at the Falklands, the Argentine forces were considerably superior to the British forces and thus being outnumbered was a significant concern for the latter. Aside from being outnumbered, the technological advantages as well as the availability of weaponry were another advantage that the Argentine military had against the British forces. In particular, the Argentine forces were superior in critical military areas such as in air to surface capabilities. In addition to such, the British were also confronted with another problem that transcends more than the sheer size of the Argentine military. Specifically, the area or locations wherein the war would be fought was not advantageous for the British either and thus problems regarding communication and the duration of travel manifested in relation to this, the British had initially maintained a false optimism regarding their capability to win a war regardless of such distances. In general, it is not difficult to realize that that in terms of core military aspects and factors, the Argentine forces was superior to the British forces during the course of the Falklands War thus, if the British were not able to discover other means of winning the war other than military size and weaponry, then it would be most expected that Argentina would have emerged as victorious.

Given such points, it is evident that the British were not able to achieve victory through military superiority in relation to size and other advantages. Thus, strategic success becomes a more likely answer to the aforementioned question. To further explain, there were numerous instances wherein the Argentine forces should have gained key strategic advantages but were not able to. On the other hand, the British military forces were determined to prevent the Argentine military from gaining such advantages and were also focused upon both taking advantage or every possible aspect and finding ways of circumventing potential areas of weakness. A significant example of such is in terms of how British air forces effectively preoccupied the air forces of Argentina and as a result prevented air to surface attacks from devastating the British naval fleet. In addition to such, excellent use of available advanced weaponry may also be considered as another aspect through which Britain was able to take advantage during the war. To further explain, while as mentioned beforehand, Argentina was superior in terms of number, the British was able to use certain weaponry and tactics such as the Milan and parachutes through an alternative yet highly effective manner. Besides such examples, there are of course other notable strategic approaches that the British forces accomplished throughout the course of the Falklands War. Thus, from the points emphasized above, it would seem that the British succeeded mainly by being able to actualize effective strategies.  

A number of experts though point out that another factor, arguably leading to the success of strategies, may be considered as well such factor is commonly regarded luck,. Considering that the British were not always focused upon forming strategies and taking advantage of key aspects throughout the Falklands War, unexplainable outcomes such as why certain approaches did not fail would expectedly come into mind. To further emphasize such a point, it was for a fact that the British government was not entirely unaware that being involved in such a war is a significant gamble for Britain in terms of achieving victory due to numerous factors however, for in various instances throughout the war as well, Argentina was not able to effectively gain strategic advantages which, with the sheer size of the Argentine military, could have been easily achieved. Regardless of whether luck is indeed a valid factor to consider in terms of how the British forces were able to attain victory in such a war, it is without doubt that the Falklands war may be most appropriately considered as mainly a strategic success for the British instead of having won through military superiority.

The type of war or campaign that British forces configured before 1980s
As mentioned earlier, the Falkland war was enacted upon the invasion of the Argentine forces into the territories of Falkland islands and South Georgia, areas which at that moment were under the custody of the United Kingdom. Hence, British forces immediately reacted to such kind of activity and have readied the entirety of their nation for a war that aimed to retrieve the governance over islands which they believe are properties of their kingdom. Consequently, the UK army applied the expertise of their war men and the technological advantages of their equipments in order to fulfill their goal of retrieving their islands and winning back their pride as a nation. But despite their great desire, the British forces knew that they were outnumbered and their skills were inferior as compared to their Argentine opponents. Hence, the British force employed changes on the military facets of their country and to further elucidate these  alterations, it will be necessary to first describe the type of war or campaign that the British forces configured before the 1980s.

Prior to the 1980s, the British Military forces was characterized by constant improvements on the features of their military materials, equipments, and most specially, with the upgrading of the quality of their military men. Two areas of the military force which  are worthy of emphasis and elaboration were the aviation and naval departments.

The aviation department of the British Military force was governed by the Royal Air Force (RAF). These two institutions initiated advancements in the military aviation history of Britain. It was in September 24, 1910 when the first British aircraft reconnaissance was made during the British Armys autumn maneuverer in order to locate the Blue Army. This first venture has actually failed because the team captain was captured by the enemies but it has significantly marked the start of aerial reconnaissance in warfare.

Following this event in February 28, 1911 was the authorization of the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers, a group that was designed to create a framework of skilled military aviators which  functions as reserve units during moments of war. Succeeding advancements in aviation were seen in the administration of trainings on ballooning, kiting, telegraphy, photography, meteorology, bomb-dropping, musketry, gunnery and artillery cooperation. Moreover, additional combat exercises were given to the members of the British Air Force in order to further hone their skills.

The naval department of the British Military force before 1980s, on the other hand, was characterized by the usage of high-tech submarines coupled with the employment of nuclear power. Polaris was specifically the name of the submarines that were utilized for military attacks during the 1970s. Four Polaris were owned by the British force and each had 16 missiles per submarine. Furthermore, 48 warheads were present per submarine which enabled these military equipments to execute a submarine targeting capability of 16 chances at a time. Hence, it can be inferred that the British Naval department was indeed among the highly developing and ultimately promising military groups at that time as supported by their strong nuclear capabilities. However, the development of the Article VI of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) which stated that United Kingdom, and four other nations, were legally entitled to possess nuclear weapons but were encouraged to pursue nuclear disarmament. The said Article seemed to have restricted the proliferation of the nuclear-based marine technology but Lord Chalfont, British Prime Minister in 1960s, emphasized that there is no international agreement which calls upon anyone to promote the elimination of nuclear weapons except in the context of general and complete disarmament.

Based on the aforementioned facts, it is rightful to say that the type of war or campaign that the British Air Force have configured before the 1980s was characterized by intense military training across all fields but most special attention was given to the naval and aviation departments as supported by the idea hat these departments are the ones which were likely to provide sturdy framework for the whole British Military Force.

The results or consequences of the campaign
The outcome and consequences of the Falklands War or the campaign may be divided into four sub-aspects. In particular, the consequences of the war may be perceived from a non-specific perspective, from the view of the inhabitants of the Falklands, from one that focuses upon Britain, and from another that emphasizes the outcome for Argentina. Of course, such a categorization of consequences would be most appropriate in attempting to provide an thorough discussion of the Falklands War. From a non-specific perspective, one of the most prominent consequences of the Falklands War or the campaign for both Argentina and Britain is in terms of the significant amount  of combat related losses through the destruction of various naval ships and aircrafts. As expected from such, not only did both nations suffer losses in terms of funds and military technology, but there have been considerable losses in terms of life as well. In addition, costs in terms of ammunition, as exemplified through the prices of the advanced missiles, used throughout the war would also be another significant basis of expenditure for both Argentina and Britain. In this sense, the initial outcome of war, for both regardless of the nation that attained victory throughout the campaign is not entirely positive in an economic perspective.

As previously mentioned, the results or consequences of the Falklands War may also be assessed through the perspective of the Falklandians. As commonly considered by historians as a significant transformation of the Falklands, upon being acquired by the British after the war, the Falklands was converted into a highly defended British fortress. Expectedly, peace would be among the most immediately noticeable effects of such a decision by the British government and in effect the inhabitants of the Falklands have positively benefited. As a matter of fact, not only did such means of protection become present throughout the Falklands, the people throughout the area also positively accepted the economic support offered and maintained by the United Kingdom in particular, among the first means of stimulating the economy of the Falklands was through the establishment of exclusive fishing zones. Hence, due to such decisions and actions by the British government, the Falkland Islands as well as its inhabitants were able to attain a level of prosperity and freedom that has not been experienced before in the area. Specifically, not only did the Falklands positively grow as a self sustaining area, in just a short span of several years the Falklands became synonymous with both wealth and exclusivity instead of being originally labeled as impoverished.

While the outcome of the war or the campaign may have been generally positive for the inhabitants of the Falklands, Argentina on the other hand, not being able to achieve victory despite considerable efforts, faced negative consequences right after the conclusion of the Falklands War. To further expound, after the loss, the citizens of Argentina was greatly angered by the outcome which led to massive gatherings and riots against the Argentine military and government which have been publicly labeled as cowards by commoners. Due to such Argentina was thrown into a phase of instability especially in terms of leadership and governance. Of course, if the masses would initiate unified actions against the leaders of the nation, then conflict and unexpected results would follow. Specifically, the loss of Argentina in the Falklands War resulted into repercussions such as the presence of mob based attacks to the authorities and leaders of the nation, the loss of military powers, and eventually the shift of the mode of governance from dictatorship to democracy as a result of such conflicts. Therefore, given such consequences it would only be appropriate to conclude the the Falklands War only led to further conflicts for Argentina however, the changes brought forth from such national conflicts, regardless of whether beneficial or detrimental, cannot be directly considered as consequences of the campaign.

Finally, as for the victor of the Falklands War, Britain, the consequences of the campaign was entirely positive. As matter of fact, the British forces were received in a grand and genuinely enthusiastic manner upon arriving at their homeland after the war. Such a reception is quite expected though since, as discussed beforehand, the war was not merely a means to lay claim to the Falklands for the British but is rather a symbol of preserving their honor and beliefs as well as establishing faith in the government. Aside from gaining the support of the masses and preserving such values, winning the Falklands War also brought forth other beneficial effects to the British. Among the most notable of such, is that the British forces gained further renown throughout the world in terms of its military capabilities. In particular, considering that the initial outlook regarding the chances of attaining victory in the war was not entirely positive, the British forces still managed to prove that winning the Falklands War is indeed possible as a matter of fact, even the Soviet Union acknowledged that the British military capability should never be underestimated as they have done so in past evaluation procedures. Hence, given such points, it may be concluded that the Falklands War indeed had highly diverse results and consequences depending upon the perspective or focus through which such outcomes are discussed.  

The influence of the post-campaign to subsequent defense policy and inter-service cooperation
The Falklands war, which was fought during the 1980s between Britain and Argentina in order to determine the ownership of the Falklands island and the island of South Georgia, has rendered a number of effects and influences to the defense policy and inter-service cooperation. Prior to the discussion of these effects, it is worth to mention that military men believe that the said war was a strong symbol of Britains need for out-of-power source and capabilities. Moreover, military men believe that Falklands war would have not been fulfilled if not because of the numerous aberrations that were made on the Nautical aspects of the country. These irregularities include the general British incapability to withdraw from overseas commitments that were actually not in direct accordance to the governmental laws and national programs of United Kingdom during that time. Theoretically, the UK force had the choice of not involving themselves from the confusion of the Falkland territorial features, just like what they did with the disinclined investment to the defence of the other nearby islands. Hence, it is believed by military men and other political people of that time that the Falklands war was a result of the domestic political unrest and governmental pressures in response to Argentine invasion. In like manner, the subsequent effect of this kind of mentality to the inter-service cooperation of Britain was to make the British people more, specially its military force, to avoid stark choices of defence view and territorial issues and to choose an over-all incrementalist approach. This effect can be further explained by looking at the dimensions of the Cold War in 1990 wherein the European forces were stricter on giving military defences and other nautical services to the ally countries.

With respect to the defence policy of the United Kingdom, it was further strengthened by the occurrence of the Falklands war because the government and the military departments focused more on the sharpening of its naval, aerial and land combats.  

Lessons learned from the Falklands war
Since the Falklands War is definitely among the most well discussed wars in recent times, it is of course expected that various lessons have been learned throughout the course of such a historic battle. In this sense, the lessons learned from a general perspective gained from the Falklands War may be accordingly divided into several categories. Specifically, the lessons may be classified as either in terms of the significance of strategy, the implications of advanced warfare technology, and the likelihood of successful negotiations throughout and after the Falklands War. In order to discuss such categories with sufficient depth and detail, it would be necessary to present an overview of each for clarification. In terms of the significance of strategy, lessons pertaining to how strategy may have altered the flow the course and outcome of the Falklands War would be emphasized. In this sense, the importance of winning a war through effective approaches and plans would be expounded upon. The next category, which pertains to advanced weaponry, is rather self explanatory. The Falklands War may in part be regarded as a showcase of how certain advances in weaponry may be applied for actual use to bring forth favorable and unexpected results. The third lesson pertains to the possibility of having successful negotiations throughout different points of the Falklands War, which in the case of the aforesaid war was rather pessimistic in terms of the outcome.

In terms of the lessons learned from the war in regarding strategy, as emphasized from previous points of discussion the war was mainly determined through excellent strategies designed and executed by the British. To explain, it is for a fact that the distance from the British mainland as well as key aspects such as air superiority were considerable obstacles that the British forces should surmount in order to at least increase the chances of attaining success. Despite such challenges, the British forces eventually gained victory in the Falklands War. Such success was attained, as experts point out, through the effective and relatively fast paced actions of the British forces in eliminating the defenses of the Argentine military and also in eliminating any possible superiority that the Argentine forces possess. Of course, it was only necessary that the British develop such effective strategies in order to prevent the considerable initial disadvantages from resulting into casualties, losses, and even defeat. Thus, a key lesson that may be gained from the analysis of the Falklands War is that there are cases wherein strategy may be of greater importance than key advantages in the battlefield and that strategy is also vital in gaining or maintaining such advantages. Of course though, it would be necessary to clarify the fact that even though the Argentine forces had the initial advantage in terms of number and access, the British forces albeit at a disadvantage were still of comparable level in terms of skill and technology.

In addition to lessons regarding strategy, the potential of advanced weaponry in winning a war was also another point of realization in which not only have Argentina and Britain learned of efficiency of such weaponry but the whole world as well. A most relevant example of such would be in terms of the cost-effectiveness of advanced weaponry in relation to destructive potential. Specifically, throughout the Falklands War, relatively low cost yet advanced missiles such as the Exocet, as utilized by the Argentine forces, were known to have eliminated destroyer-class British ships which cost several thousand times more than the missiles. As one may expect, other examples of the destructive capabilities of advanced weaponry and vehicles are present as well especially throughout the period wherein the British forces gained air based dominance. While at first the Argentine air forces dominated both air to air and air to surface aspects of combat, the British eventually gained advantages in such areas due to the presence of sidewinder missiles and the arrival of the Harrier VSTOL jets overcame the skill and number superiority of the Argentine forces.  Therefore, from the given points, it is clear that superiority in terms of military technology may prove to be a more significant aspect, in certain instances, than the relative skill and number of the army in determining both the progress and outcome of war.    

Lessons pertaining to the likelihood of successful negotiations throughout the course of conflict may also be derived from the Falklands War. Initially, before the actual war broke out or rather prior to the Argentine invasion of the Falklands, negotiations and talks as to how peace may be maintained by both Britain and Argentina have been conducted through the aid of the United Nations. As expected, such negotiations were not able to result in positive outcomes as the idea of a possible Falklands War still transitioned into reality and thus became part of world history. Throughout the course of the Falklands War though, the possibility to initiate in peaceful negotiations was not entirely eliminated. For one, the United Nations, especially the Security Council, still supported the suggestion that the Argentine forces should withdraw to prevent further violence in addition to such, the United States also attempted to play a role in establishing peace once more between the two warring nations.   However, even with the evident potential of cutting further losses neither Argentine nor Britain, considered to comply with suggested resolutions and agreements at the exact moment. Always, one of the aforementioned countries would not agree with the demands of the other. Hence, from such failed attempts at attaining compliance with resolutions for peace, it becomes apparent that having success with such resolutions is rather difficult to achieve especially if war has already began and both nations have the capability and willingness to continue military conflict so as to attain a profitable or valuable end.    

The future impact of the Falklands war in the present condition of UK and Argentina
It is apparent that despite having no current military conflict between Britain, or rather the United Kingdom and Argentina have not occurred ever since the conclusion of the Falklands War concerns was not entirely resolved. As a matter of fact, even though the British has firmly established the Falklands as part of their sovereignty, the Argentine government still continuously expresses claim to the islands. Such a point has been emphasized since it is vital in evaluating the future impact of the Falklands War to both the United Kingdom and Argentina and in proving that indeed conflict resolution regarding sovereignty has not been achieved. Initially, the Falklands War was a reflection of how both nations considered aspects such as defending their property, global peace, and of course preserving ideologies and honor, in establishing a reason as to why such a war is necessary for both nations, considerations regarding economic benefits to be gained from obtaining the Falklands have not been thought of as a significant reason to initiate war. From such, it is rather interesting to determine whether such reasons have been maintained throughout the decades that have passed since the war and since the British has gained complete control over the islands.

Prior to discussing the future impact of the Falklands War from a contemporary point of view, it would be essential to provide an overview of what the leaders of the United Kingdom perceived as the future impact of the war immediately after its conclusion. For one, change, specifically in terms of the various facets of the defense forces have been originally perceived as the foremost future impact from the outcome of the Falklands War to further expound, such changes in terms of the military forces have been perceived as necessary in meeting national security requirements. In this sense, after the conclusion of the Falklands War, the British government considered an improvement and redesign of the military structure as a necessary goal since various realizations regarding the significance of maintaining military superiority have been developed due to the war. To further provide detail regarding such a point, the British assumed that a focus in establishing a dominant military presence is vital for further enhancing both stability and peace in Britain but also throughout Europe. Of course, as already aforementioned, repercussions from such a decision are present especially in the form of potential of financial concerns. In relation to this, the British government instead considered such a decision as an opportunity in enhancing the economy as the number of jobs would be increased in effect. Hence, eventually developing a superior military force for purposes of security, despite facing a myriad of challenges, was key future impacts perceived during such times. Decades after the Falklands War though, it is only appropriate to anticipate that the future impacts may have significantly changed, not only for Britain but for Argentina as well.

Currently, the British have considered the possibility of gathering oil throughout various sites on the Falklands. To further expound, the British have estimated around 18 billion barrels to be found from the Falklands which literally translates into positive economic growth for both the United Kingdom and the inhabitants of Falkland Islands regardless of the specific scale of such growth. It is a generally known fact that oil is among the most valued resources throughout the world. In effect, such possibilities may further increase the chances of another significant dispute regarding claims to the island, despite the fact that as previously mentioned preceding concerns regarding such have not yet been appropriately resolved. If oil would indeed be retrieved from Falklands, then it is possible that Argentina would further increase its interest in claiming the Falklands. In fact, Argentina is already responding negatively to the possibility of the British being able to convert areas of the Falklands into oil drilling sites. To further explain, means so as to partly cripple the planned oil drilling operations have been initiated by Argentina such as withdrawing support for oil exploration with Britain in addition, Argentina has also established rules that would considerably limit the interaction of the oil firms in Argentina with the Falklands oil project.  

Given that such actions have already been done, it is evident that the will of Argentina to regain Falklands as part of Argentinean territory is more than just renewed claims written in paper. Among different countries, and according to the technical aspects of defining sovereignty, there is still a belief that various nations perceive the Falklands as still part of Argentina. In this sense, although public perception may often consider Falklands as a part of Britain, Argentina still has global support in pursuing their claim. However, it is most certain as well that the citizens of the Falklands are not entirely in support of the idea that Argentina would eventually reclaim the Falklands for aside from being mainly composed of individuals from British descent it is clear that the Falklands population prefer to stay under the British rule. Also, regardless of the manner in which the Argentine government would attempt to reclaim the Falklands, it would be rather expected that the British would not express complacency with such a matter. Considering that the British claim to the Falklands has been supposedly established through the outcome of the Falklands War then consistently defending the British claim to the Falklands would be as likely as the attempts of Argentina to reclaim it.

While the ordeal of establishing sovereignty is still a constant concern of both Argentina and Britain, support for more constructive outcomes have never been eliminated throughout the years as well. There have been initiatives or suggestions to share the Falklands among the two aforementioned nations for the benefit of each. Specifically, while the British would gain from the reduced need to maintain a significant military presence in the area, the Argentine government may profit from such a decision in terms of improving the stability of the Argentine economy. While various negotiations have been suggested to be considered by both the Argentine and the British governments, there is still a reluctance to comply with various terms and technicalities similar to what transpired throughout the Falklands War. In particular, while the Argentine government is currently more open to negotiations, the British government still firmly points out there is no doubt that the Falkland Islands is under British sovereignty. Therefore, while the Falklands War may have transpired and has been concluded decades ago, concerns over sovereignty has definitely not been resolved and given the increasing economic potential to the Falklands and the current global economic crisis, it would be most predictable that such concerns may bring forth continuous conflicts and disagreements between the two nations at present and in the future as well.

Though the British government has been considering nowadays the possession of the Falklands Islands sovereignty, Argentina is still profoundly expressing their claim to the island.  This means that eventhough both parties considered before that the war between them was already resolved, it can be deducted that the battle between the United Kingdom and Argentina for the possession to Falklands Islands is not yet put to its end. Nevertheless, though there is no clear manifestation of the resolution of the war between the two countries, there is one important thing that was left by the Falkland war not only to the people involved but also to the whole world. Falklands War, unlike any other war which was ignited for the economic benefit of the powerful countries, served as a reflection of how both nations tried to defend their property, maintain global peace and preserve ideologies and honor.

History, function and roles of various Intelligence Community organizations

According to Richelson (2008), the intelligence community is an alliance of decision making divisions, groups and associations which conduct their duties either in conjunction or separately on matters of intelligence. President Ronald Reagan on 4th December 1981 signed the executive order 12333 that led to the establishment of the intelligence community.  Some of the members of the intelligence community include intelligence agencies, armed forces intelligence, and civilian intelligence organs (Richelson, 2008).

These matters of intelligence dealt with by these organizations are essential in the formation of the basis for foreign relations and the preservation of national safety of the United States. The director of national intelligence is the one who leads the intelligence community and is supposed to report directly to the president (Richelson, 2008).

Richelson (2008), states that the roles played by these organizations include compilation of any information that might be of any importance to the president, the secretary of states and defense, the national Security Council, and any other executive division officials for the conduction of their task and obligations. According to Richelson (2008), these organizations produce and distribute intelligence. They collect information regarding to how tasks are supposed to be carried out in order to minimize chances of foreign intelligence directed against the United States. The information collected by these organs help in minimizing international terrorism, narcotic drugs trade, and any other illegal activity that might be directed towards the United States by foreign individuals, groups or powers. They carry out special activities for the US government. Managerial and support tasks for all legal activities are carried out by these organizations within and outside the United States. They perform all other intelligence actions as intended for by the president from time to time (Richelson, 2008)

Types and purpose of intelligence

Intelligence is defined as the ability or capacity of human being to think, analyze life situations, and use brain to solve problems and to understand norms, social values and customs. Every human being has the capacity to reason but the degree matters. This brings out difference in respect to reasoning capability of an individual. There are two main forms of intelligence that is used as a way of assessing intelligence. First there is verbal Intelligence which is the ability of human being to understand and solve problems based to language. Second form is nonverbal Intelligence which is the ability to comprehend and solve spatial and visual problems.

Types of intelligence as used by political systems include Military Intelligence which is used by military to gather information used fro decision making. Other levels of Intelligence include Artificial, tactical, operational and strategic intelligence. Intelligence is used for the purpose of reasoning to come up with solution to a particular problem.  Intelligence is used by learners to solve academic problems and to do tests (Richelson, 2008). The process of learning requires application of intelligence particularly when it comes to handling of class problems.

Categories of Intelligence Community
Some communities are considered to have more Intelligence than others such as Israelites. Hebrew is the most known community that has high Intelligence used for research to particular matters that need the use of high brains. Aman is the supreme Intelligence branch in Israel that deals with defense. Most of the defense forces in Israel like Naval, Air, Field and Intelligence corps have been incorporated from this community. Mossad is an agency that is responsible for provision of overseas protection (Richelson, 2008). Most governments use military forces that have been trained in Israel because it is considered as one of the major source of intelligent force.

Global Warming and National Security Issues

Climate change is frequently characterized as an ecological threat. The problem of global climate change could create a world of resource wars, failed states and environmental refugees to already vulnerable and fragile regions of Africa, Middle East and Asia if unchecked. It has become a mainstream issue and threats appertaining to climate change should be understood so as to be able to plan to reduce them. Dangers lie mostly in the future but there are current concerns threatening states and governments at the moment. Threats of diminishing energy supplies, increasing water and food shortages and conflicts over scarce resources should be a concern to public efforts, governments and businesses to formulate adaptation strategies and mitigate efforts to deal with climate change (Adler, 2007).

There is a critical link between national security, global warming and energy where possible climate change warming impacts should be assessed in different parts of the earth. Global warming according to scientists is unlikely to be reversed and what can be done is to slow down the rate appreciably by reducing greenhouse gas emissions which is becoming a familiar agenda in global warming concerns. Other scientists argue that it is not the greenhouse emissions or carbon dioxide concentrations but the earths mechanism in the crust affected by the siphoning of fossil fuels thus affecting the magnetic fields of the earth making it tilt and move closer to the sun in its orbit. Global warming climate change can impact the human population in several ways including, political tensions, disaster and displacements (Appenzeller et al, 2004). Shifts in rain patterns will affect agricultural capacities and access to clean drinking water will be complicated.

The American government is grappling with many issues like, the White House Committee on environment passed legislation that would see the directive of greenhouse gases to be reduced so that the American economy could implement a vital step to the national carbon cap-and trade program. The U.S depends mostly on foreign oil for their transportation needs much of which comes from the Middle East whose interests are often not the same, thus apart from adding carbon dioxide to the environment, they do not have a cordial relationship in these counties where most of the American troops are situated. This is fueling and propping up autocracies in hydrocarbon to countries such as Iran. The United States spends billions of dollars in gasoline in Iraq which in some case is finding its way to the al-Qaeda extremists group.  Its military in Iraq and Afghanistan is consuming several gallons of fuel per day on each soldier in protecting their interests and keeping the country safe from war torn conflicts by the extremists. The military budget compared to financing global warming initiatives has shown that there is still more to be done concerning climate security (Barnett et al, 2005). It would be safer to invest on the climate which would keep Americans safer instead of the Iraq war whose costs are running into trillions on perceptions of the rogue state or terrorists. The Americas defense community observes that there is more strategic uncertainty, sub and trans-national violence which complicate the threats and matters of national security.

The future depends on these two aspects of climate and defense which must be taken into consideration and not opposed. The green conclusion can be focus on various alternatives of energy than relying on fossil fuels that are gradually diminishing, increasing their efficiency and improving the electrical framework (Aston et al, 2005). It is crucial to start addressing global warming issues early by showing real leadership in confronting and slowing down the effects that can impact national security in various countries and states around the world.

Is it appropriate to consider HIVAIDS as a global security issue

Over the past couple of decades the definition of a security threat has considerably evolved. From hostile countries to terrorist groups and insurgencies, the threats that countries face today have taken up many different forms. Changing times have stressed the need for us to re-examine our notions of security. A rapidly expanding but still relatively novel idea is to examine the overlap between security and health issues. While most people would agree that health issues can cause security concerns, it is important to understand that not all health issues pose a security risk. The common perception is that most countries underestimate the security risks that can be caused be consistently ignoring health issues. The major reason for this negligent behaviour is that health issues dont pose an immediate security risk but if left to simmer and fester unattended they can represent a significant security risk.

The traditional concept of national security deals primarily with well being of the state, the protection of borders and the pursuit of national interests. Extend this idea to the next level and we have international security which states that the national security of countries is interdependent on each other. Global security goes on to include issues such as social development, human rights and public health. While many nations recognize the need to address the issues of global security there is fear that shifting focus from the traditional concept of national security will leave redirect resources from national defence and has been met with criticism.

In his report Agenda for Peace, former United Nations Secretary-General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali, states that our evolving concepts of security need to account for a  new threat to stability and that drought, famine and an epidemic of disease can devastate no less cruelly than conventional warfare.

It is certain that in the changing dynamics and unique challenges that make up the security risks that we face today on a global scale, health challenges present themselves in the form of non-traditional and uncertain threats. This does not imply that all health issue pose grave security threats because they dont, but there are those that do pose such a threat. The need to address such threats has become apparent with a growing sense of urgency in recent years and governments need to understand that pressing health issues require more thought then they currently receive.

One such threat that has largely been ignored by a lot of countries but which may have far reaching consequences on a global scale is the HIVAIDS epidemic  that is now found in every nation of the world. AIDS is caused by the HIV virus which stands for human immunodeficiency virus. HIV is different from other virus in that it attacks the immune system which impedes the bodys ability to fight off infections rendering the carrier very vulnerable to all sorts of diseases. AIDS stands for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and is the final stage HIV infection. At this point the virus has weakened the immune system of the body to such an extent that it is unable to fight off most infections.

Scientists have identified the origin of the HIV infection to a type of a chimpanzee found in West Africa. (CDC, 2010) Over the years the virus has slowly spread across Africa and into other parts of the world with 33.4 million people infected with the virus by the end of 2008 and 25 million deaths globally since 1981. The most affected region is Sub-Saharan Africa with 22.4 million infected people which come up to around 67 of the total number of people infected worldwide. (UNAIDS 2010)
Even the powerful and wealthy nations of the world have been unable to guarantee to their citizens, a life free from the threat of HIV. And in todays age of globalization, it is virtually impossible to for any country to completely safeguard itself from the spread of the virus and the repercussions-economic or social-that are bound to follow.

In July 2000, the United Nations Security Council recognized that HIV poses a threat to the national security of the countries of the world by the passing of Resolution 1308. (United Nations, 2000) Since then there has been considerable debate on the effect of the pandemic on national security. While most agree that in Sub-Saharan countries where even more than 10 of the populations are affected, HIV does indeed pose a serious security threat. However, countries where the virus is not so rampant are reluctant to modify the national security priorities to allow more resources to be allocated to HIV. The EU, Japan and the United States have been particularly averse to admitting the threat HIV could pose to their economies.

The reluctance to accept HIV as a threat to global security is not only confined to governments. Even academics and political theorists have been known to dismiss the magnitude and multitude of the effects that the pandemic can have on our security. The lack of irrefutable data-evidence that the pandemic has been responsible for events that imperilled our society-has been a major barrier to the realization and acceptance of the HIV as a security threat.

Addressing the UN General Assembly on 2nd June 2005, Secretary-General Kofi Annan asserts that the growth of the AIDS epidemic was accelerating...on every continent, despite an annual expenditure of about 8 billion on the treatment, care, and prevention of the virus. He further adds that It is clear that the epidemic continues to outrun our efforts to contain it.

As mentioned before, the most affected region is Sub-Saharan Africa. However, this is not merely a statistic. The countries in the region are subject to abject poverty, most governments are corrupt, dictatorial regimes and living conditions and healthcare are perfunctory at best. Add to all this a deadly virus such as the HIV and the consequences can be well imagined. These countries do not have the massive resources, financial or otherwise, required to take appropriate measures to contain the spread of the virus. This is magnified by the fact that the masses acutely lack awareness about the diseases, aiding it in its spread. This region is also hit by a spate of other diseases and condition which serve to either mask or exacerbate the toll HIV is taking on their society.

Botswanas President Festus Mogae is well aware of this fact. Addressing the Economic Commission of Africa in December 2000, he states that The impact of HIVAIDS on the population, the economy, and the very fabric of our society undermines not only development, but poses a serious threat to our security and life as we know it. (Festus Mogae 2000) In an interview with Reuters in the same year, Mogae further asserts that, We really are in a national crisis. We are threatened with extinction. People are dying in chillingly high numbers. We are losing the best of young people. Its a crisis of the first magnitude.

Countries facing a high rate of infection, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa face a threat to their very stability. This threat originates from the depletion of the countrys political leadership, its youth, its elite population, its professionals and skilled labor. Keeping in mind that these countries already face an acute shortage of human capital, the loss of their highly skilled people, such as lawyers, doctors, teachers, nurses, engineers, academics, political and civil leaders will create a void that cannot be easily filled.

The rate at which HIV is claiming lives is astonishingly high especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. In just 2008, more than 2 millions people died because of AIDS out of which 1.4 million belonged to Sub-Saharan Africa. (UNAIDS, 2010) This rapid loss of professionals in this region is creating a dearth as their ranks cannot be replenished at an equally rapid rate. Considering that the epidemic is still considered to be in its beginning stages, the death toll is expected to rise considerably in the foreseeable future which would cause this depletion of professionals, politicians, managers and labor to reach proportions bordering on crisis, leaving many countries unable to undertake even the most basic aspects of governance.

The social fabric of a nation has perhaps borne the most malignant and corrosive effect of the AIDS epidemic. It has torn families and communities apart and the long term problems that have been created will continue to have an adverse affect on society even once the immediate results of HIV infections have already taken their toll.

The number of orphans due to death of parents because of the virus has skyrocketed in recent years, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Both, the short term and long term repercussions of these deaths needs to be considered. In the short term, governments must allocate resources, which barely exist, to cater to the basic needs of these orphans such as providing them with homes, food education and healthcare. Equally important is to reconstruct the connection that these children have lost with their families and communities. Failure to do so can have severe long term consequences. As millions of orphans reach adulthood without proper social integration, proper education, technical skills or any concept of a future and goals, an alarming situation takes form. The enormity of the problem can be judged by the fact that at the end of 2008, Africa alone had more than an estimated 14 million orphans.
The most profound reason that explains a lot of the repercussions of the HIVAIDS epidemic is the change in the demographic structure of countries. The age group most highly affected by the virus is between men and women aged between 20 and 50 years. The reason for this is that AIDS is mostly transferred through sexual interaction. The depletion of this age group, which forms the basis of a countrys economy, will have severe repercussions as the population of the dependent elderly and children keeps rising while the working population is consistently on the decline. Children and adolescents already outnumber adults and the over life expectancy is on the decline which will further aggravate the problem. Also adding to the mess is the high proportion of orphans among the children, as they are dependent upon the community and the government even for their very basic needs.

In a speech in 2003, US Secretary of State opines how HIV is reshaping the demography of the nations where the HIV virus is rampant. He states that, Its a foreign policy issue not just because of this statistic dealing with loss of life. Its a loss of hope its the destructionof whole families where you have generations wiped out. And the generation thats most critical is the middle generation. In the absence of that generation, wealth is lost to the country, hope is lost, families are broken, and orphans are created. It is every bit as much a crisis as Iraq or any other crisis that you might choose to point out.

The declining life expectancy as a result of the spread of HIV is one of the major threats faced by hard hit countries as it inadvertently leads to diminishing state capacity. Statistics issued by the US Census Bureau tell us a very grim tale. By 2010, 40 nations in the world will face declining life expectancies and the cause of this decline will be AIDS in 35 countries. Again the most affected region is Sub-Saharan Africa with 25 countries experiencing declining life expectancy. While tuberculosis, malaria and general poverty claim their share of life, AIDS is the driving force behind the decrease in life expectancy.

This decrease is essentially leading to reversal of years of development. In Malawi for instance, life expectancy by 2000 had decreased to the countrys 1969 level. In the same time horizon from 1969 to 2000, Zambias life expectancy reduced by almost 32.4 years, Lesothos by 14.4 years and Botswanas by 16 years. (U.S. Census Bureau 2010) Such a decrease, in the absence of war, is so significant thats its importance cannot be stressed enough.

For more developed countries where citizens have access to adequate medical resources, there is greater awareness among the masses on how to protect themselves from the disease and the government has enough resources to both provide medical services and create awareness the direct implications of HIV are not felt so strongly.

However, this does not mean that such are countries are free from the menace that is HIV. With increasing globalization and immigration, there is always the threat that the virus can spread. With thousands of foreign troops stationed in areas where the disease in rampant, the chance of transference are even stronger.

The apathy of the governments of developing nations in dealing with this pandemic has been apparent. Especially in developing countries, where the virus is not widespread there is a risk that the irresponsible attitude of governments may lead to a failure to contain this threat. It is understandable why governments are not willing to allocate more resources towards something they do not perceive as a real threat but the situation in Africa should serve as a lesson to us all. It is high time for governments to take action and at the very least create awareness among the masses about the spread of the disease. Prevention is cheaper than cure.

The threat faced by developed countries is more indirect in nature. In todays world, threats are increasingly inter-related and a threat to one should be considered a threat to all. It is imperative for the security of the more affluent states, that the HIV epidemic is contained in the poorer nations of the world. Another concern for the developed nations is their growing dependence on African countries for oil and natural resources. With a hostile public opinion in the Middle East, western countries, especially the United States needed an alternative source and Africa was the obvious choice. However, the HIV epidemic and the dwindling labor, coupled with a reluctance on the part of foreign companies to invest in countries where the disease is rampant and has already taken its toll on the population, Africa has proven to be an unreliable source.

While less afflicted and developed countries such may not be directly affected by the pandemic as poorer or developing nations, the virus does add to their security concerns and creates an atmosphere of increased risk. The HIV virus has been knows to complicate foreign policy and cause diplomatic rows. It has led to economic losses for developed countries and has also been a cause of increased resentment against the west in highly affected nations. All in all this HIV has made the job of policy makes more difficult as they strive to carve a better future for their people.

Also the lack of evidence of a direct threat for developed nations does not mean that this is necessarily so. The danger exists that as the pandemic continues to grow direct threats may emerge and countries need to be prepared for any such eventuality.

As far as armed forces and military personnel are concerned, it is safe to assume that the percentage of individuals infected may be the same proportion of the general population. However, this percentage maybe higher in countries that where the virus is already widespread. This impedes the nations ability to recruit and maintain a healthy army and police force which gives rise to a plethora of other problems. A large number of affected countries face some sort of insurgency and this disability to maintain armed forces or police required to keep law and order under control stretches the already scant resources available.

There is another form of threat that HIV infection can pose and this has the potential to harm millions and lead countries to declare wars. Deliberate spread of the HIV infection is not unknown and state conflict has ensued from such claims. In April 2004, a Palestinian man was arrest by Israeli forces and charged with conspiracy to mount a suicide attach using a bomb to scatter HIV infected blood in a public place. Similarly, the Indian government in 2004 accused Pakistan of deliberately spreading the HIV infection in occupied Kashmir and termed it a form of Islamic jihadi terrorism.

The Global community has recently awakened to the threat of HIVAIDS and began to take some concrete steps. Led by the United Nations with the United States of America at the forefront of efforts, the world has begun to respond to this global health and security crisis. Organizations such as UNAIDS, the World Health Organization and the World Bank have initiated global programs to alleviate the effect of the HIVAIDS epidemic on our society. Other programs such as the The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria and the U.S. Presidents Emergency Program for AIDS Relief are specifically designed to help critically affected countries.

Referred to many as the plague of the 21st of century, the HIVAIDS pandemic has the potential to wreak havoc on our world. We stand to lose the developments we have made in social, economic and political arenas in the last 3 centuries. The precious loss of life, the increased cost of healthcare and the deterioration of the very fabric of modern society are just some of the potential risks that we face. Due to a lack of skilled labor and resources, which we will need to divert towards the control of HIVAIDS, industries and businesses will fail and we can anticipate an economic meltdown the world over. HIV has shaken the very concept of planning for the future for many developing nations of todays world.
While the response by the Global community has been admirable, there are still many concerns that need to be addressed on an urgent basis. Foremost among them is the apparent insufficiency of resources allocated to fight this global hazard. There is a trade off between trying to alleviate the suffering of the millions already affected or to use the resources to try and contain the spread of the virus. The threat posed by HIV is not restricted individual societies or nations rather it is a global threat and as such requires a global response as well.


Many people in western countries believe that foreign terrorists are the only groups that should be feared however, since 1995 it is apparent that terrorists within our own nations are just as deadly if not deadlier. Internal terrorists know the lay of the land, they understand security, and even know the best way to get all the needed supplies to make their bombs. Most of the time, the bombers are reacting against the government or a specific issue.  While this is the most common reason it is not the only reason.  A comparison of several internal terroristic bombings shows that motivation in one instance is much broader than in other instances.

The London Bombing
On July 7, 2005, four suicide bombers sat on three subway trains.  Three of the bombs went off at 850 a.m. BST.  The fourth bomb did not go off and at approximate 947 am BST the fourth bomb finally went off on the top of a double-decker bus.  Initially the reports stated that it was a terrorist attack.  The government was not sure which group was responsible for the bombing but from the fall out after the bombings the guess was al-Qaeda (BBC News Special Reports 2008 House of Commons 2006).  The reality is there is much more to this story and this bombing then was initially suspected.

According to the BBC News and the Report from the House of Commons, what was originally thought to be a foreign terrorist attack was not quite right.  The fact is that all four of the suicide bombers were British citizens.  Each had led uneventful lives and all lived in and about Beeston, in Leeds while growing up.  Even after two of the group moved away, they remained entrenched in the community life in Beeston. Other than age, the only differences between these four men were that three were of Pakistani descent and one was from Jamaican descent.  The one similarity was religion, each was Muslim.    They all were unassuming and no one ever expected them to be capable of attacking their own countrymen (BBC News Special Reports 2008 House of Commons 2006).

Two of the men had spent time in Pakistan and possibly Afghanistan.  These two men were watched, but only peripherally.  They were not considered major players in the extremists.  However, on July 7, 2005, it became apparent that these were extremists and had something to say.  It was not until September 1, 2005, at which time a video of one of the men was aired on Afghanistan TV and eventually shown to the British government (BBC News Special Reports 2008 House of Commons 2006). In the video, the BBC News stated that his motivation for the suicide bombings was a fierce antagonism to perceived injustices by the West against muslims and a desire for martyrdom (2008).

The bombings are still under investigation.  Al-Qaeda has taken some responsibility for the occurrence, but it does not seem that there was really any outside interfere financially or otherwise, in the planning or execution of this plan.  Al-Qaeda may have taught them to make the bombs, but the plan was defined and completed by the four men in London (BBC News Special Reports 2008 House of Commons 2006).

The British government was well manned at the time.  The G8 Summit was convened just outside London in Gleneagles.  As soon as the bombings occurred, rescue forces were at the scenes which were all over town.  There were over 770 people hurt and 52 dead, not including the four bombers.  By July 13th, the names of the bombers were verified and given to the media. Within four days of the bombings the trains were up and running again, but many other issues were still being dealt with by the government.  In fact, the bombing opened up a new debate about security (House of Commons 2006).

The outcome of this horrible scene was initially the government learning lessons in regards to responding to emergency situations, vulnerability of the railway system, support of the victims families and the roles of working with the media. A full account of the lessons was printed by the House of Commons in March of 2006 and the recommendations are still being put into place to avoid as best as possible, another situations such as this.

1996 Olympic Park Bombings
Friday, July 26, 1996, was the 9th day of the 1996 Summer Olympics being held in Atlanta, Georgia.  The day was over and a band was playing to a group of people celebrating.  It was at this time that a security officer found a knapsack unattended.  He felt that the knapsack was out of place and called the police.  Once the police arrived it was discovered that the bag contained a bomb.  A 911 call verified this information and gave the police the time the bomb would explode.  It gave them enough time to get most of the people away from the area.  However, not everyone was far enough away.  One woman died and another 111 victims were injured (CNN Interactive 1996 Noe n.d.).

On May 31, 2003, the bomber was finally captured.  He was alone in his actions and believed in what he did.  The bombing at the Olympics was just the first of many bombings this man perpetrated.  He also bombed several abortion clinics and nightclubs that catered to homosexuals (CNN Interactive 1996 Noe n.d.).

According to Denise Noe (n.d.) his motivation was  to confound, anger and embarrass the Washington government in the eyes of the world for its abominable sanctioning of abortion on demand.  He even continued stating, After the disaster at Centennial Park, I resolved to improve my devices and focus the blasts upon a very narrow target. Towards this end I acquired a quantity of high explosives (dynamite) (Noe n.d.).

This response shows that this man was planning and knew what he was trying to accomplish.  The fact that he continued to re-evaluate his bombs and his plans shows a man that thought only of his ideals about abortion and how to try to stop it.  He said that he tried to keep people from being harmed but in each instance there were victims, both people and communities.  He is currently serving four consecutive life sentences for his bombings which include the 1996 Olympic Park Bombing (CNN Interactive 1996 Noe n.d.).

1995 Oklahoma City Bombing
April 19, 1995, at 902 am a Ryder truck parked in front of the Alfred P. Murrah building exploded.  It took out most of the nine floors in the 20 year old building.  There were 168 casualties including children from an on-site daycare and more than 800 were injured (FEMA 2009 FoxNews.com 2010).  The men who perpetrated this atrocity knew the building housed many government agencies and a daycare, but did not let that bother them when they decided to go up against the Federal Government.  They motive seemed to stem from the attack on Waco and the belief that big brother was too interested in the private live of United States citizens, and this was a wake up call that Americans would not take it (FoxNews.com 2010).

Of the two bombers that were convicted of this crime, one was sentenced to 161 consecutive life sentences, while the other was sentenced to death.  The sentence of execution was carried out on June 11, 2001 (FoxNews.com 2010).

All three of these bombings have similarities in the sense that the bombers truly believed in their ideals and the need to make a grand commotion to get their ideals to the public.  They have all used the idea of bombs to grasp the publics attention as well as the government.  Even the types of bombs are hand made with chemicals and pieces that can be found easily.

The Oklahoma City Bombing and the London Bombing are similar in that the bombers were not afraid to die.  The four London Bombers were suicide bombers.  In the Oklahoma City Bombing the execution of effected through trial and sentencing.  The Olympic Park Bomber believed that he outsmarted the government, because he beat the death penalty, but his actions were no less atrocious.
Another similarity between the Oklahoma City Bombing and the London Bombing was the fact that they focused on areas that would be full of people.  The London Bombings were placed on vehicles of mass transit and detonated during the morning commute to work. The Oklahoma City Bombing detonated once everyone had arrived at work.  Only the Olympic Park Bomber called the police 30 minutes prior to detonation to ensure that the human casualties would be less if any at all.  His ideal was to destroy property not lives, unlike the other bombers.

While they all acted in regard to their belief systems, the actual beliefs and the actual recipient were completely different.  The London Bombers were not interested in destroying their British Government, but destroying all Western Governments.  They believed that Western Governments were discriminating against Muslims and they wanted this to stop.  The only way they knew how to get attention was by explosions.

In Oklahoma City, the bombers were trying to make clear that the government was interfering with the privacy of the citizens.  This group was focused on the national government and with bombing the federal building emphasized their dissatisfaction with the government.
The Olympic Park Bomber was all about his own beliefs against abortion and homosexuality and his belief that the government allowed this murders and vile diseases to be allowed to infect the public.  He did not want to hurt people, but wanted to embarrass the government and destroy the places that murdered and spread the infections, such as nightclubs.

Each of these terrorist activities was not perpetrated by foreigners, but by the people that were neighbors.  They lived in the country and probably knew people in the vicinity of their actions.  They took the lives of other in their hands in a hope to force their beliefs on others, or at least to bring their ideals about the actions of the government.  The explosions were only the beginning to the terror.  The fall out of the actions leaves more fear and more people wondering when the next internal terrorist attack will occur and how many will be hurt this time.  This fear of internal terrorists is worst than the fear of foreign terrorists, because it could be a neighbor or co-worker.  It is obvious that no one really knows.

Globalization and crime

In the current world where globalization is taking place at a fast rate, crime has featured very prominently. It can in fact be considered to be part of the culture of globalization as well as other consumerism forms. Crime globalization charts its evolution as it becomes more and more complicated as more advances are made in the world of technology. Through globalization, material crime has been greatly enhanced making millions of people around the world to become vulnerable to several forms of crime that are being carried out as globalization continues to deepen. Criminalization trends, social and crime development, social and crime control, political crimes and also crimes as a result of transitional cultures are all increasing in frequency as a result of globalization. Globalization has therefore had a great impact on crime and has in fact resulted into more of it. Crime has therefore become one of the major menaces associated with globalization (Shelley, 2006 Kyle  Koslowski, 2001).

Globalization and crime
At the close of the twentieth century, there was a new phenomenon that appeared, the globalization of crime intensified. The main crimes that became a global phenomenon include terror, drug trafficking and internet crime together with other computer related crimes. The first two types of crimes are largely traditional but have been greatly enhanced by increased globalization. However, the latter ones are very new and quite complicated due to the technology used as well as the dynamics that are involved in the ever advancing technology. Globalization has resulted into both blue crimes as well as white crimes. In the former, force or other forms of threats are used on the victim while in white crimes, no force is used but the victim still suffers the loss of some valuables. The global crimes are not only found in the poor and developing countries of Africa and Latin America, but they are also present in the most prosperous nations such as the US and the European nations (Passas, 2000).

Terrorism has become one of the major crimes as a result of globalization, it is usually hidden under the unholy trinity which is quite complex, with those involving themselves in terrorist activities arguing that they are protecting their religion. However, it is has become quite evident that in most cases, they are out for material gain. They use terrorism to increase the flow of goods that are illicit such as drugs, in the international markets. The globalized networks of crime work very closely with the terrorists organizations and they are both in a position to undertake their activities in a successful manner as they are also assisted by the corruption endemic. The artificial difference that is usually made between terrorism and crime is founded on the antiquated concept of the two. The maxim that criminals normally involve themselves in criminal activities for profit and other material gains and the terrorists exclusively operate on motives that are political, contradicts their contemporary reality (Broad, 2002).

Crime that is internationally organized has had its activities globalized for basically similar reasons as those of the multinational organizations that are legitimate. Just as these multinational organizations have established operational branches across the world in order to position themselves well and hence take advantage of the attractive raw material and labor, the illicit business organizations has done the same. Moreover, international business organizations, both illicit and legitimate, also set up facilities across the whole world for marketing, production and distribution requirements. Illegal business organizations are in a position of expanding geographically and thus take full advantage of the emerging opportunities, thanks to both international transportation and communication revolution. Terrorists have also gone global in terms of recruiting and they can now recruit new members internationally. They are also able to be near to the Diaspora societies, which offer them support in terms of finances and logistics (Pickering, 2007).

Growth in illegal global activities has been greatly assisted extremely by great advances in the world of technology. The increase in the traffic of commercial airlines and advances in telecommunications such as fax, telephone, together with fast communications via the internet and the increase of international commerce have all greatly enhanced the movement of people and goods. As a result, criminals have exploited each and every opportunity such as chat anonymity across via the internet together with other forms of communications that are based on computers to carryout their activities. A good example is the 911 terrorist attack where the terrorists used public computers to purchase airline tickets and also send messages. Similarly, drug traffickers in Columbia uses encrypted telecommunications in executing and planning their trade (Sheptycki, 2003).

Globalization has been coupled by the free markets ideology and also ideologies of reduced state interventions and free trade. According to the advocates of globalization, decreasing international barriers and regulations to investment and trade increases development and trade. However, these conditions encourage an environment that is globalized, which is very vital for crime expansion. Crime organizations have exploited to a very great extent the lessened controls across borders, reduced regulations, and also the resulting freedom in order to expand their operations around the world by covering more regions in foreign countries. Such contacts have greatly increased in frequency and also the speed at which they take place has also increased dramatically. Whereas legal trade growth is greatly regulated by observance to policies of border control, bureaucratic systems, and customs officials, international crime organizations freely exploit the numerous loopholes of legal systems that are state based in order to expand their reach. Criminals are able to travel areas where it is not easy to extradite them, base most of their activities in nations with corrupt or ineffective law enforcement, and also launder money in nations with few controls that are effective or with bank secrecy. By segmenting most of their activities, criminals are in a position of reaping from the numerous benefits of globalization and at the same time reduce significantly the risks involved in their operations (Bigo, 2002 Pontell  Geis, 2007 George  Page, 2004).

International commerce increased tremendously in the 2nd half of the twentieth century. Incorporated in the massive flow of commodities that are legitimate, is increased merchandise that is illicit. It is quite complicated to look for the illegal flows from the legal ones thus giving the illegal flow a chance to cross borders. It is only possible to check the cargo of a few container ships thoroughly, hence enhancing the movement of contraband, arms and drugs (Adam, 2008).

In the recent past, there has been an increase in several forms of globalized crimes. Trading of drugs was one of the first illegal sectors that were used by crime groups to maximize their profits in a world that was fast becoming globalized. Crime groups made a lot of profits as a result of dealing with drugs and several terrorist organizations used the trade of trafficking drugs as a major source of making money to fund their activities. However, as the drugs market increased in competitiveness and transnational law response for enforcement increased, the profit margin of this trade reduced dramatically as a result of enhanced risk and competition. This compelled criminals to utilize other crime forms that were being facilitated as globalization continued to take place. Criminals have benefited greatly from increased trafficking of arms. Globalization has also resulted to massive increase of illicit trade of species that are endangered, stolen antiquities and art, hazardous waste, counterfeiting as well as crimes that are globalized linked to the credit cards. Organized crime makes use of these operations in order to perpetuate their activities on the world stage (Aas, 2007 Tsang, 2007).

As globalization continues to take place at a fast rate, so is crime globalization. As mentioned earlier, crime is one of the greatest menaces that have been associated with globalization. It remains a huge challenge for law makers and governments around the world to come up with laws and policies that can effectively deal with this menace of globalization. Globalized crime has further been complicated by the advances in technology, which has made it possible for criminals to plan and execute their operations in a very effective manner. As a result of crime globalization, millions of people around the world have been made vulnerable to the ever changing tactics of criminals thus making them to suffer financially, emotionally and physically. Terrorism, is one of the major crimes the modern world is facing and it has been brought about by globalization. Therefore, crime globalization appears to be like weed which grows with crops and it has to be weeded out for the good crop to grow well.