International Relations

The nature of contemporary relations between two countries
From the point of view of Lebanese authors, the relations between Lebanon and Israel is one sided which means that while the Lebanese government wanted both political and economic peace, the Israeli government maintains its interests in the Southern Lebanon which provokes conflict among the radical Lebanese armed movement, the Hezbollah. With the end of the 34 days conflict that started in July 1986 with the kidnapping of two Israeli soldiers it appeared that Israel and Lebanon have still hostile yet diplomatic relationship. Hostile in a sense that Israel at any time would retaliate to any attacks that will be carried out by the Hezbollah, but diplomatic because according to a document titled Middle East Lebanon published by CIA The World Fact Book, it appeared that Lebanon is now on its feet to comply with the democratic principles which insures that Lebanon is doing its best to free the country of the radical armed groups that initiates arm confrontation with Israel (CIA-The World fact book).

Given the above, it was not the Lebanese government that was in conflict with Israel but those armed militias backed up by Iran and Syria. That is, since Lebanon was under the control of Syria, and Iran was funding Hezbollah, it was these countries that were hostile to Israel and not Lebanon. Lebanon was reduced to a weak state being used by both Iran and Syria to wage terrorism on Israel. In a Paper entitled Israels Timeline From Ancient to Contemporary Times A Brief Modern History of Arab-Israeli Relations 1897 Present, the paper pointed that Lebanon War in 1982 was not between Israel and Lebanon rather it was a war between Israel and the PLO (Israels Timeline). The paper noted that Israel withdraw its troops from Lebanon in 1985 in view of the civil war raging during this period, and concentrated its troops in southern Lebanon where the terrorist Hezbollah organization dwells. This suggests that Israel was only at war with the Hezbollah and not with Lebanon. Therefore, relations between these countries were simply affected by the conflict.   

The nature of the relationship therefore between Israel and Lebanon though not hostile yet it is not engaging in military action. From an independent viewpoint, Israel and Lebanons relations were influenced by forces that are beyond control on the part of Lebanon. Lebanon serves as a pawn which was pushed by both Syria and Iran to advance their own interests against Israel through their financial support with Hamas and Hezbollah who carried out attacks on Israeli soldiers.   

Are they members of the same international institutions
Yes, they are Both Lebanon and Israel are members of the United Nations. Israel became member in 1948 but recently its membership was brought into question and was threatened for revocation due to its alleged violations of the UN provisions and for its military activities in the Gaza Strip which according to Snorre Linquist and Lasse Wilhelmson Stockholm, are causing insufferable situation for the 1.5 million Palestinians living in the area (Linquist and Stockholm). But both countries were also member of different organizations. Israel for instance is also a member of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development gaining its full membership in 2007 (OECD). While Lebanon is not a is not member of the prestigious international institution, the country however was a member of the Arab League as well as of the Organization of the Islamic conference and its revolutionary armed movement is receiving funding in the amount closer to two hundred million dollars annually from Iran and Syria.

There is no way perhaps that these two countries can be members of the same international organization except of the United Nations in view of the magnitude of the conflict between Hezbollah which operates in Lebanon, and the Israeli army. According to the a Human rights watch world report, The Israeli armys continued failure to conduct investigations into most killings of civilians reinforced a culture of impunity in the army and robbed victims of an effective remedy (p. 478). These unfortunate consequences of armed conflict between these countries clearly widen their gap which makes it impossible for them to be members of the same international institution.

Is there considerable trade between these countries
Based on a paper published by the Institute for Curriculum Services (ICS) entitled Israels Timeline From Ancient to Contemporary Times A Brief Modern History of Arab-Israeli Relations 1897  to Present Israel has never made any considerable trade with Lebanon because of the latters close involvement with Syria and Iran who were both hostile to Israel. Indeed, Israel frequently engaged in armed conflict with Lebanon not because the Lebanese government was hostile to Israel but it was through the provocations of the Hezbollah. Iran and Syria is backing this revolutionary armed movement to carry out terrorism activities against Israel.

In view of the long standing conflict between Israel and the countries funding Islamic militant organizations which operates in Lebanon, Israel can never have any trade relations no matter how small or big because of its close relations with Syria and Iran. These two countries were indeed determined to annihilate Israel. Alan Dershowitz noted that Irans leaders have threatened to wipe Israel off the map (p. 186) emphasizing that it is a religious obligation to develop and use weapons of mass destruction (p. 186) and use them against Israel. With this extreme resentment against the Jews, there could never have any bilateral trade relations between these two countries.   

According to the paper, since 1947 up to the present, Israel had been in conflict with Palestinian including Lebanon. They never recognized the state of Israel or had established bilateral trade relations, rather these Arab nations frequently attacked Israel engaging them in bloody confrontations.

Considering the historical context and the circumstances surrounding these two countries, there is certainly no possibility that trade relations has ever existed or will ever exist as the only relations that they ever had was to wage war against each other. Furthermore, in connection with Israels continued aggressive construction of the wall that stretches up to the West bank and is expected to serve as its border, the human rights report stated that it would mean annexation of about ten percent of the West Bank, including almost all major settlements there, all of which are illegal under the Fourth Geneva Convention (p. 479). This aggressive expansion continues to draw hatred on Israel from other Islamic countries particularly Iran that makes it impossible for Israel to establish bilateral relations with Lebanon. The pressures coming from Islamic countries against possible cooperation with Israel will surely be preventing any such attempts. Thus, there is certainly no way Israel and Lebanon can have trade relations whatsoever in view of all the circumstances surrounding Israel and Lebanon. 

Survey of Emergency and Disaster Management Disaster Preparedness and Response

There are a number of security related challenges which are always related to the manner in which various organizational and urgency disasters, urgencies, and other  issues are managed. Fire, plane crashes, hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, accidents, and road accidents are some of the common disasters that could be suffered either by individual persons or by both large and small scale organizations (Alexander 2002). The four phases of disaster management implementation include the mitigation phase, response phase, preparedness and the recovery phases.

Survey of Emergency and Disaster Management
Different kinds of disaster and emergencies are best controlled by different phases of disaster management and control mechanisms. The mitigation phase, for instance, is normally put in to usage ones a given disaster has already occurred. This could best be used in cases where a hurricane wind has taken place. Wisner, Blaikie, Cannon, Davis (2004) argues that in such circumstances, there is always the dire need to ensure that the harm caused by the already existing disaster is minimized. This phase could therefore entail taking people from the hurricane prone zones to fairly same regions. Technological solutions could be employed in cases where the migration of the hurricane disaster needs technological communication to talk to the concerned people and inform them of the existing safe regions among offering other rescue measures.

On the other hand, the response phase entails ensuring that the disaster, such as a huge fire burning a building, is not prevented or simply mitigated, but that people and other resources are safeguarded from total harm. Firefighters, emergency doctors, and ambulance vehicles are normally used in rescuing people in circumstances of harmful fire. Police could also be called upon to enhance security for the property of the individuals facing the fire disaster. However, the preparedness phase entails strategies to ensure that individuals are made to be ready for any disaster that could occur. According to Dynes (2006), for constant population growth that tend to pose danger, the preparedness phase could be utilized to ensure that the population is controlled to avert any disaster such as food shortage, lack of medical services, poor health and shelter conditions due to strain on the scarce resources. People are thus trained and fully get prepared to deal with any occurrence of such disaster.
The recovery phase is mainly applied in situations where a disaster has already occurred. For a catastrophic disaster such as landslides and earthquakes which have already occurred, this phase of recovery could be used by relocating the few survivors from the disaster and proving them with the vital basic needs in order for them to resume their normal living standards.

Importance of leadership and Training exercises
It is always very crucial for people and organizations of any sort to be prepared for any disaster which may occur. This depends on the environmental factors and the nature of business in which the business organization ventures into. Proper leadership, advance training and laying down of readiness measures help the organization to save on the money and other resources that would otherwise be used in recovery measures. It also helps maintain business customers, reduce stress levels, and saves the corporate image of an organization (Dynes 2006).

Leadership Training Importance
Confusion, tension, drastic decision making, lack of organization and poor-unrealistic decision making processes are some of the problems and situations which are normally witnessed in cases of disaster and emergencies. Proper leadership and training of all stakeholders on the management and mitigation of disaster and emergencies thus help to avoid such problems. Timely and professional emergency responses also helps to save n the cost and time used in managing emergency thus increasing efficiency and effectiveness in an organization.

From the above analysis, it is very evident that proper strategies should always be laid down in order for individual persons and organizations to adequately manage disaster in the most efficient and cost effective manner possible.

Disaster Management Winter Storm or Tornado

As all resources are scarce, in case two interests collide, we are always bound to make a technical, professional and even a political decision to settle the issue. In the specific community that we are investigating, we are first bound to choose which of the two types of disaster that we must choose to allot our resources on. Is it the high vulnerability in winter storm or the high risk of tornadoes
From here we are recommending for the allocation of the resources in addressing the vulnerability of the community in a winter storm. In carrying out this decision, we take note of two things that prioritized this vulnerability over the high risk in tornadoes.

Acceptable Risk According to International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (2004), acceptable risk is the level of loss a society or community considers acceptable given existing social, economic, political, cultural, technical and environmental conditions. As stated in the report, the community is less vulnerable to tornadoes despite of the frequency of its occurrence this means that there will be less human and material casualty that shall be induced with the occurrence of this disaster. Single digits casualties for every occurrence of disaster are more acceptable rather than the thousands or hundreds of thousands of casualties that can be induced by the winter storm wherein the community is more vulnerable.

Public Awareness and Coping Capability According to ISDR, these are the capability of the different sectors of government, organizations and the citizens itself in handling the impending disaster. Since tornadoes are more frequent in the region or in the community, it can be assumed that the people together with the different sectors are more educated and more adept in handling the disaster. When compared to the occurrence of a winter storm wherein they are not adept to, we can expect that the population will not likely to cope with this disaster as much as they can in the occurrence of tornadoes.

In this kind decision, it is expectable to see resistance and skepticism in the local community or government. People are naturally forgetful and 20 years is a long time that can erase all the threats and damaged posed by the last winter storm. With this in mind, people may question your recommendation. As a person who sees the threats more clearly, it is important to push our recommendations until the policy and decision makers realize the impending disaster in the future.
It is also important to note that in February 2003, President Bush issued Homeland Security Presidential Directive 5 (HSPD-5), which describes how the federal departments will manage domestic incidents by establishing a single, comprehensive national incident management system (NASDA 2006). It is important to mention the significance of the National Incident Management System in dealing with the occurrence of a winter storm. Of all the features of the NIMS (2010), its communication capability and resource management will greatly help the community in handling the winter storm. Local agencies will benefit greatly in the efficiency and reliability of the communication and information system of the NIMS. In situations wherein usual communications will be disabled by the storm the NIMS can provide an alternative. The resource management will also play a vital part. The resource management of NIMS ensures the proper allocation of personnel. NIMS recording, tracking and keeping tabs are vital in this kind of situation.

Disaster management had been our generations response to the growing number of calamities that is happening today. However, rather than the classic approach which is more commonly known relief and response that cannot cope with the exponential loss of lives and properties due to different calamities todays approach in disaster management shifted to a more preparation and development approach (Yodmani 2001  DoL 2005). A paradigm that is comparable to the cure versus treatment approach in medicine, this kind of approach values preparations, reduction of socio-economic vulnerabilities and development of the community as a whole. This is our response to the growing number of disasters and calamities that is surrounding mankind.

Emergency and Disaster Management Introduction to Emergency and Disaster Management Types of Disasters

Disaster managements objective is to reduce or avoid the effects of hazards in disasters by acting promptly, giving the appropriate help to the victims of disaster and achieve quick and effective recovery. This happens in a cycle in which all involved parties
plan for and reduce the impact of disaster,
react during and immediately following a disaster, and
Take steps to recover after the occurrence of a disaster.
This happens in four phases which can be described as

Mitigation  in this phase the effects of disaster are minimized and involvebuilding codes, zoning, public education etc.

Preparedness  this is the phase that involves planning how to respond and consists of preparedness plans, emergency exercisestraining and warning systems.

Response  this is the phase where efforts are made to minimize the hazards brought by a disaster and includes search and rescue and provision of emergency relief.

Recovery  this is the phase involving returning the community to normalafter a disaster and includes temporary housing, grants, medical care etc. Recovery activities continue until all systems return to normal or better. These phases need not take place in that order and the duration of each phase of the cycle depends on the severity of the disaster. In most cases the phases may even overlap.

During the September-11 bombing, the response was quite good, especially considering the magnitude of the disaster.  According to the National Situation Update for September 12, 2001, in the New York city, the Fire Department of New, the New York Police Department, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey , the building  employees and the occupants of the buildings did their best to cope with a disaster of such a magnitude, with casualties who were nearly 100 in the impact zone. Even though there was a problem of command and control both in New York and Pentagon, this phase was carried out well considering the magnitude of the disaster.

The recovery phase which involved the search and rescue effort in the immediate aftermath at the World Trade Center site involved construction workers of various trades. From across North America, over one thousand ironworkers had arrived to help. In New York, the coordination of the recovery phase of the disaster was done by the New York City Office of Emergency Management, and volunteers came in the thousands to help. This phase was carried out well though it was interrupted when the buildings collapsing under fire. (National Situation Update for September 12, 2001).

On the basis of the 9-11 Commission Report, the response phase of the disaster management cycle was carried out the best. The commission highlights the point that there was almost 100 casualty at the impact zone and goes to mention that with a disaster of such a scale, the agencies which were involved in this phase did their best.

When Hurricane Katrina struck, it became evident that the nation is not adequately prepared to respond to catastrophic disasters, even after the September 11 terrorists attack.

The magnitude of the destruction and human suffering caused by Hurricane Katrina to the people and communities of the Gulf Coast Region clearly shows that the nation has not changed in terms of preparedness with respect to disaster. The country may have taken good steps tackle terror, but not natural disasters or other types of disaster. This is evidenced by media descriptions of acts of desperation and survival by the victims in obtaining food and supplies following Katrina.

If there is anything that could have prevented the planning and implementation of September 11 terrorists attack, it would have been to heed the threats that had been issued. The fact is that the attack was entirely foreseeable. Anti-interventionists had warned about long before, but the regimes in power smugly believed they were in control in every corner of the world. The truth is that if the issues that made the Arabs hate Americans and their values would have been addressed, then the bombing would most likely not have occurred.

Types of Disasters
Natural disasters are the disasters that are caused directly and intentionally by man e.g. the September 11 terrorist attack. Natural disasters also include disasters caused by man due to his activities, without necessarily doing it intentionally. An example of this is the global climatic change which has largely been blamed on the use of fossil fuels.  The increase in the frequency of floods and storms has been blamed on this climatic change and global warming. Natural disasters on the other hand are those that occur naturally without mans intervention e.g. Drought, Earthquakes Fires, Floods, Hurricanes, Typhoons, Tropical Cyclones, Landslides, Nuclear Disasters, Oil Spills, Tornadoes, Tsunamis, and Volcanoes. One important point is that while man-made disasters can be averted, man is seemingly helpless in natural disasters.

Definitions and Information on technological disasters.Terrorism           
Terrorism is defined in the Code of Federal Regulations as the unlawful use of force and violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. When terrorism strikes, communities may receive assistance from State and Federal agencies operating within the existing Integrated Emergency Management System. FEMA is the lead Federal agency for supporting State and local response to the consequences of terrorist attacks.     

FEMAs role in managing terrorism includes both antiterrorism and counterterrorism activities. Antiterrorism refers to defensive measures used to reduce the vulnerability of people and property to terrorist acts, while counterterrorism includes offensive measures taken to prevent, deter, and respond to terrorism. Within the emergency management arena, antiterrorism is a hazard mitigation activity and counterterrorism falls within the scope of preparedness, response and recovery.           

Terrorism is often categorized as domestic or international. This distinction refers not to where the terrorist act takes place but rather to the origin of the individuals or groups responsible for it. For example, the 1995 bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City was an act of domestic terrorism, but the attacks of September 2001 were international in nature. For the purposes of consequence management, the origin of the perpetrator(s) is of less importance than the impacts of the attack on life and property thus, the distinction between domestic and international terrorism is less relevant for the purposes of mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery than understanding the capabilities of terrorist groups and how to respond to the impacts they can generate.

Biological  Chemical Weapons         
Biological agents are infectious microbes or toxins used to produce illness or death in people, animals or plants. Biological agents can be dispersed as aerosols or airborne particles. Terrorists may use biological agents to contaminate food or water because they are extremely difficult to detect. Chemical agents kill or incapacitate people, destroy livestock or ravage crops. Some chemical agents are odorless and tasteless and are difficult to detect. They can have an immediate effect (a few seconds to a few minutes) or a delayed effect (several hours to several days).       

Biological and chemical weapons have been used primarily to terrorize an unprotected civilian population and not as a weapon of war. This is because of fear of retaliation and the likelihood that the agent would contaminate the battlefield for a long period of time. The Persian Gulf War in 1991 and other confrontations in the Middle East were causes for concern in the United States regarding the possibility of chemical or biological warfare. While no incidents occurred, there remains a concern that such weapons could be involved in an accident or be used by terrorists.

In conclusion, I would say that if a terrorist attack or another significant disaster were to hit the United States today that is similar to that which occurred on 9-11 or Hurricane Katrina were to occur today, the preparedness would respond to significantly better because after the September 11 and Katrina, the agencies involved have equipped themselves well and have also gained experience. Funds have also been set aside for such emergencies. I believe that the FEMA has also been restructured to cope with such an occurrence.

Conceptual Understanding of Macroeconomics Interrelationships

Conceptual Understanding of Macroeconomics Interrelationships
Among Technology, Industry and National Economy Viewed from the Central
Theme of 21st Century Human Civilization Chemical Engineering as an Example

The subject is pertaining to the entirety of human history, past present and future where macroeconomics played a very important role in shaping the national economy. In all the field of economics, macroeconomics covers more than the other field of economics. Conceptual understanding is very important in dealing with this subject.

Macroeconomics can be related to the other field or branch of sciences. As an example, chemical engineering is illustrated as a case to explain how macroeconomics connects industry with national economy.

It is stated that United States of America face economic crisis where this crisis can also become an economic crisis of the entire civilization. It is viewed this way because present time, the 21st century, the world is becoming one entity. Some of the crises that the United States of America is dealing with are the investment banks that are bankrupt and housing crisis. From short term economic problems, this can lead to a long term crisis. Using short term solutions are not adequate to resolve economic crisis, instead, concentrate on employing macroeconomic policy to create jobs and employment. Restructuring person s security in terms of prime economic health and the cultural well being of people can also help resolve economic problems. Resolving economic crisis at the United States can also lead to the answers to the problem of the other part of the world because the world today is becoming just one entity where the problem of a part of a globe is a problem of the entire human civilization.

The core concepts of the 21st century civilization are the energy, international peace and security, environment and human health where these also serve as the fundamental issues of present time. Human civilization cannot survive without strong global leadership. It can be seen from the history of human civilization that there are three global leaderships. First is the Roman Empire where the idea of the system is applied. Second is the British Empire that employs rationalism and the third is the United States leadership. Global leadership is very important because as stated, the whole world is one entity, what happens to some part of it may also happen at the other part in an instant.

The paradigm of 21st century is sustainability in the human well being. Sustainability is that continued civilization without hurting the future generation. But it is impossible not to hurt the upcoming generation because of the rapid advance of technology. So as much as possible, minimize the damage in terms of environment. In other words, human well being is the goal of the paradigm.
Added value is one of the essential ideas of macroeconomics. People in the United States have been studying foreign money and not their own because they are capitalist economy. Because of this, it directed the US to a certain problem in economy. As we can see, Asian countries like Japan, China and Korea make money through their exports and imports and then they deposit it in the US. The money going out also comes back and then the US got to spend this money. In the process, US economy is eroded where manufacturing industry are damaged so much because their industry are not being competitive. To stop the continuous erosion, spending foreign money must be stopped and also develop national system immediately to handle the productivity issues.

In understanding the relation of chemical engineering with macroeconomics, it must be first stated how chemical engineering started in the US. The first paradigm of chemical engineering is obvious in 1923. At that time, automobile was introduced where gas and oil became a significant part of the century. Second paradigm is the transport phenomenon and the third paradigm is the sustainability of the human well being. The unifying concept of all the paradigms is the survival issue and the life enhancement issue of the 21st century civilization. Chemical engineering is applied where judgment to develop economic ways of using materials and energy for the benefits of mankind. Chemical engineering primarily exists to support the chemical industries. Engineering sciences greatly differs with other pure science like mathematics, physics and chemistry because engineering is always associated with industry not like the pure sciences. Industry is a macroeconomic entity like manufacturing industry where engineering sciences are always connected but not all industries are manufacturing one. Chemical engineering provides chemical industry with inexpensive materials, chemical engineering technology and also chemical engineers.

Chemical industry is an entity of macroeconomics producing added value GDP. This GDP is the summation added value where it uses chemical engineering technology. Thus, every industry should contribute to the GDP of the national economy. Macroeconomics is the one that connects the industry with national economy. This industry is an entity of macroeconomics that must be competitive in order to gain added value GDP. In order to gain added value GDP, innovation must be conceptualized where innovation is the introduction of something new, new idea or new method because 21st century is a century for innovation.


Democratic deficit can be considered as occurring when a democratic organization or institutions or even the government is deemed as falling short of fulfilling the principles of the parliamentary democracy in their day to day operations (Barry, 1991). European Union is the most developed international organization that provides a laboratory for observing the development of the democratic structures both within and without its member states. It is there for imperative to note that the democratic deficit has wider implications that reach beyond the EU and affects the critical issues of future developments within the democratic theory (Elster, J. 1998). On an abstract level, democratic deficit reflects a specific model of democracy in which the European Union considered to be appropriate. Therefore, if the institution i.e. diverges from this ideal, then it is considered to be more democratic deficit. The question whether the European Union is democratically deficit has been debated a lot by a number of scholars, however, due to the nature of the definition of democracy, in relation to the democratic countries, the European Union can be said to be democratically deficit (Thomas, 2009). The democratic character and the effectiveness of the European Union has been questioned by a number of scholars including politicians, researchers and even journalist who have always characterized the international organization as suffering from democratic deficit or lack of democratic accountability. A number of claims have been made that the European Union have diverted a lot from the ideals of democracy.

Objective of the research
The objective of this research is to understand the basis of the arguments about the European Unions democratic deficit and the effects of the European integration process. The assumptions and arguments on the economic integration could have led to the political intergrations which have a tendency to apply to the European institutions standards of legitimacy and democracy. This has been derived from the theory and practices of parliamentary democracies.

Democratic deficit
On an abstract level, democratic deficit is reflected on the scientific models of democracy that has been considered to be appropriate for the international organization, i.e. European Union, United Nation NATO, etc (Hix, 1999). Therefore, if this international organization diverges from these specific models of democracy, the international organization, in this case specifically the European Union is considered to be democratically deficit. Democratic deficit has been a popular term among the critics of the European Union, the lack of functioning democracy reflects largely on the failings of the European parliament to give the Europeans people their rightful say in the Unions affairs (Beetham,  Lord, 1998). This therefore has been considered to be deficiency of democracy in the European Union. More often, as the size of the polity increases, there could be a decrease in the effective citizen participation therefore increasing democratic deficit within the organization. In large organizations like the European Union, delegation of authorities is almost inevitable and this has brought forth a bargain among the political and bureaucratic elites (Thomas, 2009). The need for the delegation of authorities and responsibilities within the European Union has become more pronounced as a result of the increase in scale from the individual nation-state to international organization. Though delegation in large scale organizations like international organizations is of dire importance, it has caused a diminishing effect on the effective citizen participation. According to the ideals of democracy within the European Union, maximum participation of entities from all quarters is of high significance as it promotes democracy (Thomas, 2009). However, this has not been the case in the European Union. Due to its large scale representative structures and therefore, it has fallen short of the ideals especially in comparison with those of smaller counterparts and those of democratic countries (Elster, J. 1998).

A number of scholars have debated greatly on the way the European Union is democratically deficit. According to Dahl, it is claimed that the international organizations more specifically the European Union, should be subject to popular control for it to claim to be having democracy within itself. However, with regards to the European Union, Dahl claims that the organization is only subject to unlimited control among the few political and bureaucratic entities and this has led to the democratic deficit in the European Union. On comparing the European Union with democratic countries, it clearly indicates that the international organization requires the development of the institutions within itself in order for it to be able to provide opportunities fro the political participation, influence and control that is equal to the effectiveness of the democratic countries. According to Dahl, the democratic deficit within the European Union or other international organizations might lead to the possibility of the emergence of guardianship by the European Union. It is therefore clear that the democratic structures at the nation level have not been properly implemented at the supranational level (Dahl, 1999).

In order for an international organization to be democratic, first, it has to consider the output of the political process. It entails the consideration of getting to know what the people want, the policies that constitute the democratic reflection of the voters preference and the certainty of the legislative process to lead to the implementations of these policies. All these issues lie at the heart of democracy.

Legitimacy problems within the European Union
There is a large overlap between the literature dealing with democratic deficit and problems of legitimacy within the European Union. A number of scholars have agreed on the democratic deficit, others have gone beyond and claimed that the models of pluralism have failed to address the issues of democratic legitimacy (Beetham,  Lord, 1998). The legitimacy problems have been attributed to the asymmetric relationship between the constitutional and the popular element of democratic ideals. Katz argued that the compositional element of the European Union has become dominant in the European Union level and therefore the democratic deficit is in essence a democratic overload that has been caused by the insufficient of the possibilities for the majority to actually exercise their constitutional powers. Legitimacy problems in the European Union can therefore be categorized into three procedural, efficiency and social legitimacy (Hix, 1999).

Procedural legitimacy
The procedural legitimacy within the European Union can be further subdivided in to two the electoral approach and the governance approach. According to the electoral approach, scholars have claimed that the legitimacy problems lies on the fact that there is a fundamental lack of proper electoral institution at the European level and hence the European Union can be considered as having legitimacy issues with regards to the electoral realms (Barry, 1991). According to scholar, the international institution has led to the hollowing of the national democracies because it has deviated from the ideal of promoting democracies in all the member states and instead, due to lack of the proper electoral approach, it has diminished national democracies. Other scholars like Decker have also attributed the democratic deficit and legitimacy problems to the institutional deficiencies of the electoral, party system and the lack of European demonstration (Hix, 1999). Due to the transfer of competence to the European level, the European Union supranational characteristic have found less response at its social base among the parties and the voters therefore producing democratic deficits and problems relating to legitimacy (Barry, 1991). Hix also argued that the lack of European -wide party system and the absence of a clearly recognizable parliamentary opposition have been a major hindrance to the development of the democracy and legitimacy in the European Union. The governance issues also affect the procedural legitimacy with regards to networks and deliberation of authorities and responsibilities (Beetham,  Lord, 1998). The presence of the strong entities and personalities within the European Union has also provided legitimacy problems within the international organization. In contrast with the general public, the strong publics within the European Union has been considered to be a sphere of institutionalized deliberation of responsibilities and the process of decision making within the international organization (Barry, 1991).

Efficiency legitimacy
The output or efficiency legitimacy as view by the scholars focuses on the normative issues of proving that there is no democratic deficit that is considered to be specific to the European Union but rather focuses on the question of the quality of the democracy in the European Union (Thomas, 2009). The international organization has been viewed by scholars as a polity that is concerned with handling the issues of the European Unions member states. However, it has been argued by scholars that the European Union as the polity that handles these issues have not been able to handle them properly therefore producing legitimacy issues relating to its efficiency. According to Katz, the complicated system of checks and balances within the European Union has led to the conception of legitimacy problems and being a pluralist model that is coupled with the protection of minorities at the expense of the majoritys ideals.

Social legitimacy
According to scholars, a more fundamental issue is the possibility of democratizing the European Union with regards to the citizens of the member states (Shapiro,  Hacker-Cordon 1997). The issue of the lack of demonstration at the European level depicts that there is limited participation of the citizens of the European Unions member states. The lack of effective citizen participation depicts that there is poor relationship between the European Union and the citizens and therefore leading to the problems of social legitimacy (Thomas, 2009).

Reasons for democratic deficit in the European Union as claimed by scholars
The European integration has led to the increase in the powers of the executive and a decrease in the national parliamentary control (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). At the national level in Europe, the central structure of the representative governments in all the member states of the European Union is the fact that the governments is accountable to the voters through the parliaments and therefore the parliament can hire or fire the cabinet. The parliaments also scrutinize the behavior of the of the governments ministers Fundamentally, scholars have argued that there seems to be an exchange in the democratic system between giving the majority its way and protecting the rights of the minorities, the level of the European Union have been seen to be dominated by executive actors, national ministers and the government appointees in the commission (Barry, 1991). This is not the reason for the democratic deficit in the European Union but rather the actions of these executives agents at the European level have gone beyond the control of the national parliaments. Despite the establishment of the European Affairs Committees in all the parliaments, the policies of the European Union have been depicted by scholars as being isolated from the national parliamentary domestic policy-making process. The European integration on the other hand has led to a decrease in power of the national parliaments and an increase in power of the executives (Thomas, 2009).

Another issue that has led to the democratic deficit in the European Union has been attributed by the permissive consensus and more specifically the disappearance of this consensus. According to Schimitter, his claims is based on the fact that there has been some compelling evidence that the citizens in the European Union member states have become increasingly aware of the impacts of the European Union legislation on their day to day lives (Dahl, 1999). Therefore, these citizens have considered the European Union as a secretive, remote, unintelligible and unaccountable.

Most scholars and analysts of the democratic deficit within the European Union have argued that there is a weakness in the European parliaments. Most scholars argued that there has been a trade off between the powers of the European parliaments and that of the national parliaments. They argued that the increase in the powers  of the European parliament have led to the decrease in the powers of the national parliaments therefore leaving more powers within the European union which has led to the democratic deficit and problems of democratic legitimacy (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). In the 1990s, the scholars also changed their position and argued that the European integration led to the decline of the powers of the national parliaments at the domestic level. The other factor that has led to the democratic deficit in the European Union is the successive reforms of the European Union treaties in the mid 1980s. These treaties led to the dramatic increase in the powers of the European parliament though other scholars claimed that the governments in the Council within the European Union has more powers that the European parliament. Though under the co-decision procedure, the European parliament has equal legislative powers with the council the European Union legislation is still passed under the consultation procedure and this means that the parliament has limited power of delay therefore causing democratic deficit and problems of legitimacy within the European Union.

The other factor that has increased the democratic deficit and problems of legitimacy in the European Union is the fact that there are no elections (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). The citizens of the European Union member states elect their governments these governments sits in the council and nominate the commissioners of the European Union. Therefore, the facts that the commissioners are nominated have deviated from the ideals of democracy as debated by other scholars. On the other hand, the European Union citizen elects the European parliament (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). However, both the national elections and the European parliamentary elections do not focus on the entire Europeans elections. This is because the election s at the European level is not about personalities or parties or the direction of the European policy agenda. This therefore depicts that the national elections are fought on the basis of domestic level rather than the European issues. According to scholars like Hix, the parties within the integrated Europe collude to keep the issues of Europe off their political domestic agenda and therefore a number of citizen have not been represented by the European Union. This has led to the increase in democratic deficit and problems of legitimacy within the international organizational (Garry, et al 2004). Moreover, the European parliamentary elections are not about the entire Europe because the parties and even the media within the European national level consider these elections as the mid-term national contests. This has led to a huge decline in the participation of the citizens in the issues of European Union (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). Due to the attitude of the individual citizens towards the European Union, effective participation has declined dramatically as most citizens in the European level considers themselves as not part of the international organization. According to Hix, the absence of the European element in both the national and European elections depicts that the preference of the European Union citizen does not have a direct influence on the outcomes of the European Union policy agenda (Garry, et al 2004).

Scholars also argued that even if the power of the European parliaments was increased and genuine European elections were held, there could still be another problem of the proximity of the Parliament and the voters (Shapiro,  Hacker-Cordon 1997). The European Union could still be too distant from the voters and that the European Union is too different from the domestic democratic institutions that the individual citizen within the national level is used to. This has led to the citizens not being able to understand the European Union and therefore they will not be able to assess or even regard it as a democratic institution identifying with it notwithstanding. Another factor that has led to the democratic deficit within the European Union is the fact that the citizens, scholars and even the media see the commission as neither a government nor a bureaucracy (Katz, 2001). This is because the commissioners are appointed through an obscure procedure rater than elections by an electorate directly or indirectly. The secrecy of the council in the European Union has also been seen by scholars as a reason fro the democratic deficit with in the international organization (Shapiro,  Hacker-Cordon 1997). The council is part legislature and partly executive. According to scholars, the European Union is acting as a legislature it makes its decision in secret therefore undermining the ideals of democratic process of decision making (Katz, 2001). The European parliament have also been considered by scholars as not a properly deliberative assembly due to the multi-lingual nature of the debates  between the committees and the plenary of the absence of the political back drop culture and the policy process has become fundamentally technocratic rather than political (Blondel, et al 1998).

The European integration has also become a contributing factor democratic deficit in the European Union (Decker, 1990). This is because it has drifted from the ideals of the voters policy preference. As a result of these reasons, the European Union has been adopting policies that are not supported by the majority of the individual citizens in the European national level and most member states. The governments therefore can be able to undertake policies at the European level that are they cannot pursue in the domestic level and hence producing the problems of democratic legitimacy (Katz, 2001).

Defense of the European Union democracy
Though many scholars like Hix, Decker Katz and Cultrap argue that there is a democratic deficit in the European Union, other scholars like Majone and Moravcsik have totally disagreed with their positions. The late two being the most prominent scholars of the European integration have recently disapproved other scholars. Majones argument is essentially attributed to his claims that the European Union is a regulatory body (Majone, 1996). In his pointy of view, regulation is about addressing the market issues within the European level, therefore, by the definition the regulatory function of the European Union is concerned with the production of policies that are Pareto-efficient but not re distributive or value allocative (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). According to Majone, the European Union government has delegated regulatory policy competence to the European level. This can be seen in the creation of a single market for the member states, harmonization of products standards, health and safety rules. This can also be seen in the introduction of the monitory policy by the European central bank. Therefore, these regulatory standards directly isolated these policies from the domestic and majoritarian governments. From this reason therefore, the European Union is a glorified regulatory body, as argued by Majone. From this interpretation, it can therefore be asserted that the European Union policy making should not be democratized and therefore, the arguments that the international organization, i.e. European Union is democratically deficient does not hold (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006).  Majone further claimed that if the European Union is dominated by the European parliament or directly elected commissioners, there would be politicization of the regulatory policy making and therefore undermining the entire process of decision making rather than legitimizing the processes of the European Union. This politicization would eventually lead to redistribution rather than efficient outcomes and there for Majone claim is that the European Union does not have to be democratic (Eijk,  Franklin, 1996).

According to Majone, the problems in the European Union are not the process of democratizing but rather the credibility crisis within the organization (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). He further argued that what the international organization needs a more transparent decision making process, greater professionalism, technical expertise and rights that protect the rights of both the minority and the majority. He further added that a better scrutiny by private actors like the media and scholars would be of dire importance.

Moravcsik agreed with Majone but further went beyond in his criticism. He presented an extensive argument of a number of democratic deficit claims. Moravcsik was against the argument of the shift in power and points out that national governments should be the most directly accountable politicians in the entire Europe (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). He further argued that if European elections were the only way of democratic accountability to which the European Union was the Subject, then skepticism would surely be warranted. A more significant issue also lies in the democratically elected governments of the European Union member states which largely dominate the intergovernmental structures of the European Union (Garry, et al 2004).

Moravcsiks second argument was against the critique that the executive have gone beyond the control of the representative institutions and therefore the European parliaments needs to be strengthening (Shapiro,  Hacker-Cordon 1997). He points out that the most significant institutional development in the European Union has been the increased powers of the European parliament in the legislative processes and the process appointing the commissioners. On the issues of proximity of the European Union to the citizens of the member states, he argued that the policy making processes have become more transparent than most domestic systems of government (Katz, 2001). The growing paranoia within the European Union institutions regarding the isolation from the citizens of the member states and the implementation of the internal rules have improved the democratic processes and legitimacy issues within the international organization. This has made it easier and possible fro the interest groups, media and even citizens to access information about the European Union policy making processes (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). Therefore arguing that the decision making process within the European Union is done secretly does not hold and therefore the international organization is neither democratic deficit nor having legitimacy problems. More over, he further argued that the European Union policies are not systematically biased against the maiden voter. He claimed that the European Union systems of checks and balances ensure that an overwhelming consensus is required for any policies top be agreed and there for the social legitimacy problem within the European Union does not hold. On the other hand, the process of having an overwhelming consensus clearly depicts that the European Union is not democratically deficit.

The literature on the European Unions democratic deficit has been multifaceted as well as engaging (Thomas, 2009). The debates between the two position  depicts that there seems to be some locked in stalemates that determines the scholars perception of the competing sources of democracy and legitimacy issues. Though other scholars admit that there could be a problem of democracy and legitimacy within the European Union, it has become increasingly clear that there is no obvious solution to these issues. Nevertheless, the literature on the democratic deficit and legitimacy must be able to transcend old barriers and should be abler to fully develop proper models of supranational democracy and legitimacy (Thomas, 2009). According to the essence of democracy, international organizations like the European Union should be a subject of popular control in order for it to be democratic. Just as with democratic countries. It also requires that the European Union institutional should provide opportunities for political participation. It is also imperative fro the political elites to be able to engage in public debates (Follesdal,  Hix, 2006). According to the arguments from the scholars and the research, it is clear that the European Union is democratically deficit.

Performance Evaluation of Nonprofit Boards

The purpose of any organisation is derived from the intentions of the owners. However, the task of providing a definition of what a nonprofit or governmental organisation desires is a rather multifaceted endeavour in comparison to providing a definition for the intended monetary value for the equity corporation. As opposed to nonprofit or governmental organisation, it is imperative for an equity corporation to adequately manage the market even though its board is not compelled to speak for the market in the extent that nonprofit and governmental boards must. Even boards that have been emancipated from the  market surrogate  burden have expressed the massive challenges of governing. Governing boards have been far from being vehicles of emblematic efficiency even in the best of circumstances (Herman  Til, 1989). Regardless of the legal position they occupy, a shared characteristic of the current boards is their failure to function. The boards  decline appears to be a universal phenomenon. To some extent, the boards have failed to protect the interests of those whom they represent. This is evidenced by the various cases of corporate scandals that dogged Enron, Adelphia, Tyco, and WorldCom (Sonnenfeld, 2002). The events are a clear indication that a great percentage of boards are not completely performing what they are legally, morally, and ethically mandated to do.

It is ironic that this critical area has largely been abandoned. While other realms of management function has been critically assessed and exhaustively analysed, the board s responsibility and how it varies from management has largely been neglected. The available literature on the subject is brief and evidently lacks any actual depth of new ideas. It is worrying that the board s job when seen against the backdrop of its intrinsic importance has not been exhaustively studied. As a result, the job of the board has neither benefited from the wider exchange of practical experience nor the depth of study that has been witnessed in other corporate activities.

Despite years of improvement, much change has not been realised. Boards have largely been seen to be irrelevant. The reality is that boards are in most cases self-perpetuating, being more interested in the maintenance of power rather than responding to the wishes of the shareholders. A large percentage of boards are mainly involved with overlooking rather than overseeing. Even though possessing ultimate organisational power, there is little study and development of the governing board. The irony is that there is inadequate job design for leadership where the opportunity is greatest. The increased attention to the codes of governance within the corporate world that started in the final decade of the twentieth century serves to indict the existing governance practice and thought. It is against this backdrop of governing boards in general that I wish to handle the boards of nonprofit organisations and propose how their performance can be improved amid the stated concerns. It is no surprise that such boards experience difficulty since their flaws include those found in profit boards together with those that are distinctively a consequence of their artificial market situation and a complex delineation of purpose. It is not surprising that the governance of nonprofit enterprises presents a wide array of flaws if the governance of the more rational, modern business corporations is not without blemishes.

The majority of board defects that appear to be cosmetic blemishes are suggestive of more basic flaws. In numerous instances, they are indications of a problem. The main concern is that the boards are given the wrong job. It is just as important to attack the superficial flaws as invoking the usual admonitions of sticking to policy, letting the chief executive to manage and to avoid rubber-stamping. However, it is more instructive to establish a healthier framework of governance concepts. An effective framing of governance challenge can transcend the mere elimination of common problems and offer an earning in which the boards become strategic leaders (Useem, 2006).

Various recommendations have been advanced for ailing board practices even though they have fallen short of yielding positive results despite being quite rational (see Sonnenfeld 2002 Prybil et al., 2008 Orlikoff  Totten, 2009). In most cases, they have cleared some of the jumble and the most outstanding inefficiencies in board operation. However, since most of these literatures were not founded in complete conceptual model, the recommendations have in most cases been gradual, anecdotal wisdom. Most of them are structural in nature (Sonnenfeld, 2002). In order to coherently apply wisdom, there is a need to tailor a paradigm to the special conditions of governance.

Against the backdrop of these issues, I have construed various principles in order to address the unique circumstances of governing boards. Their adaptation transcends a mere collection of relevant suggestions it is basically a reorganised governance paradigm. Governance as largely practised is a mishmash of historical accidents and uncoordinated elements formulated by intelligent minds. However, it is gravely flawed having not emanated from a coherent sense of entirety.

Based on the above, the following recommendations may be useful in improving the effectiveness and performance of board.

The need for a governance framework that captures and supports vision in the basic position. There is a tendency of administrative systems to result in great attention being focused on particulars. While this may be commendable, it can dominate the broader scope of purpose. In this regard, there is need to systematically encourage broader thinking and to dream.

The governing board being the guardian of organizational values must explicitly address these basic values. As such, it must adapt a framework that ensures that it focuses on values.

There is also a need to force an external focus. Since organisations seem to be internally focused, there is a need to adopt a governance model that guarantees external responsiveness. Therefore, instead of being concerned with internal matters of organisational mechanics, the board will be more focused on needs.

The board must advance an organising system that is driven by outcome. The decisions and functions of the organisation must be thoroughly tested against the standard of purpose. This will ensure that the board establishes a mission in terms of outcome and enforce it as the central organising focus.
The board must also separate large matters from small ones. There is a general consensus among board members that weighty matters deserve to be given priority. However, there is no consensus on how to identify a large item. In this regard, it is of utmost importance to adopt a model that may aid in differentiating the size of issues.

Since strategic leadership calls for long-term viewpoint, it is imperative for the board to adopt a scheme that furthers forward thinking. This should enable the board to push much of its thinking into the future.

Boards should lead as opposed to reacting to issues. As such, there is need to facilitate pro-activity in order to enable boards to move away from presiding over momentum. This will ensure that that the board is more involved with creating rather than in approving.

The richness and diversity in the composition and opinion of the board should also be optimised while at the same time assimilating the variety into a single voice. However, the challenge presented by the inclusion of various populations on nonprofit boards is acknowledged. The ideal of demographic diversity in the board is widely endorsed by nonprofit organizations.

There is need for a description of how the board relates with the relevant constituencies. Boards are usually trustees in either moral or political sense and are to some extent accountable to staff, neighbours, and consumers.

It is also important to determine the kind of information that is needed. In this regard, it is critical to make precise distinctions concerning the nature of information that is required to govern. Nonprofit board members are entirely dependent on the chief executive on the information about the organization. Therefore, it is important to determine the type, quantity, and forms of information that the board should have. It has been found that nonprofit executives have adopted a strategy of sending highly detailed reports and background papers to the board. Since the majority of board members do not have the time and the disposition to read all the materials, they are likely to approve courses of action without actual consideration of the information that is relevant to the course of action.

All these points suggest the importance of serious examination of the structure, fundamental practices and composition of the board as a key to improving its effectiveness and performance. Other studies have also supported these recommendations (Prybil et al., 2008).

Global Terrorism Affecting Governments

The paper explains how global terrorism has affected local, state, and federal law enforcement agencies and the necessary recommendations to improve these global challenges. The paper also suggests certain key issues related to provide adequate protection to the U.S. residents as well as measures to improve law enforcement agencies preparedness on a much larger scale.


Terrorism and its Implications
By the end of the Cold War, the nature of foreign threats to U.S. security had considerably changed.  What Americans worry about now is not a greater and significant military offensive from abroad, but rather more insidious assaults which may strike much closer to our environs and localities and thereby threatening lives and property and in addition, creating a climate of fear. It was with disbelief and shock that around the world, people saw the news footage of the events on September 11, 2001 of the planes-turned-missiles that saw the collapse of the World Trade Center towers and damage of the Pentagon. The 2001 attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon had far reaching implications and proved that terrorists acts were no longer the only threat that Americans faced from abroad.

After the 911 attacks, the U.S Department of Homeland Security (DHS) was created which provides tuition free and low-cost training to many law enforcement agencies. Programs are conducted regularly at selected sites throughout the country and are usually hosted by a local law enforcement agency in the area. Agencies have bolstered their preparedness levels considerably after the greater threat of global terrorism throughout the country, although variation does exist in the approach to preparedness. Prior to 911, only a few law enforcement agencies were involved with counter-terrorism operation, whereas today, the number has risen manifolds of agencies dealing with terrorist related hoaxes (primarily anthrax related). Large steps were thus taken such as increasing the number of personnel engaged in emergency response and chemical, biological and radiological attacks. Resources were re-allocated to focus on terrorism preparedness and much greater support was provided to improve communications interoperability as well as the training on the incident command system. Certain law enforcement agencies that perceived the risk of increased terrorist attacks were more likely to undertake the necessary steps to improve their level of preparedness.

To counter such challenges, it is important to reduce the differences between the levels of preparedness approach from one law enforcement agencies to the other. Support needs to be provided to fully train all law enforcement agencies to their maximum potential so that their approach to counter-terrorism does not vary and is at par with the best available service in the country. There is a need to integrate law enforcement assets at all levels of the government and they should also integrate terrorism prevention responsibilities into the criminal justice system at large. The progress of the counter-terrorism programs must be gauged continuously for necessary feedback and to cater for room for improvement. By establishing a principal point of oversight and review, the Homeland Security would definitely benefit in providing adequate protection to our nation in general (Hoffman, 1998).

Organizational Effectiveness

According to the US Department of Labor, Americas labor force will grow to 162 million persons by 2014. From this pool, the youth labor force aged 16 to 24 and the primary working group aged 25 to 54 will decline however, workers 55 years and older will increase from 15.6 to 21.2 percent of the entire labor force by 2014. By then, the percent change in total employment by major occupational group will be led by professional and related positions, followed by service then management, business, and financial occupations (US Department of Labor, 2006).

Despite the current global recession, the USA is experiencing a long-term shortfall of approximately 10 million workers qualified to do the jobs truly required to sustain an advanced economy that must develop into an even more technology-based nation to remain competitive in the global marketplace. Moreover, these numbers do not take into account the changing nature of future positions requiring skill sets that are often in short supply in the US workforce today (Herman, Olivio, Gioia, 2003).

Clearly, the older Knowledge Worker, as coined by the late Dr. Peter Drucker of Claremont University in California, will become increasingly important in the USA and other economically advanced nations such as those in the European Union (Drucker, 2002). Therefore, American organizational effectiveness will suffer if US firms do not attract, retainand constantly trainthe countrys older Knowledge Workers because of their work and life experiences which cannot easily be matched by the younger workforce, even through formal education. Eliminating, or at least minimizing, the standard Human Resource Department practice of using cookie-cutter principles with regards to resumes and hiring practices will become increasingly necessary to conform to the changing demands of contemporary globalism (Ohmae, 2005).


The United States Foreign policy is that policy by which the nation interacts with foreign countries and guides its relationships and activities with these nations (WWSPIA, 2003).  Foreign policy development is determined by behavior or policies of other countries, plans to advance certain geopolitical designs or domestic considerations (Felton, 2002).  Since it broke free from British colonial control and after becoming an independent country, the US has continually practiced a wide variety of foreign policies.  It focuses its relations with other nations through its citizens wants and needs (WWSPIA, 2003). 

Majority of local and state governments have always had the interest of serving as well as protecting local needs and they do so by lobbying the federal government as concerns certain foreign policy issues (Leffer  Legro, 2008).  Local and state governments assist the countrys economy by promoting international trade, regulating their own relationships with other nations and express opinions as concerns foreign affairs (Felton, 2002).  The United States foreign policy affects almost every aspect of its citizens lives including taxes, jobs and prices.  Few Americans realize that their nations actions have a direct or indirect impact on other nations around the globe (Pillar, 2001).  At its best, the nation is able to bring light and hope to the neediest individuals around the world but at its worst, it is also capable of breeding fear, bringing fear and in the end unleashing the wrath of people who conclude that Americans are a apart of the same tyranny against which they have fought (Berstein, 2003).

Policy Bried Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs sept. 2003 Public Opinion on Foreign Policyu the multilateral puvl that perceives itself as unilateral

In this article, the author talks about the US foreign policy and public opinion as concerns multilateral regimes.  US Foreign policy seems to have taken the unilateral direction since the Bush administration exhibited a deep skepticism of multilateralism (WWSPIA, 2003).  Even though unilateralism is not new in the US Foreign Policy, Americans have shown their willingness to  ignore allies, reject treaties as well as use military force on its own (Ibid, 2003).  This new move has destabilized global politics since American appears to have emerged as an unprecedented and unrivaled world superpower, looming over the rest of the world (WWSPIA, 2003).

The Bush administration adopted a foreign policy whose differences with the previous doctrines are circumstances in which the administration has been forced to operate, both internationally and locally (Ibid, 2003).

The New York Times Richarc Berstein Sept. 11, 2003 foreign views of US darken since 0911
The author in this article features opinions from around the globe as concerns the attitude towards America and their foreign policy after the 911 attacks (Berstein, 2003).  Majority of individuals from across the globe sympathized with Americans during that particular time but their attitude has since changed.  This is because their perception of the United States is that of acting like an authoritative person taking over everyone else (Ibid, 2003).  With the Bush administration, the US foreign policy did not consider the interests of its citizens or those of others in other nations.  Foreign policy experts site that this negative attitude concerning the US foreign policy during the Bush administration was heightened by the fact that the United States declared war on Iraq, triggering counteralliance of Germany and France (Berstein, 2003).

The author goes on to indicate that even amongst college and high school students, it is not uncommon to hear denunciations as concerns the US Foreign Policy as well as sharp questioning of the American motives (Berstein, 2003).  The Bush administration failed to convince large proportions of the American public as well as the rest of the world, his justifications for declaring war on Iraq. While the rest of the world remained skeptical concerning the belief that there existed a connection between the Al Qaeda terrorist group and Saddam Hussein the United States believed otherwise (Ibid, 2003).  The author goes ahead to explain that for the majority of individuals, the issue did not lie with the United States but with the Bush administration and what was perceived as arrogance (Berstein, 2003).

The Chicago Council on Global Affairs World Public rejects US role as the world leader
The article discusses findings from surveys conducted revealing that majority of individuals in the United States as well as the rest of the world are not for the idea of the US continuous role as pre-eminent world leader (Leffer  Legro, 2008).  In addition, American citizen tend to agree with the rest of the world in that the US should make an effort to play a more co-operative role as compared to its current one.  However, despite the negative attitude concerning the US Foreign Policy, majority of individuals across the globe do not prefer the US disengaging from international affairs but prefer it rather participates in a more multilateral and co-operative fashion (Leffer  Legro, 2008).
Terrorism and U.S. Foreign Policy by Paul, R. P.

In this article, the author questions the United States foreign policy principle of making no deals with terrorists and what Americans and the rest of the world think concerning the issue.  He also touches on the factors affecting the willingness of international governments to assist the US in counterterrorism. The article goes ahead to identify necessary elements needed for the counterterrorism policy, examining why the US is considered prime terrorist target (Pillar, 2001).  In addition, the author addresses ways that the publics view towards terrorism can limit counterterrorist policy.  Recommendations on how to amend the US foreign policy are also given in the article.
Global Connections Americas Role in the 21st Century by John, F.

Felton, who is the author of this article, discusses the role of the United States and the publics opinion as concerns its position in the globe as a superpower.  However, it is argued that it will soon have a future global competitor that will be in a position to influence how the world will be shaped in the course of the 21st Century, the competitor being China (Felton, 2002).  The economic growth in china has in the recent past rapidly risen to a point where majority of Chinese have been pulled out of poverty status and can now afford comfortable living.  The author also touches on the 911 terrorist attacks and how the existing US Foreign Policy is considered a fundamental departure from the traditional liberal realism that has been used to guide the United States in the course of the 20th Century (Ibid, 2002).

From the above-mentioned articles, it can be observed that they have a common theme, which is terrorism (Felton, 2002).  The common theme is also, what makes them similar in that each author discusses what American public as well as the people around the world think concerning the US Foreign policy on terrorism.  Despite having sympathy towards what happened during the terrorist attack on 911, the rest of the world remains skeptical about the actions the US government is taking to ensure that its citizens and the rest of the world are protected (Berstein, 2003).  On the other hand, these articles are somehow different for instance, while two of the articles discuss terrorism and the implementation of the foreign policy towards fighting terrorism. The rest discuss mainly about how the rest of the world is not comfortable with having the United States as a superpower, capable of stepping over the rest of the world (Leffer  Legro, 2008).

Each author in their article has selected a number of variables, which include dependent variable, independent variables and control variables.  For instance, the author in the article Public opinion on Foreign Policy. has made unilateralism and multilateralism the independent variables on which the US Foreign policy is dependent upon, making it a dependent variable (Pillar, 2001).  The author in the article Foreign views of US darken since 0911 has taken the US foreign policy to be the independent variable.  American publics as well as international perceptions as concerns the foreign policy is the dependent variable since it is influenced by what is included in the foreign policy (Berstein, 2003).  In the article World public rejects US as the world leader, the author has considered the position of the United States as a superpower a dependent variable since it relies on the publics attitude towards its current position to remain as it is.  Therefore, positive or negative public attitude is the independent variable in this article.

Terrorism and the US foreign policy by Paul is an article that has made counterterrorism policy dependent upon certain elements that are to dictate how it is to be implemented.  In this case, the elements are the independent variable while the foreign policy is the dependent variable.  In the final article, Global Connections.. by John Felton, the author has in this case also made the US foreign policy and current position as a superpower to be the dependent variable (Leffer  Legro, 2008).  The American citizens and international publics perception as to the situation are the independent variables which dictate the foreign policy and United States stand as a global superpower.

Personal attitudes are the determinants as to whether specific foreign policies will be supported or not.  The federal government should therefore ensure that the public is educated as to what entails foreign policies and how they, together with international communities, would benefit from its implementation.

International Business

The case study under discussion is related to the expansion of an already running business to a new location keeping in view the different variables involved with the success or failure of such an expansion. Changing the scope of a local business to that of an international arena requires many deliberations which will be discussed in the preceding paragraphs.

Target Country for the Expansion in Europe
Foreign relations of South Korea and European Union (EU) are boosting due to common interests of both parties. Both regions are negotiating on Free Trade Agreement and upholding of the 2001 Framework Agreement for Trade and Cooperation (European Commission External Relations).

Keeping these facts in view, any country would be ideal for expansion in Europe since both regions are making efforts to boost their trades. However, for the case study under discussion, the target country of preference would be France because the business in Korea is related to fashion design and accessories and France is the home to fashion designing thus having a greater chance of positive response from the people.

Sequence of the Process
The sequence of the process would begin by the launch of a single product in the target country instead of the whole range of products. This will not only reduce expenses but would also give an idea as to how the people of that country respond to the new products. Overtime, new products can be added to the offerings in France depending on the situation.

Market Potential in France
Market potential in France related to fashion industry in very encouraging since all the leading brands related to fashion have their origins in France. Local populace is conscious of the new trends and has a great appeal towards new innovations in the industry. A new brand will always be welcomed in the country to offer a greater challenge to the established players.

Choice of Country
France has been given preference over all other countries in Europe because of the sole reason that it has potential and appeal for fashion industry and people accept new trends more easily as compare to people residing in other countries. Countries in EU consider France as a leader in fashion designing and thus any product which is successful in this country had bright chances to be accepted in other countries too.

Target Population
The target population would be primarily women with an age bracket between 25 to 45 years, particularly those who are working and have extensive travelling abroad. This is due to the fact that the products had a wide appeal to women in Korea and thus the company has an in hand experience of dealing women of this age bracket.

Brand Name
Chosun should remain the brand name of the products to be launched in France. Firstly, it is a new name and secondly it has already experienced success under its belt in Korea. Moreover, this will also help in the marketing as of having a global or international image.

Political or Legal barriers
No political or legal barriers as such exist. As iterated above, both the regions are making efforts to have close relations which will boost trade and cooperation as evident by the trade agreements between the two countries. Moreover, France and South Korea are also working together in international organizations such as UNO, OECD and UNESCO etc.

Cultural issues
France is a country having a vast appeal for fashion designing and fashion is not something that can be limited to a particular culture. Moreover, after the formation of EU, varied cultures and socio economic factors have amalgamated thus nullifying the issues related to a particular culture. The only problem with this scenario would be the language since Koreans value their language highly just like the French people value their language. Thus learning the language would be major challenge for the company.

Economic Climate of France
The country is one of the growing economies of the world with major share related to fashion designing. All major brands have their shows and exhibitions on regular basis. However, due the recent economic downturn, every industry has been affected negatively. This said, this is the perfect time to establish a new player in the market with the international markets and economic conditions begin their recovery.

100 Korean Equity
Businesses have a brighter prospect of success if they bring something new and unique as compared to what already available in the market. Local joint venture would surely bring this aspect as the uniqueness associated with the Korean products and styles would be compromised. Moreover, shop with 100 Korean equity would have minimum competitors thus increasing the ratio of capturing market.

To conclude, the company has a bright chance of success in the market of France which would further aid in her expansion to other countries of Europe too. Facing new challenges and grasping the opportunities is essential to develop this business idea into a reality.

Trying Terrorists in the Courts

A Rhetorical Analysis
Michael B. Mukasey in his article  Civilian Courts Are No Place to Try Terrorists  lays out a rhetorical claim that terrorists should not be tried in United States civilian courts with an appeal to emotion and less of an appeal to logic.  The byline of the article catches the eye of the reader with an emotional flashback to the attacks of 911 and the impact on American lives.  As a former Attorney General, Mukasey does present himself as an authority on court procedure, however his logic is flawed in that he is biased and demonstrates a bias throughout the article.  This logical fallacy through his use of argument of authority is more obvious than his fallacy of false cause, also referred to as a non sequitur.  What Mukasey tries to argue is that if terrorists are tried in the United States then this would be an attractive venue for terrorists to target, but this does not follow any form of logic.  The argument and the claim should be about the legality and morality of the trials and not about any emotional appeals, bias through an argument of authority, or a non sequitur argument that these civilian trials will lead to more attacks.  Looking at a more balanced argument from Andrew P. Napolitano in  The Case Against Military Tribunals  is helpful to look at to see the pros and cons of this issue, as well as balancing Mukasey s article to help form an own opinion.

In Mukasey s byline, he opens the article with his appeal to emotion, saying,  we tried the first World Trade Center bombers in civilian courts. In return we got 911 and the murder of nearly 3,000 innocents  (October 19, 2009).  This is both an appeal to emotion and a non sequitur fallacy, as trying the first bombers in a civilian court did not cause the 911 attacks.  In addition this statement seems to imply that the first bombers were not in fact terrorists and that this civilian court proceeding against this first group actually created terrorists.  Mukasey continues his emotional appeal, after his reminder of the lives lost during the 911 attacks to incite fear into his audience from his angle of an authority.  Although his former post as an Attorney General does not make him an expert on terrorism, international relations, or the way that military tribunals are conducted.

Mukasey does make the point that protecting judges, jurors, and others will be an issue with civilian proceedings, however this is the case with other trials as well that have nothing to do with terrorism.  Trying white collar criminals or individuals in a mafia or gangs would pose similar dangers.  This is the nature of the courts and as an authority, Mukasey should acknowledge this.  He says,  moreover, there is every reason to believe that the places of both trial and confinement for such defendants would become attractive targets for others intent on creating mayhem (October 19, 2009).  The use of the word  mayhem  evokes emotional and, therefore is an emotional appeal.  His idea that other terrorists might create casualties in the local population is unfounded and part of his ad sequitur fallacy.  This simply does not follow and is pure speculation on the part of the writer.

Though this is an op-ed piece, there are still reasons to hope that Mukasey would stand on the ground of logic and not the other fallacies he relies upon.  After he speaks of the inherent danger of the local populace in these civilian trials, he also admits that some of the  mayhem  as he calls it might be from lawyers insisting on adhering to the Constitution of the United States.  It seems strange that this supposed authority would not consider the legal issues surrounding the trial, however using law and logic does not seem to be a big part of this piece.  Mukasey does make a strong point however, about the cons of civilian courts and that has to do with the disclosure of evidence.  He points out that while the courts must disclose all evidence against a suspected terrorist, they will be also naming co-conspirators that may have not been apprehended.  This is explained by the author to be helpful to a terrorist organization, because at that point this group will know what the prosecution knows and be forewarned.  However, as stated before this is a similar conundrum when prosecuting other networks of criminals and, therefore, is strictly an issue with the procedures of the court.  It does not follow that terrorists should not be given a civilian trial, simply due to the nature of the process of discovery and disclosure.

Andrew P. Napolitano in his article  The Case Against Military Tribunals , does tie in the Constitution of the United States of America with this debate.  This is a good source for an individual to balance Mukasey s view, which is essentially flawed but interesting to ponder.  As far as a rhetorical analysis is concerned, it is not uncommon for writers like Mukasey to inject emotion into their pieces, but it is inherently dangerous for an audience to accept his argument of authority and his non sequitur arguments to be fact.  For any audience to form an opinion, a variety of sources need to be reviewed and it is unfortunate that Mukasey is using his experience as a former Attorney General to push his opinions as facts.

Napolitano s piece is also an op-ed article, however he looks closely at the history and legal issues surrounding terrorist trials and only seems to inject emotion when he makes accusations about the United States government and their mishandling and mislabeling of war crimes, when war had not been declared.  His point that is made in his byline and throughout the article is simply,  its a violation of the Constitution to use the panels military tribunals without a declaration of war -- and just calling it a war on terror doesnt count  (November 29, 2009).  It is refreshing to see the facts laid out in Napolitano s article as to the legal ramifications of trying terrorists in a military tribunal rather than in the correct court, which would be the United States civilian court system.

Napolitano addresses even the logical fallacies in the claims made by former president George W. Bush.   He made these extra-constitutional claims based, he said, on the inherent powers of the commander in chief in wartime. But in the Supreme Court, he lost all five substantive challenges to his authority brought by detainees  (November 29, 2009).  Due to Bush s claims that defied logic, as well as his own argument of authority and executive powers, it seems that Mukasey is following in Bush s rhetorical footsteps.  It is true that there are inherent dangers in allowing terrorists to know what evidence the United States government has in terms of their activities and their connections, but as previously stated this is a product of the design of the courts.  The design of the courts then in addition to the design of the Constitution is the only considerations that need to be made and ad sequitur claims and arguments in addition to intrusions from authorities such as the former president and Mukasey deflect away from this important information.

In conclusion, it is obvious that Mukasey uses his authority much like the former president to present and support a claim that holds many logical fallacies, including an appeal to emotion and his non sequitur arguments.  Though there are cons to the civilian process, this is not a solid or sound reason to bar terrorists who were not acting during a time of war, to be banished to military tribunals instead of being placed in the proper courts.  The laws of the United States as outlined in the Constitution are to be upheld at whatever price, if these laws are ever compromised then America is in itself compromised. 

African Union

The organization of African union (OAU) was established on 25th May 1963, at Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Then it followed that the charter of the organization was signed on that occasion by the head of state and government of the thirty two African states. This organization was established to promote the unity and the solidarity of the African states and to eradicate all forms of colonialism to coordinate and harmonize the member states economic, diplomatic, educational, health, welfare and the defense policies (Melber, 2001, p. 119). It is anon-profit African-American non-governmental organization that is designed to be a supporting component of the African union and a devoted tool to accelerate the necessary changes in the African development. 

The origin and foundation of African union came as a result of a vast enormity in the development of the African continent. The African union seeks to be concerned with the political and fiscal assimilation among its fifty three member countries. It aims at enhancing development, eradicating poverty and conveying Africa into the international economy (Wafula, 2009, p. 134). It also aspires in supporting harmonity among the African nations, enriching high-quality governance and democracy and finally upholding sustainable growth and expansion at the monetary, societal and cultural plane in addition to the assimilation of African economy

The African Union has a diversified number of roles and functions that define its objectives. First it is based on a general image of a unified Africa as well as on the requirement to put together an association among governments and all the sections of general development, concerning the youth, women. It then aims at supporting and guarding the human and populace rights in harmony with the African charter on human being and peoples rights and additional related persons rights (Martorana, 2000, p. 45). The African Union plans in the advancement of the development of the African continent by approving the exploration in the entire fields of study, concentrating more on science and technology. The African union works together with other related global allies in the control of the avoidable complaints and the endorsement of good quality health.

Many of the functions of the AU relate to the development and the wellbeing of the member states. The entity aims at defending the sovereignty, terrorism integrity and independence of its member states and to fight against neo-colonialism in all forms. From the due declaration of the human rights the AU principles reaffirms the adherence and the provision of a solid foundation for the peaceful and positive cooperation among states (Udombana, 2004, p. 128). This is done by inspiring a common determination to promote an understanding among the people and cooperation among the African states in response to the aspirations of the people for the brother hood and unity to reduce the ethnic differences. 

Another function of the union is aimed at accelerating the political and socio-economic integration of the continent. Some of the grounds that are based on this issue include increasing the intra-African trade with the focus on the tariff barriers. This is important because many traders move across borders most of the time and carry with them currency of carrying the goods at home (Mike, 2004, p. 16).

The African Union has got a court of justice that helps out in the settling of disputes between member states and securing of neutrality against separate human rights cruelty any place in Africa. It gathers documents and undertakes revision and investigates on human being and peoples rights in the member states. It also puts down some regulations that are intended at resolving the lawful problems connecting to human rights. This court justice also guarantees fortification of a person rights and construe all the requirements of the human rights charter (Melber, 2001, p. 122). In addition to that it promotes integration and socio- economic development, heartens collaboration and harmonization of actions among members in the grounds of common concern.

This court of justice helps out in the settling of disputes between member states and securing of neutrality against separate human rights cruelty any place in Africa. It gathers documents and undertakes revision and investigates on human being and peoples rights in Africa and puts down regulations intended at resolving the lawful problems connecting to human rights (Mike, 2000, p. 20). It also guarantees fortification of a person rights and construe all the requirements of the human rights charter.

The AU establishes necessary conditions which enables the continent to play its equitable role in the integration of African economies. The units of African government are entitled to build the necessary institutional and financial capacities that meet regularly to prepare for the international negotiations (Udombana, 2004, p.132). This is in order to foster cooperation with the international organizations and also to maximize liaising with them.

The role of the African Union is to attract and hearten the complete contribution of the African Diaspora as a vital part of the continent and in the structuring of the African Union. The African Diaspora is defined as people living in Africa who are of its origin and also people living overseas but are enthusiastic to add to the progress of the African continent and structuring of the African Union (Martorana, 2000, p. 47).

The some of the issues looked upon by the AU include health issues such as fighting malaria and AIDSHIV endemic. Malaria associated deaths occur in African counties and is usually linked with poverty as a result of basis of poverty among the nations of Africa. This reduces the African countries weakness that are affecting its populace and worsening of the wellbeing and informative structures and also the incapability of many countries to make available essential services for their populace.
The AU is responsible for the coordination and harmonization of the policies that exist between the existing and the future regional economic communities for the gradual attainment of the objectives of the union (Wafula, 2009, p. 143). This assists in the African states development in their social-economic endeavors.

The AU calls for the customs union, common market and the monetary union and sets the ultimate objective as the birth of a political federation of the member states. This is important in the development of the African trade and the economies of the member states.

The AU has established the National Drug Control and Prevention Coordination bodies that are responsible for the following up and implementing the AU plan on the drug control and the crime prevention. The member states are required to establish the anticorruption commissions that are responsible for the detection and dealing with crime. This body is responsible in the reviewing, revising and proposing of the drug control and crime prevention policies and programmes in line with the AU plan of action on the control of crime and drug abuse.

The AU has been having a major function of resolving disagreement among the African countries which are having some conflicts. The African Union is developing an ability to avoid brutal conflicts that arise within the member states. The AU therefore initiates its member states to developing essential associations facilities to anticipate conflicts from becoming cruel and threatening thus causing civil wars (Melber, 2001, p. 126).  The accomplishment in the resolution of the existing conflicts may pledge to maintain peace, safety and steadiness in the African continent. Therefore the African Union has put into effect regulations in the member states to foresee the flare-up of aggression and solidity. The key issue here is to endorse political structures within the African countries that can be strong enough to house dissimilarity without, rotating them into basis of aggression.

The African Union is working towards the provision of reasonably priced drugs this is therefore enhanced towards behavior change of populace of Africa and the endorsement of the exploration of a vaccine of HIVAIDS and also Malaria drugs. The African Union has tightened the mores of tranquility, egalitarianism and forbearance in the African civilization (Wafula, 2009, p. 149). This ought to be done by putting emphasis on the reality that in any humanity, natives can vary and even do so heatedly, devoid of being offensive

The AU has developed a body in it called the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD) that is responsible for many activities including the promotion of accelerated growth and sustainable development and the halting of the marginalizing of the African community in the globalization process. All this is in the achievement many of its objectives in the development of the African states.
This union has brought about much significance in the African member states in accordance to globalization. It has therefore remained an individual and collective effort that has brought about the interaction and of the member countries. This is a challenge to these countries for reversing the trend that has been of major concern to them which is the exploitation of the natural resources (Martorana, 2000, p.52). By this integration the countries they are able to work together and sacrifice together with the enthusiasm to build a new continent of which the future generation will be proud of.
This integration of the African economies, this is important in the present economic and political crisis. This therefore provides the best option to be able to free them from the current western exploitation of the continent. The African community will be feared by the western communities for breaking into the system of exploitation and most importantly they will be able to challenge the basis of slavery and colonialism in Africa.

The African community through its set up integration will be able to safeguard its vast resources that the westerners had to prop up dictators, as well as the ignition of civil war around the continent so that while the Africans fought each other, their resources were exploited and looted.

The African Union has realized there is a need for political will to make strong decisions by the African leaders and the courage and determination to implement them in their countries. Since there has been a slow speed in the execution and assimilation and lack of interest of the continent, the African Union has ensured that its members put forward institutions that foresee crucial movement towards harmony and mutual aid of the African countries (Mike, 2004, p. 28). Globalization is the process of integration of the world economies through trade, financial flows, the exchange of technology and information and the movement of people.

Globalization has brought about many advantages to the African economies. It has led to the interconnection of the African states, within themselves and with the outside world. This is because the closed system of governance that existed in these economies has been broken to bring about a free world.

Responding to this issue by the AU has led to a significant rise in the importance of trade and the capital flows in the African economies. An increasingly large share of the world GDP is generated in the activities that are linked directly with international trade. Also there has been a phenomenon in the growth of the cross-border financial flows, particularly in the form of private equity and portfolio investment, compared to the past (Wafula, 2009, p. 150).

On the same issue the revolution of the communication and the transportation of technology have brought about the much improved availability of information have allowed the individual countries to base their economic success throughout  the present world. Moreover, the globalization has brought about the greater openness and the participation of these countries in the competitive international trade. This has brought about the increased employment opportunities for most countries that are experiencing large cases of unemployment.

As a result of this phenomenon those African countries that participate in the globalization issue and that have developed the open markets have attracted new investment and have advanced their technologies. This is essential for these countries for the participation in the international trade competitively and hence improve their wealth by eliminating poverty which is a major concern in the counties (Martorana, 2000, p.58).

In the early 1990s globalization and the end of the cold war, all these had compelled the African states to recognize the structural weaknesses that had prevented the AU from responding to their intrastate conflicts. At the same time it was found out that the west and the western council was not responding to the African problems.

Another hindrance towards globalization is culturallocal resistance. Since globalization is the phenomenon that was brought about by the western culture and imposed to the African countries, local resistance is being build up to prevent the harmonization of this culture (Mike, 2004, p. 34).

To respond to the issue of globalization the African Union should oversee the formation of institutions that foresee the conservation of the surroundings by creating progress such as tourism, development, and reserve use, site endorsement through the founding of sheltered vicinity that normalize reserve utilization and esteem ecology carrying capacity. The African Union should also increase populace involvement aspiring at increasing ecological responsiveness.

There are many ways in which Africa can be able to respond to the issue of globalization. The key option for this is to cover the core areas of influence. The debates on the democratization, respect for the rule of law, political stability and some related issues such as the gender quality and environmental management and also how the AU can shape the future directions are closely examined.

In order to develop a globalize society the African countries should first realize its significance. Therefore, the intensity and the breadth of the interactions within the political, technological, economic, social, and the cultural domains that characterize the globalization should be their major emphasis (Wafula, 2009, p. 162). They should see the AU foundation as a major tool for the continent to face the multifaceted challenges.

To overcome problems of globalization, the African leaders who represent the various countries in the African union should comprehend with the intention of moving from a unification of states to a unification of the populace. This indicates putting the people first or as a priority. To achieve a good union of the people of Africa, there should be unrestricted movement of people across countries (Smith, 2002).

There is the need of institutional transformation. This aspires at intensification of the African Union and intensifying the ability of the African Union so as to administer and synchronize effectual relations with the diverse parts and other important communities in the whole world. There should also be an existence of a local assimilation with the countries in continent of Africa since it supports the African union in implementing its role as the controller and catalyst of interactions between its member states in the steady continental assimilation in the different African countries (Udombana, 2004, p. 134). Through this the African countries can be able to compete to the outside world.

In order to globalize there should be a common vision between the different leaders of the African countries. With communal vision, there is an understanding with Africa and her countries between the African union objectives and policies Kennedy, 2001, p. 14). The African Union should strive at attaining a common vision among its member countries so as to promote the development of the African countries and also promote economic integration, good governance, improve the quality of health, reduce or completely abolish corruption.