Internal Conflict in the Abu Dhabi Customs Administration

In this proposed study, we seek to examine issue of internal conflict within the workplace that are having a negative impact on the employees and the organization as a whole. 

Literature Review
The role of customs and its importance is well established in existing literature related to airport management.  Research has noted that customs agencies are playing an increasingly important role, as the volume of world trade conducted by air continues to grow, particularly by companies such as Fedex and UPS (Kadza  Caves, 2007, p. 216).  Boeing, one of the leaders in the field of aviation, predicts that air cargo will continue to increase at 6.1  yearly worldwide (Kadza  Caves, 2007, p. 217). 

Recent events, most notably increased terror activity worldwide, have ensured that customs agencies play a leading role in the providing greater security, both at a local and national level (Wells  Young, 2004, p. 219).    The researcher notes that there is a lack of current research that addresses contemporary issues in the field of customs administration.  This lack may be tied specifically to issues around management and human resources.  Early research conducted by Appeals  Struye de Swielande (1998) helped to define current issues in the field of customs administration.  This research also marks a turning point in the popular image of customs administrators.  Appeals  Struye de Swielande suggest that technological advances as well as an increase in time-sensitive trade have helped to push the role forward into a more modern context.  Another area of existing research is the field of supply chain management and logistics.  Industry has long recognized the importance of customs administration to ensuring efficient trade practices (Haughton  Desmeules, 2001 Heaver, 1992).  While these issues are important, the researcher recognizes that there is a need to examine both managerial practices and working culture within customs administration.  Serious problems can and do arise in this workplace, and it is important to address these issues using established management techniques.

Identification of Knowledge
As indicated in the previous section, there are important gaps in knowledge in the field of study.  While considerable attention has been paid to the logistical aspects of customs administration, comparatively little has been paid to the actual functioning of these office environments.  This study proposes that the working culture within these organizations would benefit from the application of best practices in human resources development and management.

Statement of Problem
In the proposed case, the situation is as follows. 
The Organization  The Abu Dhabi Customs Administration is located in the Al Ain International Airport, and it employs 150 people.  The Administration plays a vital role in promoting the economy and ensuring the safety of the State. 

The Main Characters  The Director Asadel is a well educated and connected man who has been with the administration for many years.  His deputy Bashir is another well educated and connected individual who has been with the company for many years.

The Outside Environment  Recent events have created many changes for the administration of customs.  These events include terrorist attacks, increased reliance on air-based transit, as well as the impact of the recession.

Problems and Need for Decisions  Both the external and internal environments within Abu Dhabi Customs Administration are constantly changing.  It is frequently necessary for either the Director or his Deputy to issue new directions.  Unfortunately, there is not a great deal of consultation with staff before these directions are made.  There seems to be little investigation on the impact of these changes or consideration of how they will be implemented.  As a result, these changes create considerable unrest within the workplace.  In this instance, the Deputy has implemented a new record keeping system that he learned about at a conference.  Unfortunately, the Administration does not have the necessary computer equipment or programs to make this program work.  The new system is causing confusion and many employees are continuing to use the old system, creating further problems.

Objectives and Limitation
In this project, the researcher hopes to incorporate best practices in business management to the context of customs administration.  Many of the theories and techniques are highly transferable, and it is believed that this application will help ensure the more efficient running of the organization.

It is believed that there has been a tendency within the organization to either overlook or underestimate the importance of adhering to best business practices, i.e. change management.  Accordingly, it is believed that if some of these theories are applied to this environment there will be a substantial improvement in performance and job satisfaction.

Research Methods
This research will be based primarily on participant observation.  The researcher has first-hand knowledge of the organization and will use his observations to develop the case study.  This approach will be augmented by readings in the field of change management and human resource management, as well as motivational theories.

This research will make an important contribution to the field of knowledge by applying existing theories and techniques to a business setting where they have been overlooked.  In addition, the findings will likely be transferable to a range of different settings.

Leadership, Motivation and Training in Abu Dhabi Customs Administration
In this proposed study, we seek to examine issues related to leadership, motivation and training in the workplace that are having a negative impact on the employees and the organization as a whole. 

Literature Review
The role of customs and its importance is well established in existing literature related to airport management.  Research has noted that customs agencies are playing an increasingly important role, as the volume of world trade conducted by air continues to grow, particularly by companies such as Fedex and UPS (Kadza  Caves, 2007, p. 216).  Boeing, one of the leaders in the field of aviation, predicts that air cargo will continue to increase at 6.1  yearly worldwide (Kadza  Caves, 2007, p. 217).

Recent events, most notably increased terror activity worldwide, have ensured that customs agencies play a leading role in the providing greater security, both at a local and national level (Wells  Young, 2004, p. 219).    The researcher notes that there is a lack of current research that addresses contemporary issues in the field of customs administration.  This lack may be tied specifically to issues around management and human resources.  Early research conducted by Appeals  Struye de Swielande (1998) helped to define current issues in the field of customs administration.  This research also marks a turning point in the popular image of customs administrators.  Appeals  Struye de Swielande suggest that technological advances as well as an increase in time-sensitive trade have helped to push the role forward into a more modern context.  Another area of existing research is the field of supply chain management and logistics.  Industry has long recognized the importance of customs administration to ensuring efficient trade practices (Haughton  Desmeules, 2001 Heaver, 1992).  While these issues are important, the researcher recognizes that there is a need to examine both managerial practices and working culture within customs administration.  Serious problems can and do arise in this workplace, and it is important to address these issues using established management techniques.

Identification of Knowledge
As indicated in the previous section, there are important gaps in knowledge in the field of study.  While considerable attention has been paid to the logistical aspects of customs administration, comparatively little has been paid to the actual functioning of these office environments.  This study proposes that the working culture within these organizations would benefit from the application of best practices in human resources development and management.

Statement of Problems
The Organization  The organization at the heart of this study is Abu Dhabi Customs Administration.  The Abu Dhabi Customs Administration is located in the Al Ain International Airport, and it employs 150 people.  The Administration plays a vital role in promoting the economy and ensuring the safety of the State.

Main Characters  The Director and his deputy as well as senior management.  The Director Asadel is a well educated and connected man who has been with the administration for many years.  His deputy Bashir is another well educated and connected individual who has been with the company for many years.  The senior manager Jafar is responsible for training.  He has a good education but lacks much specialized business training.  He has considerable autonomy in his department provided he does not go over budget.

Outside Environment  Recent events have created many changes for the administration of customs.  These events include terrorist attacks, increased reliance on air-based transit, as well as the impact of the recession.

Problems and Need for Decisions  In the proposed case, the circumstances are related to the existing staff training systems.  At present, the organization is not able to provide all of its employees with access to training.  Priority is being given to upper level and administrative staff.  The problem is further exacerbated by the fact that the budget allocation is very small.  As a result of these circumstances, the annual staff evaluations are very poor, thus affecting morale and the overall standards within the organization.  Recently, there have been a number of complaints made regarding the efficiency and demeanor of customs agents in screening passengers.  Staff has indicated there is a strong need for better training however, the problem has not been addressed.

Objectives and Limitation
In this project, the researcher hopes to incorporate best practices in business management to the context of customs administration.  Many of the theories and techniques are highly transferable, and it is believed that this application will help ensure the more efficient running of the organization.

It is believed that there has been a tendency within the organization to either overlook or underestimate the importance of adhering to best business practices, i.e. leadership, motivation, training and development.  Accordingly, it is believed that if some of these theories are applied to this environment there will be a substantial improvement in performance and job satisfaction.

Research Methods
This research will be based primarily on participant observation.  The researcher has first-hand knowledge of the organization and will use his observations to develop the case study.  This approach will be augmented by readings in the field of change management and human resource management, as well as motivational theories.

This research will make an important contribution to the field of knowledge by applying existing theories and techniques to a business setting where they have been overlooked.  In addition, the findings will likely be transferable to a range of different settings.

Study on Nigeria IT Industry

The development of communications and internet technologies has spawn a new model of the worlds economy, borderless economy. The terminology coins the terms that internet virtually eliminates the existence of cross-nations or even cross-continents trade, commerce, and other economics process. In internet era, companies need to remember that the Web is inherently global - when a company launches a Web site, it is accessible by a worldwide audience.

In many aspects, the development of technology becomes the driving forces of a countrys economy. The role of technology in business is indispensable as technology becomes the catalyst of efficient business operations. Furthermore, technology has recently become an important commodity for multinational businesses. This condition underlies Nigeria to prepare a nation reliable telecommunication network through several new Acts including the efforts to increase the foreign direct investment into Nigeria.

One of efforts is to increase foreign direct investment in information technological sectors to increase the number of internet users, for instances, which would lead to awareness of doing business online. This also leads to the improvement of economy in the Nigeria. India for example, experiences significant FDI inflow due to its capabilities in technology-related industries. Off shoring of technological companies are common in India. Employment on the other hand, is considered as a determinant of economic stability. The lesson highlights that investors prefer to invest in nations with high employment rate because it reflects a stable social and economic condition for business investments.
Literature Review
Benefits of Information Technology
Technology has been the key to business success in this information era. Many literatures consider the advancement of technology in a country become a contributor to their business development. Many believe that technology would get into all aspects of business and significantly alter the face of modern economic activities although still many believe that the benefits of technology is limited toward technical influence, in which it increases corporate efficiency by allowing business to become faster and cheaper.

In addition, information system is a very important tool for management. Business professionals used them to make strategic planning as well as to perform daily tasks. The efficiently system provides them with relevant knowledge and helps them make the right decision. Information Technology (IT) has been applied in various sectors to manage both profit and non-profit organization.

There are several noticeable effects of technological advancement in business activities as following
Enhanced Efficiency
As occurred in the revolution industry where the invention of advanced technologies at that time such as steam machines, Spinning Jenny and Water Frame have increased the production output, in the information era, the use of technology also increases the exchange of information. This leads to the increase on efficiency of business processes.

A famous example of how information technology contributes to the increased efficiency is on the Amazon. Competitors of Amazon like Barnes and Noble also has traditional bookstore in addition to their virtual presence in the internet. Amazon on the other hand, relies merely on selling books and other products on their online stores. They depend fully on its virtual presence to gain revenue and profits.
Since the company only does business online, as a result, Amazon has a significantly lower cost structure compare to its competitors. It saves millions of dollars from having to build buildings for stores and promotions. The company however, allocates its funding to create a distribution system that enables the company to reach much wider markets (Cane, 2007).

Another example on how technology development increases efficiency is from IKEA Company. This Swedish furniture company is known for its innovative concept which was quite revolutionary in the beginning of its presence. However, by allowing customers to assemble their furniture themselves, the company saves millions of dollars in distribution and storage rooms (Innovation in Business, n.d). 

Alters Business Relationship Behaviors
In addition to increased efficiency, technology also influences the work culture where it changes the way people perform business activities. Unlike business in 1980s that mostly carried out by phone and surface mails, in the developed information technology, the intercontinental communication can be done by using electronic mails (emails), instant messaging etc. 

Communication via emails and messengers generate a new written culture in corporate managers and employees. Due to the absence of gesture and bodily signals in this type of communication, managers and employees have develop a more verbal way of expressing thoughts and feelings. Communication becomes simpler and more directive

Electronic commerce (e-commerce) is the most prevalent example of how technology will have an increasingly integral role on business activities. It carries with it the flag of efficiency, globalization and enhanced quality of business operations. E-commerce allows people to make business arrangements with partners or clients thousands of miles away from their location. E-commerce obviously outperforms the traditional paper-based transactions, which generated significantly more cost and time. Using e-commerce, corporations can virtually exist in foreign markets with lower cost compared to those making physical presences in the markets (How Digital, 2007).

One example of e-commerce is eBay. Although the company does not physically exist in every country in the world, virtually the company can carry out transactions with customers worldwide. Another example of a company using technology as a tool of business development is Yahoo and Google. These companies provide services for worldwide customers without having much of physical presence in any of its markets. Through the World Wide Web, internationalization of business activities is easier to achieve.

Factors that influence the information technology developments in Nigeria
In the 1970s, the need for timely, accurate and reliable information helps the Information Technology to grow widely. But it was due to the small computers or refers to desktophome computers that are discovered in the 1980 that increase the impact of Information technology toward individuals and businesses. Today, the technology has developed into corporate weapons to face fierce competitions. The role of the IT business as a strategic advantage of is widely recognized (The Importance of, 2000).

In addition, it is also discovered that the use of internet in business is increasing rapidly, despite the fact that within that year -2002- international business are having a little downshift in its development. However, the share of online transactions in total B2B sales is growing quickly on both sides of the Atlantic, estimated to be 20 in 2006. International dialogues have been made to address the internet-induced changes in the global economy. The condition represents a major shift of global business to the on-line environment (E-Commerce and Development Report, 2005 Corbitt, 2003).

Figure 1 Growth of mobile phones subscribers in Africa
Source Open Net Intiative. 2007
One factor that contributes to the exponential growth of internet users is the increasing number of mobile phone users. It happens as the mobile phones mostly work in the 2G (second generation) system that enable customers to connect to the internet through their mobiles phones at least by using GPRS connection.

Figure 2 Nigeria the Africans largest mobile markets
Source Traffic Online Media Solutions, 2009

As the figure 1 display, Nigeria growth rate in mobile penetration has surpassed those at Egypt and Morocco. The future of mobile phone market is also lucrative in Nigeria as analysts estimate the current outstanding growth is only a quarter of Nigerias estimated market potential (Traffic Online Media Solutions, 2009).

Figure 3 Growth of internet users in Africa
Source Open Net Intiative. 2007
To be precise, among African countries, Nigeria leads the industry in terms of number of cellular phone customers (see figure 2). As explained previously, this exponential growth is also in line with the increasing number of internet subscribers. This data shows that increasing the number of internet users are related to the provision of mobile phone networks throughout the country.

The study on Nigeria IT industry compared to Malaysia
As computer technology and internet become two major factors that speed up the IT development of a country, it drives authorities in Nigeria to present the infrastructure that would favor the increasing traffic of internet. As the result, within the 21st century, the country experiences the tremendous growth on internet traffic.

Figure 4 Africa Top 10 internet countries
Figure 4 shows the comparison of internet users in Africa where Nigeria is considered to have over 10.9 millions of subscribers, representing the country as the top leading country in Africa in terms of number of subscribers. In another literature, the growth is detailed where Nigeria records a remarkable growth on the internet users from 200,000 users in 2000 into magnificent 11 millions users in 2009 as shown in the figure 5.

Figure 5 Internet Usages and Population Growth in Nigeria
Source Internet World Stats, 2010b

The telecommunication infrastructure that enables the exponential growth of internet users in Nigeria is the existence of international cable networks that land in Nigeria. This situation benefits Nigeria as bandwidth price is getting lower.

Figure 6 International cable networks landing on Africa (Heacock, 2009)

One cable network that lands on Nigeria is GLO-1 submarine cable in Lagos. This is one of advanced cable network that connect Nigeria and 13 other West African countries to global telecommunication network through Europe (Heacock, 2009).

This development is comparable to Malaysia that also experiences significant internet users growth during the 21st century (see Figure 7). The difference is Malaysia already has better internets penetration rate about 15 in 2000 as the geographical condition in Malaysia support the mass deployment of IT infrastructure. This is much different from Nigeria that requires multiple modes in order to increase the number of internet users in the country due to the challenging geographical conditions.

Figure 7 Internet Usages and Population Growth in Malaysia
Source Internet World Stats, 2010b

Factors that support the development of internet users both in Nigeria and Malaysia are contributed by changing policy. In Nigeria, for example, previously the country face hurdles as they have unreliable and underdeveloped fixed-line infrastructure. However, the country then changes the regulations to intensify the competition and let the advances wireless broadband access technology to serves customers. This changing immediately adds the number of internet service providers (ISPs) into 400 licensed ISPs in addition to the growing number of gateway operators, internet exchange, and data carriers (Internet World Stats, 2010b Berkey, 2002 Bo-Ling, 2001).

As the information technology does not merely depend on fixed-line access, the country also deploys the Next Generation Networks (NGN) that becomes the basis for triple-play services composing of voice, data and videoTV services (Internet World Stats, 2010b).

This regulation factors also become one driving factors that contribute to the increasing IT sector in Malaysia. The country also introduces the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Project that highlights the governments commitment to the improvement of technological society. As the IT infrastructure in Malaysia is advancing, this would attract foreign companies to establish branches in Malaysia (Internet World Stats, 2010a).

Figure 8 Cable networks land on Malaysia
Source httpwww.telegeography.comwordpressindex.html3Fp45.html

Like Nigeria that connect to the global telecommunication network through several cable systems, Malaysia also get connected to the world via several cable system that help them to increase the number of internet users significantly (See Figure 8).

Nigeria efforts to increase inflow foreign direct investment
As a country that becomes one of the biggest and fastest growing telecom markets in Africa, Nigeria has lucrative markets for growth in all sectors. Learning from Malaysia that develop seriously the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Project in order to attract foreign investors to invest in Malaysia, Nigeria also learns that the building of reliable and widespread IT infrastructure will be the keys to increasing number of foreign direct investment to the country. Figure 9 shows the historical trend of Nigerian inflow foreign direct investments during 2001-2006 periods.

One major move that Nigerian government take in information sector is the privatization of incumbent telecommunication operator, Nitel, which will enable them to compete aggressively and effectively in the future. The government also introduces the licensing regime in 2006.

Figure 9 Nigeria inflow foreign direct investments
Source Internet World Stats, 2010b
The changing regulation in telecommunication sectors will attract new operators to provide both fixed and mobile services in Nigeria in which some of them are backed up by foreign companies. Once these operators deploy network throughout the Nigeria by delivering both fixed and mobile service, Nigeria expect that it will significantly raises demand for Internet access and broadband capabilities.


The conflict between Arab and Israel spans across a century of hostility and aggression. The agitation began primarily as a political issue over the boundaries and territorial gain. In light of this, the early stages of the conflict began with Israeli proclaiming of one Jewish state that would encompass the land beyond the Gaza, while the Arabs claiming of a solitary Arab state that would prohibit the immigration of Jewish to Israel from the bordering lands. In addition to this, as a closer reason for the agitation between the two nations, this research paper aims to focus on the religious matters, including the effects of the rise of Zionism that contributed towards the conflict and discuss its contrast as a potential background for the eruption of war between the two nations. Moreover, the research expects to assess how the two distinct ideologies on Christianity and Muslim affected the belief of a promised land that triggered the unrest.

The second part of this research tries to assess the approaches made by Arab and Israeli and outside parties in order to resolve the conflict both their successes and failures. Mainly the research paper aims to critically analyze the success of direct bilateral peace negations held between the two nations, especially the 1991 Madrid conference. Furthermore, the research brings into picture the other matters that had affected the peace process, including the military incursion to Gaza by Israel, the potential of nuclear arms in Iran and also the impacts of anxiety created on the Israel with growing concern of Hamas and Hezbollah attacks. As the worlds most powerful nation, the United States, including the present Obama administration has stood by attentively with the conflict seeking a resolution to it, and their approach and role to solve the long lasting issue will be closely investigated. In addition, the research will explore the impact of the historical peace talks including the Security Council Resolution (1967), the Oslo Agreement (1993), the Geneva Accord (2003), and how successful they have been in the run up to the present situation of the conflict. Finally, this paper projects on possible future measures that will aid in resolving the issue that has been ravaging for many years in the region.

Evidence of the impact on child labor and health

According to the report issued in the year 2002 by the ILO on child labor, it is evident that more the 250 million children are engaged in child labor.  It is clear from the report that more than half of these children work in hazardous environment. For example, they work in agricultural farms or in the animal husbandry, where tools are designed for grown ups and the protective clothing is not provide for children.  Bearing in mind that children are perfectionists and are also achievers, they work actively and energetically to get the work done timely regardless of the nature of the environment they are subjected to so as to earn their reward money or other goods and services (Grier, 33).   These children are likely to be exploited in many ways including the deprivation of good health physical health or emotional and mental health.

The reports that were presented were collected from both developed and developing countries.  These reports compiled data from labored children between the age 5 and 14 years. Variables were obtained form the adult mortality among other health indicators within the developing countries.  The report shows that majority of the labored children are children from developing countries.   Specific analysis shows that the children from those developing countries who are involved in child labor are from poor families because majority work for pay to get basic needs like food and clothing.

Statistical reports from Guatemala, Yemen and morocco and Egypt, show that the occupational mortality rate in both the adults and children of the same areas were equal leading to a conclusion that the mortality rate in adults was as a result of child labor on these adults during their early ages.  The relationship between health status of adults and labored children showed no difference but it is suspected that the long term effects on the children would arise late in life.  It was also discovered that work contributes positively to the health status of a poor nutrited child (Wigle, 16).  This further complicates the research outcome. 

Children working in agricultural farm are exposed to direct conduct of chemicals used to spray crops in the farms.  This is harmful to their health because once inhaled, they may result to respiratory tract diseases.  The main problem is that the children are ignorant on the precautions to take against contamination by these chemicals and the employers may only take advantage of hem and fail to provide protective masks to them.  It is worth noting that 70 of child labor victims are employed in the agricultural farms.  Apart from the inhaled chemicals, these children are found to have other kinds of injuries which may be physical or mental as well as emotional. 

Physical problems may include knife cuts, snake bites, thorn pricks wire scratches on their skins and tiredness due to heavy loads on them.  Others may sprain their feet or break their legs or hands while working on the farm especially if they are working with aggressive animals like the oxen, or donkeys that may kick them or they may even be run over by farm machines like tractors and combine harvesters.  These kind of harsh working conditions are a result of many deaths among the minors working on the farms (Cigno, Rosati, 23).  Unfortunately, most of these cases go unnoticed by the government bodies or else if they are reported, corrupt means of handling the cases are used to do away with such claims. 

Apart from the agriculture sector, there are other minors working as domestic workers. These are affected by psychological health problems because majority of them are either isolated from their families and mistreated thus making them be lonely and suffer from stress related problems like ulcers, depression and some times some have been reported to commit suicide while trying to run away from their cruel bosses.

Majority of these children work for long hours they are the earliest risers in the places where they are employed and the are still the last to sleep after making sure that the house hold chores are fully completed.  They wake up early to prepare for their employers preparatory duties before leaving to their job places, then the labored children are left to attend to other duties that may include walking to the farm to collect fruits and vegetables that are to be cooked for the employers meals, washing large heaps of cloth, collecting fire wood, heading cattle and sheep and preparing both animal feeds and people foodstuffs for the day.  At the end of the day, these children are usually tired and fatigued (Otis, Pasztor, 4).  This reduces their lifespan and is forced to mature unexpectedly early.  Majority of these become mothers at the age of 13 years and they are now forced to work as domestic workers for ever. 

Among them are those that are sexually assaulted and physically assaulted.  Some of their employers beat them up especially if they do not perform their duties effectively.  These beating may result to more physical injuries and the result is even pathetic when they have no one to report their problems to. Sexually assaulted children are known to have contracted sexually transmitted diseases and others receiving physical bruises on their genital areas making it difficult for them to walk, sleep or work.  Most of these cases are also not reported because the children are threatened by their employers while others are paid for the services. In other words, the children are stressed up, exploited and have repetitive strain injuries on their spinal cord due to long working hours (Otis, Passtor, 9). Domestic jobs are also called hidden jobs. 

Most of the health hazards subjected to these children are long-term problems like reduced intelligent quotient, cancer, infertility and chronic back pains.  It has also been discovered that majority of burns that are sustained in work environment are on the labored children because the relationship of the number of adults who are burnt were much fewer than the minors.  This can be attributed to the children working in the more hazardous environment than the adults or the inability of the enthusiastic youths to judge dangerous environments and safety measures associated to it. (These burns were not collected among the ones that occur domestically. It only included the work environment related burns.)
Researches on the relationship between the effects of child labor on health have been carried out for quite some time now.  The World Bank and the United Nations as well as other organizations have done much on child labor researcher, highlighting health aspects such as their physical health, the mental health, their fertility, mortality rates and the health effects related to child labor at a later stage in development and old age (Cigno, Rosati, 35).
Studies on the relationship between child labor and HIVAIDS have also been carried out and in most cases it is clearly depicted that the rate of child labor has increased due to orphanage, that when children lose their elder brothers or parents and guardians they are forced to start working at a tender age to earn a living since they become the immediate family heads.  These children have been found to easily contract the diseases at a tender age because they are vulnerable and exposed to environments that promote more chances for sexual abuse.  Majority of the children that considered in the category of child abuse are those that are aged between 5 year and 14 years of age. Research data has shown that these children are faced with risks like malnutrition, unsafe sex, dangerous occupation, poor sanitation, poor water sources and unhygienic conditions the subject them to worse health status (Wigle, 29). Health reports also show that the labored children are less likely to be unhealthy while the conclusion associated to this is that most of the children who are taken to work on farms are the strong and health ones because they are found to be more productive while the unhealthy children are left at home to perform lighter duties. The correlation between mortality rate of both adolescent children significantly elaborate that health care in terms of nutrition and exposure to infectious diseases among children is common in developing countries in which many people are living below the poverty line.  The minors are mostly likely to die from accidence at work place as compared to adults.

Health professional in different countries have been able to access these children and advised some of their parents or guardians on health hazards that are associated to the child labor effects. However, the majority of these children who work in low income earning communities and poverty stricken areas unless if they are assisted by the government or other non governmental or humanitarian organizations may never stop to labor for their survival.  Thus their health will always be at risk.  It is therefore the work of medical officers and health professionals to find ways of identifying the children and advising the affected parents and governments of the health care practices required for these children to remain health (Grier, 36).  The relevant governments are advised to carry out inspection through the labor inspectors in companies, health officers, to try and eliminate and terminate child labor because the children who are labored are a sign of weak nation in the near future. 

In conclusion, the relationship between labored children and those that are not labored though under more studies shows that a labored child is more likely to contact disease than the one who is not labored.  It is also worth concluding that the mortality rate of labored children is higher than that of unlabored children.  The education status of unlabored children goes higher than that of the labored one because the IQ of a labored child is diminished by exhaustion during work.  Child labor, according to the research reports obtained in the world bank in 2002 shows that child labor is more prevalent in developing countries most of which are found in Asia, Africa, Latin America India and China among others.   Labored children are forced to mature physically mentally and emotionally prematurely hence a source of stagnation in growth. Child labor should be eradicated because it destroys the future of a nation.

International Management - Project Feasibility Analysis

Our company will produce EV cars with Lithium EV batteries. The demand for such vehicles is high as the world moves to products which are environmentally friendly. The headquarters of our company will be located in the United States with a subsidiary in Argentina. The reason for locating a subsidiary in Argentina is that the country has an abundance of lithium which will be used for developing lithium EV batteries. The benefit of the location is that it will reduce transportation costs as the lithium will not have to be imported. There is also availability of cheap labor in Argentina and the nearby areas reducing production costs even further.

Overview of Argentina
The country Argentina is located in the Continent of South America near Brazil and Chile. It stretches 4000 km and has a terrain of Andes mountain ranges, swamps and the plains of Pampas with a long coast line. The country is rich in resources such as lithium. Argentina has an educated workforce, an agricultural orientation and a diversified industrial base.

During the 20th century, the country has suffered from a boom and bust economic cycle which has led to most of the people falling under the poverty line. In 2001, the country was hit with an economic recession as a result there was currency devaluation and debt defaults in huge numbers. In 2003, the country was working towards recovering with the help of the IMF.  (BBC, 2010)

The population of Argentina is sound 40.2 million people, the capital is Buenos Aires and the language spoken is Spanish. The religion that is practiced in the country is Christianity. The per capita gross national income is 7200. The countrys main exports are food, livestock, mineral fuels, cereals and machinery. The President of Argentina is Cristina Fernandez, who won the first presidential election in 2007. The country has been subject to military dictatorship in the past. (BBC 2010)

Political and Legal Environment
The major political parties in the country are justicialista, formerly known as the peronista party, and the radical party. Both parties are known to maintain clientelistic relations. The country adopted a new constitution in 1994. According to this constitution there are three branches of the government executive, legislative and the judicial. The judicial branch has two houses, the house of the senators and the house of deputies.

The country has its own police force which is meant to curtail crime but the perception of the people is that the police force is prone to corruption. The police force comes under the Justice and Security Ministry. Many people think that the police force is also a cause of the criminal problem that the country is facing. The extent of this problem is that many at times, the citizens have had to kill criminals in robbery attempts.

Argentina has also been subject to military dictatorship and there have been times in history when the military has taken over the country. But when the military lost the Falklands to the British, they lost support of the public and the country went back to democracy in 1983. (Every Culture)

Economic Environment
After the 2001 economic recession, the economy has been doing well. For the next five years after the recession, the real growth has been a consistent 8 per cent. In 2008, this figure dropped to 6.8 per cent because of domestic and international factors. Also, after the recession, poverty had reached to 50 per cent but has dropped to 15.3 percent in the largest urban areas.

The country has experience high growth after 2001, specifically in the years 2003-2007 because of a floating exchange rate regime, a boost in the domestic demand because of monetary, fiscal and income distribution policies, and favorable international commodity prices and interest rate trends.

The year 2009, has not been so good for Argentina. The global economic environment has led to a decline in the growth rate that was being experienced by the country. The exchange rate of pesos with the dollar in September 2009 was, 3.87 pesos per dollar. Another major contributor to the growth rate in Argentina was the foreign trade. Foreign trade has contributed approximately 39 of GDP in 2008. The exports contribute approximately 22 of GDP in 2008.

Currently in Argentina there are 500 U.S. companies which are operating. These companies employ over 155,000 workers. To repay the debts to the Paris Club, the President has announced that the Central Bank reserves will be used. Also, the Government is launching a debt swap of up to ARS8.3 billion in inflation-linked debt for a new 2014 floating rate bond.( Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs, 2009)

Cultural Issues
The people of Argentina are a mixture of diverse national groups. Many people have Spanish or an Italian background. But this is not the extent of the diversity found within the country. People from Syria, Lebanese, and other Middle Eastern areas came and settled here in the late 19th and early 20th century.

Although majority of the people in the country are Christians but the country also has its share of Jewish people. The two things that join the nation together are football and tango. Football has been promoted by the government as a sport. Food is also a cultural symbol of the nation.

The three classes that exist within Argentina are the upper class, the middle class and the lower class. The middle class is the largest in number and was formed by people who came to the country in the late 19th and early 20th century. The upper class can be easily identified by their expensive imported clothes. The social class a person belongs to is easily identifiable by the speech and the body language.
Argentina does have its share of discrimination. Women are not allowed to succeed to some positions and their power in society is limited. Initially, Argentina allowed the father to have more authority over the children but this has changed and equal authority is granted now.

Argentina is a mixture of cultures, i.e. it is a multicultural society and faces the same problems as any other multicultural society would. There are some language barriers as no program is offered to teach the bilingual students. (Every Culture)

There are problems between the immigrants and the Argentineans. The politicians like putting the blame on the immigrants for the increase in criminal activity, even though the statistics prove that the immigrants were not involved. (Human Rights Documentation Center 2001)

Mid-term Study Guide for Pol S. 496 (Chinese Politics)

1. The Xinhai Revolution also known as the Revolution of 1911 totally brought the two thousand year dynasty to its end. The revolution was a big blow to Chinas condition and it caused several political commotions to arise. But the May Fourth Movement was the event that roused the birth of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The May Fourth Movement was led by thousands of students from Beijing. They rallied and protested against the Versailles Conference that will award Japan the leasehold of Shandong province. Soon the students elicited the same response from workers, businessmen, and students from other parts of the country. After the historical May Fourth Movement, another event shook the mending state of China- the Japanese invasion. The Japanese occupation of China began at 1931 causing numerous resistance war that killed thousands of people Japan surrendered in 1945. One of the early leaders of CCP was Mao Zedong. Mao is a Marxist and he applied it in his leadership. The mass consisted of the nationalists intellectuals, peasants and workers participated well in Maos endeavors for the country. Gaining the support of the mass, Mao brought the CCPs power to the peak.

2. Maos revision of Marxism can be observed through his reliance on the peasants rather than the industrial workers. He empowered the peasants by delegating them as the forefronts of revolution. Mao focused on the needs and grievances of the underprivileged people who were  oppressed by the warlords. He also stressed political voluntarism that means only our human will is capable of achieving social change and not through reliance on material changes. The use of propagandas, campaign, and ideologies like the Little Red Book and the banding of the Red Guards and the so-called Cult of Mao are some examples. Another manifestation of Maos adaptation of Marxism is the mass-line. He states that  the right way to lead is from the masses to the masses which means that leaders should listen and understand the concerns of the masses, concentrate and study about it until they can produce a systematic and complete idea, and disseminate it to the masses until they accept it wholeheartedly and bring those ideas into life.

One of the good outcome of the Great Leap Forward is that the country broke free from the Soviets model of industrialization. Rural industries and building roads had been successful in its proceedings.  Radical egalitarianism prevailed. But the GLF had more unfortunate effects rather than good ones.  This includes the largest famine in the countrys history that killed millions of people. The famine  happened due to the exaggeration of harvest, decline of production, bad weather, zealous officials and the withdrawal of Soviet aid. After the GLF, there was a massive resettlement of the urban population to the rural areas. The life in the rural communes and urban units were regimented (danwei). Factional politics in the Chinese Communist Party was also observed especially in the 1959 Lushan Conference. In the Cultural Revolution however, violent factional struggles  caused large numbers of death. Most of the state and party organizations were rendered ineffective and others were paralyzed. Social life was politicized to unprecedented degree.  The personality cult of Mao was also at its peak during the Cultural Revolution.

Fragmented Authoritarianism probably is the most accurate means to understand Chinese politics. It describes the Chinese bureaucratic system entirely. The concept of fragmented authoritarianism explains that the authority under the highest leader of the government is separated. That is why Chinas bureaucracy is divided into many groups according to their functions. For example, the economic division deals with specific strategies to advance the countrys economy in Maos time there was the GLF. Theres also the education and propaganda group which is responsible for shaping the knowledge, values, and ideals of the citizens. They include their propagandas in educational systems and through the media. Mao is known for abusing the use of propagandas to attain his goals. The Red Guards, his literary works, the cultural revolution are some examples of the latter. After Maos rule, China went to a series of reforms but bureaucracies and the concept of fragmented authoritarianism still lives on.

5. The political scene in Taiwan started to change due to the February 28 incident. Chaing Kai-shek decided to pay more attention to Taiwan due to the violent incident that happened. Chiang Kai-shek removed Chen Yi and other high-ranking officials from their positions. He also declared Taiwan as a province and at the same time, he also withdrew military rule. In line with this, Chiang Kai-shek placed Taiwanese in high posts in the government. Moreover, different government monopoly enterprises were sold to the private sector and various steps were made in order to address unemployment in Taiwan. Nevertheless, the tainted image of the Nationalist government has been deeply embedded among Taiwanese, which resulted for their hatred to the government and Mainland Chinese.

Chiang Kai-sheks endeavor to advance the countrys economy stimulated the land reform. The land reform was also the first vital measure to improve the agriculture sector.  And  it was one of the biggest factor in the economys development too. It was enforced by implementing Farm Rent Reduction of about 50 to 37.5 of the main crop, the trade of public lands to tenant farmers, and the land-to-the-tiller program that compelled landlords to sell the land they do not personally farm. Taiwans land reform became very successful, thus making the Nationalist government image in the international community better. It also improved Taiwans economic plight, and made the country a favorite of the US foreign aid.

Taiwan reached democracy through a series of  political, cultural, and economic hardships. But through the determination of the Formosan, they have attained democracy eventually.   The year 1970 to the 1980s were considered as the start of Taiwans democratization. The prosperous economy of Taiwan gave them economic and social stabilty but it was also accompanied by new demands for political participation and pressure for democratization.

Although the country is under martial law, opponents of the government were allowed to run only for the Legislative Yuan. Members of the opposition grabbed the opportunity to fill the Legislative Yuan to debate against the KMT. The opposition called themselves Tangwai. In 1979, the Kaohsiung incident urged the Tangwai to form the Democratic opposition or the Democratic Progressive Party that worked to end the martial law charged by Chiang Kai-shek and successor son Chiang Ching-kuo. It is notable that Ching-kuo became a bridge to democratization by loosening political restrictions when he allowed the formation of political oppositions and lifted the martial law in 1987.

Discuss how Starbucks downsizing in the USA impacts their global growth strategy

The current international position for Starbucks seems to be a promising part of their business and the reformation of this is shown by their aim to become a leading global company through changing the life of a regular person all over the world. This goal is quite close to being achieved as proved the Starbucks current locations in international markets and the successfulness of these ventures. The current countries in which Starbucks are located in are Australia, Bahrain, Canada, Hong Kong, Israel, Japan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Malaysia, New Zealand, Oman, Peoples Republic of China, Philippines, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and the United States. (

Starbucks global aim is to become the best coffee seller and brand in each of the countries it plans on expanding to. They plan on doing this by providing their customer with the finest coffee and other products and by their exceptional customer service.China is a perfect example of how a Western company can win over cultural barriers especially in the Far East side of the world. (Kemball et al., 2002)

In most countries people welcome globalization of various goods and services as that allows them exposure to products that are not available to them otherwise in their own country. There is another issue that affects the society more, which is the possible disturbance of the countrys cultures, values and traditions. This could apply both to the host nation and the globalizing corporation. If the foreign products are changing the countrys cultures values and traditions than the former is affected, and the latter is when the company decides to adapt to the cultures of the host country, losing its culture in the process in exchange for profits.

Even though China has great opportunities because of its big population and immense growth, coffee is not a part of Chinese traditions. Starbucks faces a big problem which is that most of Chinas 1.3 billion people dont care for the chains signature product. Coffee is so unpopular in Chinas tea-drinking culture that until recently many Starbucks didnt brew regular drip coffee unless a customer ordered it. (Kemball et al., 2002)

Coffee was considered as a Western product and match well with Chinese food, cultures and traditions, tea of course sounds a lot better. It is difficult to transform a tea-drinking nation into a coffee-drinking nation. Starbucks is hoping to draw Chinese customers first by offering a new type of informal gathering place. Once patrons are inside, their coffee education begins. The chain stacks cream-and-sugar counters with brochures titled Coffee Brewing Wisdom and others that answer questions like What is espresso Workers float through stores passing out small cups of pumpkin spice latte and other drinks. (Adamy, 2006)

Starbucks faces competition from a new age group of Chinese teahouses that offer both traditional beverages and a coffeehouse culture. The chain also has to steer lots of obstacles. Financial regulations prevent the chain from offering a Starbucks payment card. If Starbucks wants to fiddle with its offerings, adding white-chocolate mocha drinks in China, for instance, it has to get government approval to import the flavoring. (Kemball et al., 2002)

Thats where Starbucks got help. Starbucks is relying on Mr. Wang to smooth over these hurdles. The Beijing native worked for the Chinese government in the early 1980s and helped it form its first partnerships with overseas auto makers before joining Starbucks in 1992, when it had 120 U.S. stores. He left the company in 2000 to return to China, then rejoined Starbucks in 2005 to lay plans for its Chinese expansion.

The US Constitution

It is necessary for a country to have its own constitution as a symbol of freedom and sovereignty. The constitution balances the rights of citizens and the government. The Constitution contains all the basic rights of citizens. The goal of the constitution is equity under the law and equal opportunity.

Among the amendments that balances and equates the right of citizens is the Nineteenth Amendment. The Nineteenth Amendment or womens suffrage rights states that the right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. (The United States Constitution, 2009) The Declaration of Sentiments at the first womans right convention in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848 is considered as the beginning of the fight for womens suffrage. Four years after that, Susan Anthony argued during the Womans Right Convention held at Syracuse in 1852 that the right of women needed above every other was the right to vote.

Before the nineteenth amendment was ratified, the right of American women to vote had been non-existent. The best example is the case of Minor vs. Happersett. Mrs. Virginia Minor sued Happersett for willfully refusing her to be listed as a voter in the State of Missouri, thus, denying her the right to vote. Both the State Court of Missouri and the Supreme Court favored Happersett, stating that the Constitution of the United States does not confer the right of suffrage upon any one, and that the constitutions and laws of the several States which commit that important trust to men alone are not necessarily void.

Another example is the case against Susan Anthony for illegal voting. She registered as a voter in her hometown of Rochester, and on November 5, 1872 successfully casted her votes. Sylvester Lewis challenged Anthony in the court by arguing that Anthony has casted an illegal vote. In the end, the court, represented by Judge Hunt, sentenced Anthony to pay a fine of one hundred dollars and the costs of the prosecution. However, Anthony refused to pay the fine. This case started a urge of women protests in the United States demanding for equal voting rights with men in the Nineteenth Amendment.

The US Constitution treats all citizens of the United States equal in the exercise of law. The Fifteenth Amendment states that The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any state on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude. (The United States Constitution) This amendment is the third of the Reconstruction Amendments which is sometimes referred as the Civil War Amendments. This granted all citizens no matter what color, race or previous status they have the right of suffrage.

The Twenty-six Amendment illuminates the ideals of fairness and equality under the rule of law. It states that The right of citizens of the United States, who are eighteen years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of age. (The United States Constitution) Undeniably, this amendment exemplifies the role of the Constitution in our everyday life.

The Constitution, thus, is the basis of all the rights which every US citizen is enjoying. And as basis, the Constitution should be strictly followed and respected.

Pros and cons of smoking ban

Smoking is one of the oldest habits in the society. Before the advent of modern society, smoking used to be a symbol of power and social status. A powerful man would just hold a cigarette to intimidate lesser people around him. In the modern life, smokers attribute their habit to the need to clear the clutter in their brains to induce a feeling of calm after the stresses accrued on account of their daily routine (Clayson, 2007). In recent history, lobby groups have pushed for the banning of this old age habit, presenting solid arguments on why smoking, or at least smoking in public places, should be banned. On the other hand, tobacco companies and other interested parties have presented counter-arguments on why smoking should not be banned. Here is an analysis.

In support for the opinion that smoking should be banned, medical research has linked tobacco to a number of life threatening conditions. Smokers are statistically a lot more likely to suffer from heart attack and heart failure, cancer of the lungs and other chronic ailments (American Cancer Society, 2009). Worse, people around smokers are, according to research under a more serious threat than smokers themselves to develop tobacco-related conditions due to exposure to second hand smoke (Clayson. 2007). An unhealthy population percentage not only lowers the overall productivity of the society but also drains resources for their medical care and rehabilitation.

Smoking has serious health implications. If it is not banned, a lot of innocent children in the streets and other public places are going to be impressed, raising the probability that they will become smokers when they grow up (Locsin, 2010). This will only serve to sustain the vicious circle that has been going on since time immemorial, making the future generations more prone to serious health complications that have plagued their predecessors before them, maintaining the continuous loss of productive lives and time and monetary resources required to maintain victims of tobacco related diseases. If smoking is banned, more and more smokers will lack a place to engage in their habit. The discomfort and inconveniences caused by lacking a suitable place to smoke will definitely influence more and more people to quit smoking, making the American public healthier.

A ban on smoking will render the habit a morally wrong habit as well as an illegal activity (Clayson, 2007). In as such, more teenagers will be dissuaded from engaging in the habit at a time when young adults are at a risk of copying their older counterparts and ending up with serious alcohol and other drug related problems. In addition, a smoking ban would make social places like discotheques, bars and public parks more user-friendly and safer to frequent since the stuffiness caused by tobacco smoke will be a thing of the past (Clayson, 2007). In addition, the number of patients with heart problems and lung diseases has significantly dropped in the face of reduced smoking rates as realized through the ban on smoking.

The ideology opposing the ban on smoking steps from several arguments, the strongest being that the government raises a lot of revenue through taxation of tobacco products. In addition, the tobacco industry employs so many people in the cigarette manufacturing industry as well as in the tobacco farming plantations. Banning smoking would therefore render these people jobless at a time when the government is striving to create more employment opportunities (Locsin, 2010). Another argument is that whether banned or not, sly smokers are evading the law and smoking indiscriminately therefore the motivation behind the ban is lost eventually. Commentators opposed to the ban on smoking have argued that most bar patrons like to accompany their drinks with cigarettes and banning smoking has made entertainment investments gradually lose their client, decreasing profitability and jobs in the sector (Locsin, 2010).

Another argument is that a ban on smoking only attracts attention to the habit making curious youths to take up the habit to experiment on it (Clayson, 2007). On their part, sociologists point out that the ban, having made smoking illegal, has induced a lot of stress in smokers through withdrawal symptoms causing confrontations at home and work increasing the probabilities of dismissal and divorce (Clayson, 2007). Politically, the government is supposed to respect each individuals right to liberty, and passing prohibitive acts contravenes the provisions of the constitution.

Considering the prevailing conditions, it is unlikely that we are going to have a smoking ban in the US. Political patronage and affluence of the heavyweights in the tobacco industry has made it hard for activists to realize their mission to have smoking banned (Clayson, 2007). Furthermore, the governments objective to improve revenue collection will suffer a significant setback should smoking be illegalized. There is little indication that the government is willing to take risks or compromise its objective. In addition, the government does not have the moral prerogative to bar adult citizens from making choices concerning their adult lives such a move would embody the denial of liberty and individual freedom as stipulated for in the constitutional order of the United States.

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln was known as a great emancipator on the account of his passing of the Emancipation Proclamation.  From the very beginning of his political career, Lincoln was very vocal on the issue of slavery and had foreseen how this would lead to strife in the long run.  In one of his arguments of slavery, he cited that the framers of the Constitution made a mistake in skirting the issue of slavery when a compromise was made among the pro-slavery signatories from the South and the anti-slavery advocates in order to keep the peace and to ensure that the Constitution will be signed and eventually ratified.  Lincoln apparently shared the same sentiments as the anti-slavery advocates because what he saw was a case of  short-term gain, long-term pain.   By prioritizing the need to ratify the Constitution, they were delaying the inevitable   conflict.

Lincoln saw the consequences it brought as new territories in the west were added to the Union.  Tensions were mounting on whether or not slavery would be allowed in these states during the administration of James Polk as the south appeared to be  influence-peddling  to win these states at their side as the issue on slavery was creating tensions in an apparent clash of the authority of the federal government over the autonomy of the states.  He also carried this issue in his debates with Stephen Douglas whose stand was to allow states to decide who wanted slavery or not.  Lincoln felt this was wrong and stated his famous  house divided  remarks as a metaphor to describe the current situation (Guelzo, 1999).  He believed that the anti-slavery advocates held the moral edge, and it showed in the Unions final victory in the Civil War .

What was avoided in 1787 still happened.  In the final analysis, Lincoln was proven correct.  The skirting of the issue nonetheless led to the end of slavery in the Union for he believed that it lacked moral supremacy.

The Right to Privacy in Islam

One of the widely, of not universally recognized rights of human beings is the right to privacy. This right is accepted by several nations and communities at different levels and with varied interpretation (Beitz). In todays society, both governments and private corporations and organizations maintain huge databases of information concerning the live and habits of private citizens. This has raised great concern with regards to the citizens human rights (Goss).

Scientific and technological advances have also enabled governments to eavesdrop on the citizens communications and monitor their activities with the results of such monitoring being presented to the courts as evidence (Kasper).

In the presence of these factors, the varying interpretations of the human right to privacy according to different ideologies and systems of belief and the question of legality and ethical justification of the governments attempts at monitoring their citizens lives assumes a great importance.

Like many other nations, the classical Islamic nation too has its own conceptions of an individuals right to privacy,Researchers have noted some similarities between classical Islamic thought and modern Western thought on the issue of the right to privacy. Eli Alshech argues that the rationale for Islamic laws includes from the outset, the desire to create a private sphere free from outside interference for the individual (Alshech).

It must be made clear that in my research for this topic, I have not come across the mention of  any classical texts of Islamic law that explicitly mentions the right to privacy of an individual, the sources that do so, are all modern works, however a number of them have cited classical texts of Islamic law that speak on the various rights and duties of a Muslim regarding their fellow Muslims and several of these rights concern issues that are included in the modern understanding of the right to privacy.

Of these issues, the foremost is the right to be free of unwarranted suspicion and investigation from government agencies. Several nations have tried to impose restrictions upon the extent of the monitoring a government can legally perform. In the United States, for example, law enforcement official that feel the need to eavesdrop on the communications of a citizen must first give justification for this and obtain the consent of a federal judge before performing this invasion of privacy (Stinchcombe).

The trespassing of private property by law enforcement officials is also a cause for concern. There are also legal requirements in place to restrict law enforcement officials from entering a persons private residence or any private property without consent of the owner or searching an individuals car or clothing or to searching inside their homes for contraband substances or weapons (Stinchcombe).
In addition to governments direct monitoring of the citizens activities another great concern, often expressed in the mass media are governmental attempts to get citizens to spy upon one another. This is often portrayed as one of the characteristics of fascist or communistic societies like East Germany where it is said that neighbors, relatives, even husbands and wives and parents and siblings were recruited to spy upon each other.

All these concerns are reflected in Islamic Scriptures and classical works on Islamic Law.

The Prohibition on Unwarranted Suspicion and Spying
In the Quran it is said
O ye who believe Shun much suspicion for lo some suspicion is a crime. And spy not, neither backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dead brother  Ye abhor that (so abhor the other) And keep your duty (to Allah). Lo Allah is Relenting, Merciful.(The Quran 4912)

This Quranic verse enjoins believers to assume innocence and good faith in other people and to avoid suspecting them of evil intention and wrongdoing. Abu Bakr al-Jassas said in his exegesis that this verse forbids the Muslims from being suspicious about a persons hidden sins if they do no public acts of wrongdoing and enjoins them to hide the sins of people who are not obvious and insistent upon their sins (ibn Masud).

The word Tajassus in Quran, that has been translated as spying carries connotations of curiosity, spying, nosing around or being a busybody. This word is vast in meaning and can encompass both social gossiping and rumor mongering and governmental intrusion upon the privacy of individuals (ibn Masud).

Prohibitions of Tajassus often occur within the context of encouragement of virtue and prohibition of vice, a moral duty for all Muslims. Scholarly treatises on the issue of such reformative or missionary work call for the exercise of extreme caution while conducting this activity, lest the right to privacy of individuals be violated (ibn Masud).

People appointed as religious police (Hisba) or private citizens intending to enjoin the good and forbid evil are warned they must only speak to someone about those of their faults which are apparent and obvious and not engage in spying. Al-Ghazali says in his Ihya that it is not allowed for the religious police to engage in spying in the matters of the person who hides his faults inside his home and closes his door (Karim).

Hisba officials are enjoined to break only those forbidden musical instruments that they find in display out in the open (Shiloah).

In Ibn al-Jawzis Talbis al-Iblis (The Devils Deception) one of the actions of the unwise preacher (who has been deceived by the devil into doing evil when he intends good) is listed as breaking down the door behind which people gather to commit sinful acts (al-Bakri).

Ibn al-Jawzi says that it is not correct for a one who wishes to forbid evil to stand outside houses trying to hear if someone is listening to unlawful musical instruments or to sniff around and see if the smell of alcohol is coming from within a house (al-Bakri).

The prohibition on being unnecessarily suspicious of people and of spying on them has been reinforced through warnings of divine wrath and punishment upon the person that engages in such actions. In a narration, those that search for the faults of others have been warned that in punishment for this act their own faults would be made public by God (Azami).

The prohibition of unnecessary suspicion and spying is not restricted to private citizens alone, narration exist which explicitly forbid rulers and governors from engaging in suspicion as well. In a narration of the Prophet in Sunan Abu Dawud, it is said that the ruler who engages in suspicion and seeks to make imputations upon people corrupts them (ibn Masud).

When governmental spying is prohibited or severely restricted, a second question arises. What if the government breaks the prohibition and engages in unlawful spying and while engaged in this unlawful campaign of intrusion upon private matters of individuals, the government comes across important evidence incriminating a citizen in an unlawful act, what is the government to do then

This question has been answered in various ways by Muslim jurists, the admissibility or inadmissibility of information received through spying has been a source of controversy in Islamic legal opinions for many centuries. However the general rule adopted by at least one school classical Islamic (Sunni) scholars, the Malikiyah is that such evidence may not be presented into court and may not be considered by a judge as constituting proof against the accused (Hasani).

The Forbiddance of Entering the Private Place of a Person without Permission
The primary scriptures of Islam have several clear injunctions on the subject of the forbiddance of entering a persons home without permission. It is said in the Quran

O ye who believe Enter not houses other than your own without first announcing your presence and invoking peace upon the folk thereof. That is better for you, that ye may be heedful.

And if ye find no-one therein, still enter not until permission hath been given. And if it be said unto you Go away again, then go away, for it is purer for you. Allah knoweth what ye do.  (The Quran 2428)
The command to ask for permission before entering is not restricted to those living in separate houses, rather it is a general command encompassing all private places of a person. A succeeding verse in the same chapter enjoins the believers to forbid their slaves and even their children, who would generally go around all parts of the house unrestricted, from entering their private quarters without permission at three times during the day before the pre-dawn prayer, in the afternoon and after the the night prayer (The Quran 2458). The obvious reason for this command is to prevent intrusion upon the privacy of couple that wish to engage in conjugal relations in these three times.

There also exists a wealth of narrations in the corpus of Hadith literature from the Prophet and the members of the early Muslim community on the subject of the necessity of asking for permission before entering another persons house.

Narrations in Sahih al-Bukhari enjoin a person wishing to enter into private area to ask for permission to enter at most three times. If they receive no reply from those inside the private area, it is incumbent upon them to turn back and not keep standing at the door (Saroha).

The narrations on this topic are numerous, as we can see from some of the sub-chapter titles in Adab al-Mufrad (Miscellaneous Manners) of al-Bukhari on the topic of asking permission before entering a private space, these include Chapter on Asking Permission from Ones Mother, Chapter on Asking Permission from Ones Father, Chapter on Asking Permission from Ones Father and Ones Son, Chapter on Asking Permission from Ones Sister, Chapter on Asking Permission from Ones Brother (Azami).

Due to the severity with which the act of intruding upon someone was considered a crime, some of the members of the early Islamic community were extremely cautious in this regard. Ibn Umar, for example, one of the companions of the Prophet and the son of the second Caliph, would ask the owner of a market stall permission to stand in the shade of his stall (Azami).

The order regarding not entering a private space without permission is not just considered a social nicety but is an important part of the Islamic society with far reaching legal consequences. The police and the governmental officials are also enjoined to refrain from entering someones private space without their permission. In this regard one of the famous narrations from the early Islamic community which serves as precedent for the members of the orthodox Sunni schools of law involves Umar ibn al-Khattab the second Caliph of Islam.

According to this narration  the Caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab once suspected wrongdoing inside a house, climbed the walls of the house and witnessed immoral behavior going on inside. The owner of the house, upon seeing the Caliph, addressed him saying Oh Commander of the Faithful, if I have disobeyed God once, you have disobeyed him three times Umar ibn al-Khattab asked the man for explanation, and he replied with the Quranic verse that prohibits spying (The Quran 4912), the Quranic verse which directs believers to enter houses by their doors (The Quran 2185) and the verse which requires believers to ask permission of the owner of a house before entering it (The Quran 2427). The Caliph accordingly did not punish the man, but went away exhorting the man to repent from his evil action (Sedgwick).

This incident has been cited as evidence in books of Islamic jurisprudence, not only of the duty of a governmental official to ask for permission before entering the private residence of an individual but also been cited as evidence regarding the invalidity of using evidence obtained through spying (Hasani).

The prohibition against spying and against entering a persons private space has had far reaching implications in the political and social realms. It has allowed religious and social movements, unpopular with the government of the time to survive in the private sphere despite facing prosecution in the public sphere, for example the Sufi orders have survived in the Hijaz region of Saudi Arabia despite official condemnation, by shifting their gatherings from Mosques to private residences (Sedgwick).

The Prevention of Glancing Inside Anthers Private Space without Permission
Muslim tradition views the home as a sanctified and sacrosanct space. The Arabic words for house are also used in a symbolic sense for Mosques and the Holy Mosque in Mecca (Marcus). The houses position as a sacrosanct place demands that it should be free from the prying eyes of unwanted people (Celik).

Traditional Muslim homes and neighborhoods are designed to ensure visual privacy especially for the womens quarters (Abu-Lughod).The insides of homes are constructed in such a way that often mens areas are visible from womens areas but the womens areas are not visible from the mens areas (Abu-Lughod).

In traditional Islamic cities the use of cul-de-sacs cut-off from the main roads to create semi-private areas and sharp turns at the entrances of houses further impede visual access to the inside of homes. In addition official building regulations often required that the doors of houses on opposite sides of the streets should not face each other (Abu-Lughod).

These regulations find there source in the scriptures of Islam where glancing inside another persons private space without permission is forbidden.

In al-Bukharis Adab al-Mufrad there are several narrations where the believers have been enjoined to refrain from casting glances and peeking through the open doors and windows of other peoples houses. Some of these narrations declare that there is no sin upon a person that if the person being spied upon, throws something at the one who is spying and it hits an eye of that person, blinding them (Azami).

The Prohibition Against Eavesdropping on the Private Conversations of People
Islamic laws forbid a Muslim from trying to hear the private conversation of two people. According to Islamic belief, a person who tries to listen in on other peoples conversation which they do not wish to share with them, shall be punished in the afterlife with having molten lead poured in his ears (al-Alwani  DeLorenzo).

The right to privacy extends to written communications as well. Islamic rules forbid people from reading the letters of others. The act of one who takes a peek inside the personal letter of his fellow Muslim is likened to taking a peek into hellfire (ibn Masud).

Encouragement of Hiding the Secrets Weaknesses of a Fellow Muslim
One of the important issues in protecting the privacy of another person from an Islamic perspective is to not reveal those facts about that person, that one might have inadvertently gained knowledge of, that they would wish to keep secret.

In Islam the act of keeping unseemly facts about other Muslims a secret and thus preserving their honor, is seen as an act of great virtue. According to a narration the one who keeps the private sins of another Muslims a secret, God will keep his failings a secret in this world and after-world (Azami). According to another narration the heavenly reward for keeping the sins of a Muslim secret is equal to the reward of one who saves the life of an infant girl child buried at birth (a common form of infanticide in pre-Islamic Middle-East that is severely condemned in Islamic scriptures) (Azami).

The opposite act i.e. broadcasting a fellow Muslims private sins, spreading rumors and backbiting is condemned in the most explicit and severe terms. People who promulgate the sins of their fellow Muslims are warned of the punishment of Hellfire.

As we have seen previously, back-biting another Muslim is condemned in the Quran and likened to eating the dead flesh of a Muslim brother.

In a narration from the Prophet, the Muslims have been warned against trying to humiliate their fellow Muslims by recalling their past wrongdoings which they have now repented from. According to the narration, the doer of this action shall face divine punishment in the form that they shall not die till they have committed the same crime or sin with which they taunted their fellow believer (Saroha).

Islamic law and belief contain a number of provisions to protect the right of privacy of an individual. Sometimes these rights are enforced through legal order and at other times through warnings or promises regarding the after-life.

Islamic scriptures forbid people from spying upon one another. A governments intrusion in the private affairs of the citizens is restricted in Islam. A widely followed school of Islamic law declares that the evidence against someone obtained through spying may not be brought as evidence in an Islamic court.
In Islamic law a persons home is sacrosanct. Other people may not enter a persons home without their permission this extends to the government officials as well. Books of Islamic law forbid government officials from entering a private residence without first greeting the inhabitants of the building, declaring who they are and seeking permission to enter into the house.

The issue of peeping toms or people who like to peek inside other peoples homes are another aspect of the right to privacy. In Islamic law the action of someone that glances inside open windows and doorways into a persons house is regarded as an especially reprehensible action deserving of punishment. Islamic law on the subject of peeping toms mention that the person that intrudes in the privacy of an individual by glancing inside his doorway or window deserves no recompense if the owner of the house pokes out his eyes.

Islamic rules forbid Muslims from trying to listen in on a private conversation between two people. Letters and written communications of an individual also form part of the sacrosanct private aspects of a persons life. Islamic rules forbid people from glancing inside the letter of another individual..Islamic rules also prevent people from digging old embarrassing details about peoples past in order to humiliate them with it and from making public the personal sins that they commit in secret.

Citizen Action

After reading the article, Democracy and the Threat of Authoritarianism Politics Beyond Barack Obama. Henry Giroux, the author gives a very disturbing look at what he thinks is an emergent authoritarianism in the United States.  This began under the administration of George W. Bush following the events of the September 11.  The previous administration used undemocratic measures such as military commissions and the implementation of the Patriot Act, a law which allows the government, through its security and intelligence agencies, to carry out near-extreme measures such as wiretapping, accessing confidential information like bank accounts and the detention and deportation of any foreign national suspected of being a terrorist.  The departure of the Bush administration and entry of the Obama administration was thought to be promising but to the surprise of Giroux and his ilk, it seems as though nothing has changed much as Obama is allegedly continuing the same policies of the Bush administration as mentioned earlier (Giroux, 2010).

My critique of this article is that when national security issues are at stake, this is no time to be overly concerned about our individual rights.  The problem with liberals, especially those leaning along the left is they tend to be too antagonistic towards any move by the government to curtail rights even if it is for the good of society.  This harks back to the ideas of the English political philosopher Thomas Hobbes and even as early as Plato who soundly criticized the Sophists for espousing that notion that individual rights are absolute.  If one were to look at what Plato and Hobbes would say, this is a bad idea.  No government is perfect.  There has to be an entity or institution that should safeguard the welfare of the people and necessitates regulating and to some extent curtailing rights to ensure order.  Vigilance is probably the best measure to fight terrorism.  If the citizens can do this, such authoritarian measures would not be necessary.

Identity and Morality Politics Roots of Polarization

Euthanasia, homosexual marriage, and abortion and right to life these are just some of the hottest issues that have been polarizing Americans for a time. The different states may have different stands and legislations regarding this issue however, this situation has failed to appease opposing sides in these issues.

People who argue in favour of euthanasia says that this is one of the best ways to end the suffering of a person, as long as it has proper consent meanwhile, those who are against it argues that this is still murder no matter how good intentions are. Some believe in the right of homosexuals to be proud of their identity and marry those who are against it say that God only created males and females.

Advocates lobby for the right of choice, whether to abort or not while those who are against it argues that this is also murder, and that taking away the right to life of even an unborn baby is immoral.
Such debates are characteristic of two different kinds of politics morality politics and identity politics (Miceli, 2005). This is the reason why I think that compromise between advocates is virtually impossible both sides stand on entirely different planes. Morality politics is based upon moral grounds and Gods will, while identity politics focuses on the right of choice of the individual. Such different orientations are largely based upon personal beliefs and convictions, in which one cannot impose upon the other.

Given that the issues of euthanasia, abortion and homosexual marriage are largely grounded upon personal convictions, between morality and free will, I think that it is better for each state government to handle this problem. I still believe that the rule of the law must reflect the will of the people, wherein let the individual states decide on what side would they take. Given that the United States of America practices a federal kind of democracy, I believe that the states have the capability to make their own decisions and stand by their own legislations, according to the general will of the people.

The Democratic Kingdom of Jordan

Jordan gained its independence in 1946 and took the name Jordan in 1950.During most of its modern day history the kingdom was ruled by King Hussein, King Abdullah I having been assassinated in 1951, and he has now been succeeded by his son King Abdullah II. Abdullah I had been proclaimed king by the Transjordanian government. The majority of the population is Muslim but this doesnt mean that it isnt forward thinking. The country is a democracy in that there are regular elections. According to the World Book Jordan web site 20 of council seats are reserved for women so in that it differs from America. The other main difference of course is that there is a hereditary monarchy rather than elected presidents. Family loyalty is very important among Arab peoples and the king acts as head of a sort of extended family  the people of Jordan , most of whom share a common faith and ethic origin.

In America, despite having the words Under God state and religion are quite separate, in part because of the ethnic diversity of its people, whereas Jordanians are 98 Arab and 92 Sunni Muslim. There is a small Christian minority and some people are Shia Muslims.

Because of the relatively low average life span this is a young peoples country.
The monarch is, as well as being the head of state, the chief executive and the commander-in-chief of the armed forces which is similar to the American position. The king acts through his prime minister and cabinet. These are responsible  to the elected  House of Deputies and the House of Notables or Senate. The prime ministers role is rather different from that of the Vice President, whose main role is to act as the heir to the presidency if  the former should die in office. Both are relatively young countries andn both seek the best for their people, whatever their origins. This means that in each case all adults are part of the democratic process.

The Media as a Vehicle for Political Socialization

According to Gordon Marshall (1998), political socialization concerns itself with the process of induction into a political systemby acquiring information on political symbols, institutions, and procedures, learning the role of a passive or active member of the polity, and internalizing the value-system and  HYPERLINK httpwww.encyclopedia.comdoc1O88-ideology.html ideology supporting thr whole enterprise. For me, this is one of the most important things that people, especially the youth, will undergo given that political socialization will lead to what political attitude or political affiliation they may belong to. The various sources of influence on political socialization includes the educational system, the mass media, the workplace, the neighbourhood committee, as well as through political institutions themselves (Marshall 1998).

For me, it is the mass media that has the most effect on my life, because of the fact that it is through the mass media where people, especially the youth, get information on what is the advocacy of a certain political party, or to what is the stand of a certain politician on different kinds of issues that constitute public policy. People can never automatically know who politicians are, or what do they believe in, without the use of the mass media. This is also the same with political parties it is through the mass media where parties present their platform of governance to the general public.

It is true that political parties and politicians alike also make their mark to the people by concrete policies and legislations however, it is through mass media that the larger public may be informed of it. In addition, politicians themselves, along with their respective political parties, also use the mass media to make themselves know to the people and what is their specific stand on different kinds of issues that grips the country. This includes press conferences, televised conventions, and even public debates. The good thing about mass media is that it is impartial in nature it lets the people see if politicians are able to deliver to their promises and have a political will to implement their policies.

Elements of Crime and criminal Liability

Tennessee statutes contain regulations or laws that deal with crimes of different categories. The statutes were lastly modified in 1989 to deal with increasing criminal activities such as administrational offences, property theft, family problems, security, and crime against humanity in general. In discussing or analyzing the Tennessee regulations and statutes concerning the crime on violence in line with criminal liability, it is important to look into the levels of criminal cases in relation to punishments or charges attached to each crime (Fisher, 1997)..

Violence can be defined as any form of destruction on property, assets or human being. Basing the argument on the meaning of violence in relation to the act itself, one can easily derive facts that violence involves even the use of weapons and dirty tricks that may cause harm or damage. In regard to Tennessee laws on violence, the act of violence does not only involve causing harm to someone but even inflicting fear on someone (Fisher, 1997).

Categories of Violence in line with the Tennessee statutes
Violence can be categorized in different categories or levels before one is charged on the crime committed. Taking away someones car can be a form of violence in that, the act can never be peaceful and is always accompanied with beatings or intimidation if not forceful. Carjacking being one of the examples of violent acts in Tennessee statutes. Some forms of violence are considered more serious and can even lead to life imprisonment if charged in court, such as sexual harassment, fighting over sex or rape are forms of violence that are considered serious, it can be either forceful penetration both to normal people or to abnormal person or using dangerous weapons to inflict fear or to speed up the act. (Fisher,1997).
Charges on sexual harassment according to Tennessee regulations vary with age and raping a young person according to the states can lead to death penalty. Sexual offenses can be widely categorized, when a person tries to show or expose himselfherself in a public domain assuming that heshe is not mentally disturbed then heshe can be charged with committing a crime called public indecency which is a form of violence. Showing private parts in public or genitals is considered a crime and this mostly affects the prostitutes who always walk half necked along the streets to attract a man which leads to sexual act hence violating someones principles on sex. (Fisher, 1997).

Property crime
Property is any form of asset or belonging(s) a person can possess. Committing a crime on someones property means possessing the property forcefully or taking away without making any formal request can lead to arrest. Tennessee statutes clearly explains the concept by using the term theft to define the act, stealing is a crime allover the world and it can include many acts such as deceiving a person or in personification to obtain services on behalf of a person, diversion of benefits or services, fraud or possession of a stolen item from un identified source are types of theft. However, charges according to Tennessee statutes vary depending on the value of a product, type of fraud or extortion. Proper evidence or confirmation of the act can therefore lead to serious charges depending on the defendant arguments (Fisher, 1997).

Criminal liability
Criminal liability is any act in a society that can cause danger, fear or harm to the people leaving within a given area. It can be done knowingly or out of negligence or ignorance. In most cases criminal liabilities are not prosecuted by individuals but the government through courts. Criminal liability is not just concerned with offences to the general public but also even to the government. Even though the government have the mandate to lay charges on the offenders, it is important to ensure that due process is followed and certain formalities meets the legal formalities in line with the charges, for instance when a crime has been committed by a young person or someone below 18 years of age, heshe can not be charged the same way a person at the age of 30 or 40 is chargedjudged (Fletcher, 2000).

In the criminal charges provisions in the Tennessee statutes someone of lesser age who does not possess any knowledge or who do not understand the legal implication due to age limit can not be charged unfairly. However, this depends on how reckless or intentional the crime is committed. Finally on legal liability, the government must be keen enough to know when the criminal law is broken in order to ascertain the charges (Fletcher, 2000).

It is therefore important to acknowledge that laws are necessary in any place occupied by people to ensure security or criminal acts such as rape, theft or robbery or violent acts that may lead to harm are stopped. Laws are therefore important in governance and  proper management of assets since the offenders can be charged according to the offence committed and this enhance rationality in judgments .Finally, criminal liability can be intentional, irrational or done out of ignorance and the government must ensure that the there is proper legal provisions to ensure that the laws are not broken.