Project Communications

Communication during the process of project implementation is a very important aspect in ensuring that the project reaches completion successfully. Although other aspects might be similarly important, the level of communication  how well specific techniques and behaviors are applied so as to bring about motivation, to allow for reporting back, and to lead and delegate duties to employees  will determine the eventuality of a project. This paper does a case analysis of the communication procedures and tools for the implementation of a community school project.

The project was successful because of the careful selection and use of the appropriate communication tools and processes. The success of each of these tools and processes was because they were carefully chosen and strictly adhered to as far as their appropriate application was concerned (Kliem, 2007). The first process to be implemented was setting the goals of the project and then getting everyone to agree on them (Kliem, 2007). Every member of the project team was expected to take part in this process because it was understood that goals are a critical tool when used in the project. The process of communicating them to the team members of the project is very essential (Kliem, 2007). After the goals had been communicated, it was important that a certain level of consensus be built so that there would be no opposition to the project once it got underway. This was very critical. In this case, the team had the goal of building a community school within three months and within the following one month the school was to be staffed and ready for admitting new students.

A second process that was followed was that of coordination (Kliem, 2007). Every member taking part was supposed to behave in a certain way that entailed interacting with others so that everything on the plan went as desired. There was the coordination of duties and the ensuring that there was adherence to the timelines for the mini-tasks within the main project. All information sent out was often to be followed by feedback to the project communications officer who oversaw the entire communication process. In the event of shortages of materials, for instance, the team concerned with supplies would notify the communications officer and the necessary material would be ordered or supplied just by communicating the information to the stores department of the project.

The other tool that was applied in the process was the discovery and resolution of problems and conflicts (Kliem, 2007). Every stage along the way was without conflicts and problems but with careful communication, particularly seeking to have everyone to understand the cause of the problem or conflict through communication they were all resolved or overcome. Finally, there was the application of the tool of expectation management (Kliem, 2007). Every member of the project team had expectations and they were high. The people who owned the project, the Schools Steering Committee, had even more expectations. They were made to understand that it might not necessarily turn out as they wanted, and that the time frame might have to be adjusted. This way, the expectations of all involved were managed and by the end of the project, everyone confessed that the outcome had actually surpassed every expectation.

Project communication is a very essential component of project management and implementation, because communications form an integral part of the entire process. In a  community school project, the main tools that were used to ensure good communication included problem identification and resolution, expectations management, coordination, and goal setting.

Intelligence Community Management

The US Intelligence Community in the 21st century can be evaluated through the performance of the community management system it provides. Under this community management are specific areas like collection management, personnel management, and production management.

Controlled by committees that make tasking decisions in a single-source framework, collection management has two centers for short-term collection of intelligence targets within the community. These centers are at the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) jurisdiction. These centers work at its purpose but tasking collection or requesting information within its system is ineffective. When it comes to personnel management in the intelligence community, particularly within the CIA, new perspectives, skills and talents are required. And with this requirement, the community employ, appoint or borrow people from other agencies that would make them learn new ideas and contribute fresh perspectives.

One of the issues in the intelligence community management is the separation of funding between the intelligence and defense. The separation of the budgetfunds between these two is very difficult simply because of the scope of the defense which is argued to still include the intelligence department. Another issue is the promotional policies of the system which lacks incentives and tools that will promote the talents of the personnel of the intelligence community.

An effective intelligence community management lies on the performance of the intelligence community as a whole. This performance can only be evaluated through reviews of goals and statistics throughout a period of time.

Intelligence Sharing and Analysis

Contrary to what is depicted in the movies and spy novels, the American intelligence community is more than just the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA). In reality, it consists of 16 elements or agencies that include the CIA and the departments of Defense, Energy, Homeland Security, Justice, State, and the Treasury.  Each of these departments has their own intelligence agencies, and they answer to their respective immediate superiors yet they coordinate with one another on a regular basis. Intelligence sharing is not only internal but external as well. The United States also coordinates with its counterparts from allied countries through special relationships and treaties.

Theoretically, these agencies exchange or share whatever information they have obtained as part of an effort to address national security concerns. For instance, the CIA, Departments of Homeland Security (DHS), and Justice, through the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), exchange information on foreign nationals living in the United States as part of measures taken to prevent potential terrorist attacks. It is for this reason that intelligence agencies were reorganized following the end of World War II and streamlined in terms of its organization for efficiency (Richelson, 1995).

The intelligence products are the result of the processing of information gathered by operatives in the field, regardless of the method or manner in which it was acquired. These are passed on to the intelligence branch made up of analysts and other technical specialists who  process  the information into something meaningful in the form of intelligence reports.  These reports are then given to the senior leadership whose task is to brief the national command authorities on national security matters (Richelson, 1995).

Counter-Intelligence deals with foreign intelligence agents working in their country, and their task is to prevent them from getting information that they would use to benefit their governments. This can be done though surveillance, apprehension of these foreign agents  which can either lead to imprisonment, deportation or what is called  flipping  or  turning  where the agent is made to work for the host government and in come cases, the agent concerned becomes a double or even triple agent and even recruit agents from their foreign enemy counterparts in order to penetrate their own security.  The purpose of counterintelligence is to protect the intelligence communities own personnel from being compromised or  burned,  as well as protecting their facilities and their operations which means guarding against  penetration  through an elaborate process of screening and monitoring of its personnel (Richelson, 1995).

In conclusion, intelligence services are more than just espionage. They possess a vast network of people, facilities, and resources employed to see to the security of the nation.

Religion and the Supreme Court

In his article Religion Largely Absent in Argument About Cross which was published in the October 8, 2009 issue of The New York Times, Adam Liptak reports on the controversy involving the use of a cross to honor the memory of soldiers who have died in wars. An organization called the Veterans of Foreign Wars erected the memorial as early as the 1930s inside the Mojave National Preserve located in the southeastern portion of the state of California. However, it was only about ten years ago that a serious objection against the use of the cross as a war memorial was registered (Liptak).

A retired National Park Service employee, Frank Buono, claimed that the construction of the war memorial on government land represented a violation of the Constitution of the United States. Although he considers himself a Roman Catholic, Buono contended that when the government allowed the display of a permanent religious symbol on government land, such as the cross, it violated the establishment clause of the First Amendment. In other words, when Buono filed a case against the government, his main argument was that by allowing such a memorial to be erected on a piece of land that it owned, its action was tantamount to the establishment of Christianity as the favored or even the official religion in the country (Liptak). In essence, according to Buono, the government ignored the First Amendment provision which orders Congress to make no law respecting an establishment of religion (Cornell University Law School). In 2002, a California federal court issued a ruling in his favor and therewith ordered the United States government to remove the cross. The government elevated the case to the Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. However, in 2004, the appellate court came out with a ruling affirming the lower courts decision. Thereafter, the federal courts ordered a stop to the display of the cross (Liptak).

In the face of these reversals, government decided not to pursue the case all the way to the Supreme Court. Instead, it came up with its counter-arguments through the actions of the United States Congress. First, Congress passed a law which designated the cross as a national memorial. As such, the provisions of that law prohibited anybody from removing it.  In addition, Congress issued an order to have the land where the cross was erected transferred to private ownership. Observers believed that the actions of Congress were meant to prevent the removal of the cross from the Mojave National Preserve. The argument of government was that if the land where the cross was erected would no longer be a property of the United States government, leaving the memorial intact would no longer violate the establishment clause of the First Amendment (Liptak).

The problem persisted for years with the government insisting that the memorial be left intact and the federal courts standing by their decisions to have it removed. The issue was finally put before the United States Supreme Court. In a petition, Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar asked the Court Whether an individual has Article III standing to bring an Establishment Clause suit challenging the display of a religious symbol on government land and if an Act of Congress directing the land be transferred to a private entity is a permissible accommodation (Salazar v. Buono, 08-472). Simply stated, the Secretary of the Interior asked the Supreme Court to clarify if Buono was within his rights when he filed a case against the government questioning the construction of the cross on government property. In addition, he also inquired of the Court whether the action of Congress in simply transferring the ownership of the land where the cross was erected from public to private ownership enough to prevent the government from violating the First Amendment.

When the case (Salazar v. Buono) was argued before the Supreme Court, one of the issues tackled was whether the action of Congress transferring ownership of the land where the cross was erected in fact represented a violation of the original decisions of the federal courts (California federal court 2002 and Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit 2004) ordering the removal of the cross. An exchange of arguments ensued between the lawyers of Buono and the justices of the Court. Peter J. Eliasberg, a lawyer from the American Civil Liberties Union who argued in behalf of Frank Buono, referred to the memorial as pro-Christians and anti-Jewish. According to him, it would not only be improper but would also go against Jewish beliefs to honor Jewish veterans with a memorial such as a cross which is a predominant symbol of Christianity and signifies that Jesus is the son of God and died to redeem mankind for our sins. Because of this, Eliasberg said that nobody could ever see any cross on Jewish tombstones (Liptak).

In effect, he was telling the Court that since the war veterans being honored by the memorial erected by the Veterans of Foreign Wars included Jewish war veterans, the cross would have to go so as not to offend the Jewish Americans. Justice Antonin Scalia defended the presence of the cross by saying that it is the most common symbol of the resting place of the dead and that a cross should not be interpreted to mean that only Christian war veterans are being memorialized by its presence. For his part, Chief Justice John G. Roberts, Jr., explained that the cross was, as a matter of fact, not a government-sponsored memorial. Therefore, what he was saying was that the United States government did not actually violate the First Amendment. To support his argument, he read the actual text of the plaque which accompanied the cross The cross, erected in memory of the dead of all wars, erected 1934 by members of Veterans of Foreign Wars, Death Valley Post 2884. Evidently, therefore, Chief Justice Roberts said, the memorial was not prepared by the United States government in violation of the First Amendment but by an organization of war veterans to honor their fallen comrades (Liptak).

There is only one provision in the Constitution which could be cited in connection with the issue at hand. It is the First Amendment which specifically states that Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof (Cornell University Law School). This provision is commonly interpreted to mean that while government is not allowed to prohibit the existence of any religious organizations in the country, it is likewise prohibited from giving special treatment to any particular religious organization, or from establishing an official religion for the whole country. In other words, all religious organizations should be treated equally under the Constitution.

In connection with the issue at hand, a cross as a memorial for war veterans could be considered a violation of this amendment - as Frank Buono correctly pointed out - if, first, the memorial stands on a government land and, second, if the memorial is an official undertaking of the government. When the land on which the cross was erected was transferred to private ownership, the issue concerning the First Amendment became moot and academic - in spite of the fact that the act of Congress authorizing such transfer came after federal court decisions to have the cross removed. This is because the United States Congress acted within its authority when it passed the law ordering the transfer of ownership. Second, when the memorial was shown to have been accompanied by a plaque which showed that the memorial was actually a project of an organization of war veterans and not of the government itself, the claim of First Amendment violation has been further nullified. In view of these considerations, the cross should be allowed to remain as a memorial to war veterans. In light of this, if the government really wants to be fair to everyone, it should also transfer plots of land to other religious organizations so that they, too, could erect their own symbols.

If, on the other hand, the government insists on preserving the memorial on government land, it should only be proper that other symbols representing other religious denominations be allowed to be erected on the same site also. This is a compromise which is not only prudent but could also prevent government violation of the establishment clause of the First Amendment.      

Intelligence reforms

For starters, it is worth appreciating the fact that intelligence is Americas first line of defense in the war on terrorism. However, the overall problem afflicting the sector in the United States can be traced back to the shock September 11 terrorist attacks, which focused overdue attention on the failings of the U.S intelligence system. This necessitated reforms in the sector, but worth noting is the fact that, although the landmark intelligence reform bill, dubbed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act, was passed under the Bush regime (2004), prospects for real change are rather remote, attributed to the bureaucratic self-protection and insider squabbling that have thwarted sound policy time and again, further worsening consequences for national security (Richelson, 1995).

Additionally, the leadership issue has become even more muddled, citing the new two-headed intelligence structure, spearheaded by the Director of National Intelligence and the CIA Director.

Along the same line, the Intelligence Community (IC) refers to an assemblage of 16 separate agency intelligence organizations which serve to gather, evaluate and distribute information, most of which is regarded secret. The Director of National Intelligence (DNI) controls and coordinates the activities of these organizations, and (s)he (Director) reports to the President, and is charged with the development of the overall intelligence budget, the design of procedures to govern large intelligence acquisitions, the setting of priorities and coordination of activities policies for the 16 intelligence agencies, whilst also monitoring covert operations, setting policy for working with foreign intelligence services and having the authority to request information from non-intelligence agencies, not to mention performing joint planning for counterterrorism operations for the 16 intelligence agencies. In addition, the National Counterterrorism Center (NCTC), staffed by terrorism experts from the CIA, FBI and the Pentagon, also reports to the Director of National Intelligence.

Role of intelligence in matters of national security is underscored by the manner in which Hitler was defeated, thus preventing the Cold War from turning into a nuclear war and keeping the superpower arms race in check (Richelson, 1995).

Notwithstanding, the intelligence community is plagued by a number of problems, such as inefficient use of limited resources and confused lines of responsibility (Andregg, 2001). Also, dangerous ambiguities, bureaucratic infighting and unnecessary duplication all serve to hurt the governments ability to understand and warn against potential terrorist attacks.

Education System

At a time when globalization and consumerism patterns are highly dependent on technology, the ability to create a democratically controlled technological system of education is very crucial in anchoring faster growth and development of social economic outlook.  A democratically controlled system facilitates higher levels of innovation and creativity in an education system while technology acts as a platform for its application to meet the core objectives.  The United States education system depicts a democratically controlled technological model which Tucker and Codding (63) link to the high achievements in the nation.  It is from this consideration that this paper evaluates the education system in the US to determine the extent it is democratically and technologically controlled in its application.

Types of Schools and their Management
As Graziella and Michael (563-664) indicate, the democracy of the United States education system can first be appreciated in the types of schools and their depicted management.  While educationists have generally tended to differ on whether it would be better to subject students to a similar type of schools in the education system or not, the later is considered to be more effective in facilitating diversity.

Public Schools
Public schools in the United States form one of the main systems of education where the management and standards are set by the federal or the state governments and facilitated by local authorities.  Doyle, Bradley and Bradley (59-60) explain that the management of these schools follows their boards delineations that are further guided by the state law.  Their funding mostly comes from the federal government through each state government while the local authorities set the minimum standards required for their operation.  To further create a greater democratic space in their management, voluntary regional associations are incorporated to facilitate a more inclusive and expanded decision making outlook.

In higher education, the Public Universities are also subsidized by the government and therefore charges less compared to the private universities.  However, their managements are independent but guided by directions in the department of education.  As Chrispeels and Chrispeels (65-66) indicate, major concerns have been raised over the efficacy achieved in the public schools towards molding internationally competitive individuals.  It has been concluded that indeed, there is a need for improvement in their running by increasing the democratic space for the communities and injecting more resources to them.

Charter Schools
Perhaps the notion of democracy as employed in the United States education system is better outlined in the mode of operations depicted by the Charter Schools.   Claudia and Lawrence (102-103) argue that over time, the United States education system management came to be cognizant of the crucial role that democracy could play in the education system towards improving both the key operations while creating a more harmonic mechanism for higher results.  Therefore, it sought to facilitate their independent operations while requiring only minimal rules to be adhered to (Zeichner and Susan, 619-620).  Zeichner and Susan (621) further explain that charter schools operate as immediate alternative to public schools in that they receive the central government funding while they seek to meet certain level of accountability towards meeting specific results that are established in their charters.

While public schools appear to stagnate, Wayne and Cecil (48-49) explain that the charter schools might indeed be the way to go for the nation.   The consideration of the two principles of accountability and responsibility to students results with a free operating platform creates the largest possible room for innovation towards meeting the targets.  However, Graziella and Michael (581) appear to question the democracy of the charter schools arguing that indeed they are tied to particularistic results and therefore providing a system that is only one result oriented as opposed to the holistic shaping of a person.  It is from this consideration that modern scholars have indicated their support for charter system but emphasized on the need to increase the scope and outlook for greater impacts to the society.

Private Schools
In his definition of democracy, Doyle et al (79) explains that the central government should be able to create the needed level of trust in its independent institutions that operate in the country.  As a result, more people feel much included through their local participation in setting the needed standards as well as management outlook.  Under this consideration therefore, private schools are independent and mostly run by religious organizations and other institutions.
In 1954, the Brown Board of Education acknowledged that public schools formed a center for discrimination and therefore failed to offer a common platform for all people in the nation.  As a result, Tucker and Codding (74-75) explain that local families mostly of black American origin congregated and created private schools.   Since this dramatic move, the government allows their operations but do not fund them as it does with the public and charter schools.  Their funding and management has therefore been subject to donations and fees charged on students for their education.
While applauding the need for democracy in any education system, Claudia and Lawrence (104-105) provide an example of the success achieved in the United States private schools.  Unlike the public and charter schools, the private schools funding and running is based on the need to produce a holistic individual as opposed to only meeting the set standards.  Particularly, the democracy has facilitated inherent partnership between the parents and their schools which generates high dynamism in responding to changes in the market professionalism demands.  Notably, Chrispeels and Chrispeels (58) explain tat students are an important stakeholder in the private schools through inherent understanding of their parents and families great contribution through funding.  It is from this consideration that Asaro (287) have called for the private sector institutions to be strengthened towards enhancing greater efficacy in the education system.  However, employing this system without hurting people at the lower social economic levels is the main obstacle that may delimit the system in the United States.

Technological Application
As indicated earlier, technological application in the United States education system has remained an important element in dictating its successes.  With the onset of Information Technology, its application in the management has become the center stage in setting higher standards for management, creating a more robust system of assessment and therefore facilitating achievement of higher objectives in the education sector.  

Use of technology in management of schools
In his view, assimilation of technology in managing schools has been critical in enforcing variant standards by the government.  Through information technology, Leon (398) reports that schools are able to access the government set standards with ease as the main platform for generating their own objectives.  Therefore, technology first creates uniformity on all schools as they access the similar information from the same websites for instance, the United States Department of Education website.  In addition to that, Claudia and Lawrence (74-75) argue that sharing of ideas and views between the educationists, teachers and even the parents has been made much easier spatial temporary.  In his study, Asaro (286-290) found out that most of the private and charter schools decisions are made from highly consultative considerations that are effected through technology.

Though it has been considered debatable due to indifferences that arise in assessment of the different schools, technological application anchors faster and easier comparative outlook in gauging the performance of the different schools performance either by the local authorities, the department of education, or other education stakeholders.  Zeichner and Susan (621) explain that in charter schools, the set objectives can easily be correlated with their achieved outcomes in generating the correct decision for possible extension of the contracts.  Besides, technology further provides the parents with a much better system for determining the better school to take their children or how to adjust in facilitating their childrens ability to move to achieve higher objectives in their education.

Use of technology in teaching and assessment
The need to adapt new technology in teaching has increasingly led to greater democratic management and control in the education system.  Asaro (280-281) argue that unlike the traditional teaching methods, improved technology presents the education system with an interactive two way learning environment for the students.  Over 98 of the United States schools own computers which they use to teach (Brown, 330-332). As teachers increase use of computers in their teaching, it becomes easier to further assess the content and their work towards meeting either the government or their schools set standards.

Though many technological projects to assess use of information technology especially computers are ongoing, Wayne and Cecil (89-90) argue that students easily assimilate mechanisms that facilitate integration with real life issues that require solutions.  By assimilating technology in teaching and assessing the students, it becomes possible to create an equal platform for the students to excel.   At this point, sharp differences emerge on the extent and the need for further intensification of technology employment in schools.  Analysts argue that most of the private schools in the United States actually perform much better compared to others due to intensified employment of technology in their management and more so in teaching.

While further supporting the democracy inferred by the American Education system, one cannot fail to mention the increasing use of online learning in most of the higher learning institutions.  Brown (336-337) argues that through use of e-learning, more people have increasingly managed to further their education even without physically going to their supporting institutions for daily classes.  As a result, the limitations that a person in California would have had in seeking further education from a university in New York are greatly minimized through e-learning.   However, Leon (400) argues that there is need to establish effective checks to ensure high standards are maintained when using this system.

It is from this analysis that this paper concludes by supporting the thesis statement, a democratically controlled system facilitates higher levels of innovation and creativity in an education system while technology acts as a platform for its application to meet the core objectives.  It came out in the discussion that by giving the management of schools and other stakeholders a more democratic space, it becomes easier to improve flexibility and innovation to fit the market demand.  Democracy and technological application should therefore be greatly intensified to guarantee higher objective setting and their achievement.  

Components of Judicial Review

Judicial review is the power possessed by courts giving the constitution paramount powers to any other law set in the land. As such, any act by either Congress or the Executive will be overruled if it contravenes the provisions of the United States constitution. The four components of the judicial review are

Applicability  judicial review applies to legal persons who include individuals and corporate entities
Right to enumerated due process The US constitution puts restrains on the judiciary, the executive and the legislature. The restrains acts as checks and balances to ensure that the three arms of government are working within their mandate are entrenched in the constitution. The Due Process Clause provides solutions to people whose rights and liberties are being denied by a process or law that conflicts with constitution.

Rights to enumerated due process In addition to the remedial interpretation that the Supreme Court places on the constitution, it also attributes substantive and procedural components to the same. This means that the Supreme Court also relies on the constitution for legal procedures (determine how laws should operate) and legal substance (what the constitution should do and or prohibit)
Procedural due process  this refers to the procedural rights provided for under the bill of rights. Under this, no law enforcement, regulations, statutes or actions should deny people the right to life, liberty and or property

Which case established this power of the Supreme Court
Judicial review is not mentioned in the Constitution of the United States.  The powers granted to the Supreme Courts to overturn laws running contrary to the Constitution were used as far back as 1787 in several states. With the passing of the Judiciary Act by Congress in 1789, federal courts were given powers of judicial review over both the Congress and the Executive. The powers were only first put into effect in 1796 during the Hylton v. Virginia case held in the US Supreme Court.  In 1803, the judicial review in a first ever case stroke down an act of congress in Marbury v. Madison citing article III of the US Constitution and declaring the 1789 Judiciary Act unconstitutional.  The act in itself purported to add more jurisdiction to the supreme court, something that the preceding judge, Justice Marshall said that congress had no powers to do. As such, the justice declared that the Judiciary Act and the Constitution were in conflict of each other. The judge argued that the Act of Congress is not law, and since the court could only abide by the Constitution, he declared the Act of Congress unconstitutional.  

In his argument, Marshall stated, section 13 of the 1789 Judiciary Act is unconstitutional as it purports to increase the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Courts beyond what the constitution allows. Congress should not pass laws that contradict the Constitution and when it does, it is the role of the courts to interpret the same and use only what the constitution permits.

Judicial review versus Democratic Theory
According to Article III of the US Constitution, the judicial power of the government is vested on the Supreme Court. Additionally, the article refers indicates that Congress may choose to confirm original rules of the Supreme Court. This means that the court has powers to decide if any act of Congress or the Executive enactments contravenes the constitution, in which case, the courts have the mandate to overturn the same.  Judicial review contradicts democratic theory because a constitution (which is an unelected branch of government) checks Congress and Executive powers, which are directly elected by the people. Opponents of judicial review states that the courts takes the place of law making thus denying congress, which is a representation of the people, its rightful role of making laws that serve the citizenry well.  Critics of the same have proposed that if the Supreme Court strikes down legislation that is considered vital for the rights and liberties of the American people, the president and the Congress has the right to deny its (Supreme Court) verdicts. The argument behind this is that the Supreme Court has become too supreme and less accountable over the years since the judicial review came into place. More to this, the courts are seen as less developmental and more reactionary thus posing a danger to the countrys progress through hindering the enactment of good developmental legislation.

Under the judicial review powers, the Constitution is upheld in cases that pertain any treaties that the United States sign, cases of admiralty and maritime jurisdiction, any cases where the US is a party, Controversies between US citizens and people from other countries, controversies among other countries and their citizens, controversies among people in different US states and all cases affecting ambassadors or foreign missions of the United States.

 In their defense to critics, judges state that they swore to provide equal justice under the law, by making justice the guardian of liberty

Judiciary Still the Weakest Arm of Government
The judiciary in spite of the powers granted to it under judicial review is perceived by many Americans as the weakest arm of the government. Some analysts state that this is because judiciary has only judgment but neither the will nor the force necessary to make it a force to reckon with. The Executive on the other hand has the honor of dispensing whatever it seems necessary just as long as Congress and the people back it, whole the legislature commands the budgets as well as the rules that govern the rights and duties of each citizen. While the Executive and the Legislature work hand-in hand, more often the Judiciary works alone.  Just as old clich would suggest, there are strength in numbers and the Judiciary clearly lacks the numbers.

Often, the judiciary has to rely on the help of the Executive arm of the government for its judgments to be effective. Consequently, it is clear that the liberties of the people cannot suffer from the judiciary for as long as the judiciary remains a distinct entity from the executive and the legislature. However, people would have more reason to fear losing their democratic space and liberties should the judiciary ever decide to join forces with either the Executive or the Legislature.

However, considering that the separation of the three arms of government is an indispensable element of the Constitution, it is almost certain that they will remain distinct.  Still, even when the judiciary flexes its muscles under the judicial review, history has proven that the Executive and the Legislature can go around such powers. A case in point is Franklin D. Roosevelts court packing plan that was a reaction to the many Supreme Court rulings under his tenure. Luckily, the plan was overturned by Congress.

Countering Judicial Review by People and Their Elected Representatives
From the very beginning, judicial review has set the precedent of overruling laws or ideals that are not in the Constitution. This means that for people to ensure that the Supreme Court does not have a basis to overturn legislation, they would have to make the same part of the Constitution. So far, the Constitution has had 27 amendments to make it respond to the needs of the people.  A more recent case where the people and their representatives countered the powers granted to the Judiciary by the judicial review is the response by congressional leaders to a Supreme Court decision restricting campaign spending. In their argument, congressional leaders stated that it is time they took the powers to govern campaigns and elections individually, rather than as corporations as clearly provided for in the Constitution. Further, they argued that the ruling by the court denies people the right to be heard in the political process.

In the classic example that the law is made for the people and not the people for the law, people and their elected leaders can also vote, petition or mobilize efforts to overturn decisions of the Supreme Court. This is known as popular constitutionalism, and applies where people insist on their understanding and interpretation of the fundamental laws in the Constitution.  Although popular constitutionalism is rare and only possible when people are sufficiently outraged or angered by ruling by the High Court, it is a possible substitute mechanism to counter judicial supremacy and all its faults. If people insist on observing their understanding of constitutional provisions, it is clear that such would generate meaning for the same thus establishing an interpretation through which the judges could even base their rulings in future.

Executive summary-Riordan Manufacturing, Inc

Riordan is a global plastics manufacturing company that is fully owned by Riordan industries. This company is the industry leader in manufacture of plastics. The strategic plan of Riordan details its expansion plan to global markets in the Chinese and Asian Pacific markets. The United States dollar is expected to weaken in the future hence Riordan Manufacturing wants to expand its operations to China markets. Also, industrial activities and markets are growing in China making this country a good and effective target market for Riordan manufacturing. Given the fact that Riordan Manufacturing already operates in China it is expected to be easier to expand operations in this country. Riordan manufacturing has also identified Asia Pacific as a target market. This is because outsourcing productions have been targeting this region owing to the lower operation costs and less expensive labor found in this region. The main strategic element of Riordan Manufacturing is overseas expansion. Markets in the United States have almost reached a dilution point and the economy has been hit by several critical forces including financial downturns and recession. Also, globalization has made it possible for companies to expand and explore new markets as well as expand their operations in emerging and developing economies.

Currently, the company has employed 550 employees and its projected earnings amount to 46 million US dollars per annum. The companys revenues amount to over one billion US dollars. Riordan manufacturing company deals with production of plastic beverage containers which are produced at its plant in Georgia, Albany, production of custom plastic parts at Michigan, Pontiac, and lastly the production of plastic fan parts that are produced in facilitiesplant located in China, Hang Zhou. Riordan Manufacturing has its headquarters as San Jose whereby most of the research and development are carried out. The major customers of Riordan manufactures include aircraft manufacturers, manufacturers of automotive parts, department of defense, manufacturers of appliances and bottlers and beverage makers.

The mission of Riordan Manufacturing is to use polymer materials to meet and even exceed the customers expectations via the use of research and development and application of six sigma approach to improve standards of manufacturing products as well as exceed the standards set by ISO 9000. Riordan Manufacturing is also focused on ensuring that its research and development are continually improved to enable it identify and adapt to industrial trends hence remaining as the industry leader in manufacture of plastic products. Riordan manufacturing company was established in the year 1991 by Dr. Riordan and its initial focus was mainly on research and development. The company later expanded to plastic beverage containers production in the year 1993 after acquiring a plant at Albany.

The key success factors for Riordan manufacturing are founded on the objectives of the company. Plan implementations key success factors entails identification and expansion to global markets. This is bound to increase the organizations potential as well as help the company raise additional revenues. Global markets pose an opportunity for the company to take its products to countries that have higher demands services and products currently being offered by Riordan manufacturing company. This is a major success factor in that it will enable the company obtain financial resources which can be utilized in research and development necessary to ensure that the needs of target markets in Asia Pacific (identified in strategic plan). Marketing is another success factor that will be used with an aim of attracting consumers to the company. This will also help in opening up new opportunities and avenues for further research and development for developing products that meet the needs of customers.

Impacts on the Iraq and Afghanistan War

Since the first day the United States and the United Kingdom governments started planning to attack Iraq and Afghanistan, people have had different views about the idea. Some people opposed the move because they thought it could be very costly to the economy of the United States, while others thought that it was the right step to take due to the ever increasing threat of terrorism from Middle East. However, several years after the attack, there are many observable impact of the war some of which are positive while others are negative.

In the recent past, many positive events have taken place as a result of the war in Iraq and Afghanistan. However, some people are not satisfied with the justification of the attack but some believe that the positive changes in the Middle East are directly as a result of the war and therefore it was justified. One of the greatest achievements of the war is the restoration of democracy in Iraq. The Iraq dictator was removed from power, arrested and prosecuted for his abuse of office. Following the end of dictatorship regime in Iraq, the people have held a successful free and fair election where a good number of people voted. Although not all parties were involved, the elections were peaceful and this has been seen as the greatest step towards the attainment of democracy in the country. The open general election in Egypt is also argued by many as a result of the war in Middle East although indirectly. More parties were involved in the elections and harassment of opposition parties leaders have reduced although other factors have also contributed. Therefore the greatest achievement of the war in Middle East has been promotion of democracy.

Other than liberating the people of Middle East from Saddam dictatorship, the international threats of terrorism have reduced although it is not possible to assess it with certainty. Today, Americans feel more secure than they would feel if the invasion was not carried out. Regimes which supported international crimes have been forced out office as a result of the war with many suspected terrorists being arrested and tried. No one can imagine the threat of terrorism that would be in the world today if the attack was not affected.

On the other hand, the war has had negative effects on both the United States and Middle East. One of the most published negative effects of the war has been the increased military spending by the federal government. The war has been a big burden to the economy of the United States. The war has had serious direct and indirect impact on the United States economy. Some of the economic effect has been related to the increased prices of fossil fuels which affects all the economies of the world. Another negative impact of the war has been the big number of casualties where innocent men and women have lost their lives. American solders have also died in the operation as a result of suicide bombers and attack by terror groups (Teslik, 2008).

In conclusion, the war in the Middle East has positive and negative effects. People have criticized the attack based on the economic cost of the operation but the cost cannot be compared with future threats that could have resulted from the growth of autocracy that supports international crimes in Middle East.

Neoclassic and Marxian economics

Neoclassic economics refers to the several economic approaches mainly centred around the determination of income, prices and outputs distribution in the markets via demand and supply mostly meditated via a theoretical income maximisation with constrained utility of individuals and profits that are limited by costs of firm enterprises employing the available factors of production and information according to the rational choice theory. On the other hand, Marxian economics are basically the contributions of Marx to the economy school of socialist political together with other developments by other socialists following this particular system. It can therefore be viewed as a wave within a wider socialist economics school, containing thoughts that are agreeable to other socialists and also thoughts they would not agree with. Marxian economics is thus developed around classes, the challenge of the recurrent crises brought about by the capitalist economy and the fundamental change that is desirable in the system of political economics (Philp, 2005).

Neoclassic and Marxian economics
According to Marxian economics, the most significant market economy characteristic was that it allows a swift growth in the abilities of increasing production. Marxian economics claims that a market that is growing stimulates an enhanced division of labour that is, workers and businesses specialisation. In turn, this leads to increased productivity and a higher level of economic activities. Increased labour division is capable of causing harm at some point according to Marxian economics. Such division is likely to harm the individuals whose jobs eventually become more and more narrow with increased labour division. Both Marxian and neoclassical economics are in agreement on the idea that markets are important in stimulating productivity within an economy and thus they should be supported so that they can develop and mature and at the same time be dynamic. However, the two economic approaches differ in respect to the effect of labour division on the individuals. Whereas Marxian economics argues that it is likely to harm the people whose jobs ends up becoming narrower due to increased division, neoclassic on the other hand claims that people whose jobs becomes narrower are more likely to benefit since they can specialise in one or two areas they are best at. Labour division according to neoclassic economics makes people more productive since they can be more efficient in the tasks they carryout regularly (Samuels, 1990).

Marxian economics employs the value of labour theory, according to this theory a commoditys value is the socially required time of labour that is invested in it. Going by this theory, it means that the capitalists do not pay their workers or employees full commoditys value they produce, they rather compensate them for the time required and skills in the production of such commodities. Marxian economics theorised the difference between the wage of a worker and the value of his or her production, as the surplus value of the unpaid labour. Furthermore, Marxian economics have the propensity of obscuring the social processes and relationships of production, Marxian economics calls this particular phenomenon the commodity fetishism. In this case, individuals are well aware of products and often do not think in regard to the labour and the relationships they present (Wood, 1993).

On its part, neoclassic economics argues that the value of commodities should not be based on the socially required time of labour that is invested in it, but the value of the commodity in the market. Since products have their use value, which are the utilities derived from the commodities directly and their exchange value that is, the estimated equivalent of their value to the prevailing market prices, then this should be the basis of compensating for labour employed in the production of such commodities. This explains the surplus value in neoclassic economics that is, the disparity between the value of a workers production and the wages he or she is paid. In addition, neoclassic economics argue that wages should be based on the demand and supply of the skills and techniques of workers in the market. This implies that, if the skills and techniques possessed by a worker are not readily in the market, then such a worker will attract more pay compared to a worker whose skills and techniques are common and readily available in the market (Roberts  Feiner, 1992).

In neoclassic economics, individuals have preferences that are rational among various outcomes, which can be associated or identified with some value. In this case, the individuals are in a position of making such decisions at a personal level. The same case is not applicable with Marxian economics, which argue that preferences have to be in accordance with the majority of individuals within the society. There is therefore the levelling effect in that the value of the chosen preferences is not to benefit a single individual but the entire economy as a whole. In neoclassic economics, the individuals have to make economic decisions that will eventually maximise their utility, while the firms will make economic choices of maximising their profits. In this case, individuals will make economic decisions that will enable them to purchase goods and services of a high quality at favourable prices from the market they will therefore be in a position of obtaining maximum value for the money they spend on such products. On the other hand, Marxian economics propose that individuals cannot be able to maximise their utility without first maximising that of classes within the economy. Under Marxian economics, firms are not supposed to maximise their profits but serve as many people as possible in the economy.  In neoclassic economics, individuals have the freedom of acting independently on the grounds of relevant and full information (Moseley, 1995).

According to neoclassic economics, the market equilibrium is primarily based on the forces of supply and demand. This implies that these two forces should be responsible in the determination of prices of various products in the market. Therefore, if the supply of a certain product is scarce in the market, then its demand is likely to push its price to a higher level. The opposite would be true if the supply of a product is in excess in the market, it will have a lower demand which will eventually push its prices to lower levels. Marxian economics argue that this can lead to exploitation of either the consumers or the producers and market equilibrium brought about by forces of supply and demand should not be used to determine the market prices of various products (Wood, 1993).

On its part, Marxian economics suggests that the prices of services and goods in the market should be primarily be determined by the actual value of such services and goods. Therefore, in order to determine their prices, all the costs involved in their production must be computed in order to be recouped and the prices should be set at a certain margin. In this case, there arises a market that is not liberalised and which is greatly controlled by the government. Even though the profit margins and the consumers utilities are less as compared in neoclassic economics, both producers and consumers are shielded from unnecessary price fluctuations (Philp, 2005).

Neoclassic economics has the bias of normative, whereby it is not mainly focused on giving an explanation of the real economies, but rather describes utopia where Pareto optimality is applicable. In this respect, it assumes that people always act in a rational manner it therefore ignores significant aspects regarding human behaviour. This is not applicable in Marxian economics where such assumptions are not made since it is possible for people to make irrational economic decisions and hence affect not only themselves but the economy as well (Samuels, 1990).

Both neoclassic and Marxian economics have distinctive differences as they are developed on diverse economic approaches. While neoclassic economics is based on individuals in an economy making their own economic choices, Marxian economics is based on classes within the society making such decisions. The market equilibrium under neo classic is basically determined by forces of demand and supply while in Marxian economics, market equilibrium is mainly determined by the government since such an economy is less liberalised. The main focus of neoclassic economics is individuals them selves and firms and corporations are also deemed to be individuals also capable of making decisions. On the other hand, the main focus of Marxian economics is classes within the economy, which are responsible of making such economic decisions.

Racial Equality in America

The notion of racial equality in the United States invokes the nations sad and emotional outlook that characterized its historical roots.  Following these oversights, the government remains the central most icon in creating equality of opportunity and equality of outcome for its people.  A government is constituted of persons endowed with power and authority that cuts across all social cultural and economic considerations which establish it as a pillar towards which all societal issues should be resolved. A major question as Martin Luther King Junior protests is why the roles were not perfected.  This paper analyzes the role governments should play in ensuring equity of justice and equity of outcome.

Ensuring equity of opportunity

Acting as a true custodian of the public resources
Ensuring equity of opportunity is a consideration that seeks to create an inherent outlook to the community where a countrys resources are available to all.  In his speech at Washington, Luther (1963b) indicates that though the government committed to uphold Emancipation Proclamation, many people were still bound in slavery.  Under this consideration therefore, a government is tasked to enter into agreements with its people on the need to address racial injustices.  However, as Luther (1963a) further points out, it is critical that intrinsic commitment is gathered by the government in addressing the problem.  Referring to the constitution as a promissory note to create the emphasis, the government is depicted to have failed in honoring the same rules that had set it in power.  At this point, the government should create a neutral system where all the concerns for all are addressed.  Notably, by establishing a level playing ground for all it would create a center for a reciprocating response towards social economic growth and development.

Facilitating justice delivery
As Luther (1963b) view it, it would perhaps be impossible to ensure equity of opportunity without guaranteeing people the needed justice for their operations.  It was indeed the unjust laws that had culminated to poor sharing of resources through providing the whites with an upper hand in resources allocation.  As a result Luther (1963b) calls for people to ensure that they disobey the unjust laws as they are required to obey the just laws.  At all levels of the society, the government should further facilitate clear implementation of laws and that facilitate justice realization for all.

Facilitating equal representation at different levels
The letter from Birmingham and Washington speech of 1963 revealed one major factor that should be effected to ensure equality of opportunity.  The government should facilitate effective representation as a consideration of good faith and communication with it subjects.   Through lack of effective representation, a major disconnect which facilitated easier abuse of laws and justice was created.  Luther indicated to the clergy that indeed they required understanding that the white moderates and the blacks would never be granted freedom until they quested for it (1963).

Ensuring equality of outcome
Notably, scholars have over the years sought the best mechanisms that can be employed to facilitate equality of outcome in the society.   However unlike the equality of opportunity, the equality of outcome can only be guaranteed through a bimodal outlook where the government operates with the community and other stakeholders.

Establishing effective laws and justice institutions
As Cosby indicates, most of the social injustices committed by people in the middle and lower social classes represented problems in their own making (2006).  Failing to address major societal shenanigans with vitality at the community levels only act as a key indicator of major disasters in waiting.  Cosby (2006) adds that early pregnancies, school dropout rates and rapes required to be addressed at the societal level to make it more realistic.  However, the government should come in and enact laws that would seek to criminalize rapes and crime being exemplified in the middle and lower level classers.  This would instill the sense of responsibility to both the community and the government institutions.  

From his Birmingham letter, Luther (1963) highlighted the brutal experiences that black people encountered through racial discrimination.  He further pointed out the brutality at the community level by the whites and therefore bitterly likened the suffering of the people to those that Jews suffered during Hitlers regime.  Laws in this case would facilitate equality of outcome by subjecting not only the whites to it, but the black criminals too (Sowell).

Creating effective societal systems
While creating the justice system to address issues of opportunity justice would largely facilitate the resources availability to the people, it would be critical to establish strong facilities that seek to reconcile and correct the affected people.  Therefore, the government should ensure that the correction systems are effective to enhance the incarcerated peoples effective comeback to the society as changed persons who can easily fit with others.   Luther (1963a) indicated that he looked forward to the time when white and black children would hold hands and play together.  Besides, Cosby (2006) agreed that the society could only be effectively reformed by addressing injustices that were committed at the local level.

Finally, it would be critical that the government fosters major social institutions such as schools and public utilities for all.  By ensuring that people had access to education and other social amenities, their reaction to societal problems and outlook towards social crime would greatly changes (Sowell)

It is from this analysis that this paper concludes by supporting the thesis statement, government remains the central most icon in creating equality of opportunity and equality of outcome for its people.  The pathetic historical situations in the United States as it came out in the discussion were mainly due to the governments poor execution of its role to facilitate equality of opportunity and outcome.  However, the people must operate hand in hand with the government to affect the roles.


Globalization is generally regarded as too broad a topic to be given a meaning for convenience.  As such, it is assumed that the impact that globalisation bears among countries must be determined, which involves determining who the winners and losers are in this so-called market liberalization approach.  

To understand the concept of globalization then, it is said one must confront issues of definition and interpretation immediately (Sombart 1930 Dobb 1946), and the winners and losers must be taken into account (Hodgon, et. al 2001) to decipher the contradictory views about it.  By this end, some critics and advocates argue that it is best to postpone any attempt to define it until one has thoroughly inquired into its impact (Stillwell, 1990).

Globalization, leading economist Joseph Stiglitz, defined it to refer to the breaking down of the territorial barriers to the flows of goods, services, capital, and knowledge, among others through the closer integration of the countries and peoples of the world (Tetreault  Lipschutz 2005).  For Mittelman, on the other hand, globalization is a market-induced process and not policy-led.

These sampling of definitions mirror the wide-array of definitions and complexities of this economically led cross-cultural integration process.  Thus, experts identified trade, finance and investments as its biggest engines, but added the victims include locale structures and cultures.  Moreover, whether results include the centralization of governance, cultural homogenization, and the redistribution of wealth and income within and between nation-states, it is yet to be determined whether such impacts result in winners and losers (Tetreault  Lipschutz 2005).

As commonly argued, men are living at a time when their lives are being radically changed by the integration of economic activities on a global scale.  Experts said that with globalization, territorial barriers limiting the opportunities and threats that confront us are being broken.  Hence, it was stressed that globalization has one common consequence the nations ability to conduct business without reference to any but its own interests is limited.  When that limitation cuts deeply to have lasting effects on a nation-states culture, language, social values, tastes, and market behaviour, among others, we have globalisation (Gurtov 1999).

As a term, globalization is intended to describe the integrating and homogenizing effects that happen when national boundaries are penetrated by powerful forces active above the state level (Gurtov 1999).  Usually economic, these forces are driven by the transnational companies and multilateral lending institutions such as the International Monetary Fund (IMF) that seeks to regularise and stabilise world finance and trade in their own interests.

When defined using the network metaphor approach, Globalization may then be investigated in terms of identifiable networks (Nye  Donahue 2000).   As a network, the natural tendency is the creation or expansion of an identifiable network connecting points and people around the globe on some specified dimension or medium.  When defined in terms of specific global networks, the understanding will be clearer because when globalisation is assimilated with interdependence, only part of the story is captured. Most often, countries and actors in different countries are interconnected on specific dimensions, and by virtue of this connectedness have reciprocal impacts on one another, but rarely are the effects of such interactions equal.

To others still, globalization is that place or condition where only the affluent nations who are capable of competing network with one another to intimidate the poor and weak nation-states, but Stiglitz (1999) definition proved otherwise.  For him, globalization may still become a space that invites healthy and balanced interplay of countries in a big field like one big team or family.

In his The Great Divide in the Global Village article published by Foreign Affairs, Scott (2001) theorizes that while globalization opens up opportunities for both affluent and poor nations, the latter remain poor, left in the dark because they are unable to avail themselves of much foreign capital or limited by their capacity to take advantage of the increased market access.  In the end, weak nations become victims of the systematic barriers both locally and internationally.

On the other hand, Dani Rodrik (1997) in his article in Foreign Policy argued otherwise.  He debunked assumptions claiming that globalization only merely constrain national autonomy and instead pointed out how poor nations may be able to escape poverty through the enhanced opportunities made available to those who have skills and mobility to flourish in world markets.  
As an alternative course of action, Rodrik challenges market players to map out a plan that will provide a new balance between the market and society one that will continue to unleash the creative energies of private entrepreneurship without eroding the social bases of cooperation (Rodrik 1997).
Moreover, the deep, complex interactions between forces external to nation states and forces nurtured within them will be a good starting point to study globalisation.  Thus, the aim is nothing short of exploring the depths of hidden meanings of the economic forces to understand the factors that help reshape our society today through globalization.  With this goal in mind, it will also help answer who gains and who loses at this economic issue, particularly in the light of its impact, for example, on the changing national and international distribution of jobs, among others.

As is happening globally today, most large transnational companies, who are seeking to take advantage of differential labour costs to maximize rates of profit,  have often opted on relocating or outsourcing parts of their routine production activities to Third World countries.    Under the pressures of globalization for companies and bank to cut costs, raise profits, boost earnings for investors, and take advantage of a looser regulatory environment, strategic alliances and megamergers are the name of the game (Reich 1998).

In view of this, there is heightened pressure for wage reduction among employees of transnational companies in more affluent nations in its bid to try to keep the local manufacturing businesses competitive.  Unemployment is not remote if these companies go under.  However, depending on the regional patterns of jobs in other sectors, such as the service industries, which may be expanding, it is worth noting whether these workers are losers in the longer term unless there are alternative employment opportunities.

Economists and global market players are in constant argument and debate on the varied impact of globalisation among and between countries.  The impact of globalisation may never be easy to identify, but to understand the issue at hand, it bears noting that different economic occurrences such as regionalism of European and Asian countries, the unprecedented rise of the economy of China and its alleged role in the global imbalance, and the the growth of Australian economy amidst the weakening economic powers, and many other impacts may have to be studied to learn about the ironies and seemingly contradicting impact of globalisation.   To date, globalisation may be said to be evolving and while this is so, determining the winners and losers of globalisation may be premature.  
Given all these realities, the best approach in determining globalisations impact between all economic players, from the United States to China will be best studied and addressed when finding a more sustainable global growth pathway not just for affluent nations but also in threshing out the such sustainable recovery plan for weaker and poor nation-states.


The case, Tumult in Prairie County, presents a variety of issues and challenges ranging from internal organizational and personnel issues, strategic management, interorganizational networking, leadership, and community development. The facts and analysis pertaining to each of these critical issues are addressed below.

Summary of the pertinent facts of the case
Every organization, may it be big or small, do experience its respective conflict. Conflict could be observable in various ways, as it could occur due to the misunderstanding between various individuals, problems when it comes to the processes of the organizational operation, and other matters. Organizational conflict could occur in different ways but its main effect is usually the inability of people to work together, which often causes the disruption of normal operation of the organization. As such, it is necessary to address the conflict, which could occur in an organization, especially if the conflict entails threatening the welfare of the environment and large of groups of people. In relation to this, the case of the Tumult in Prairie County clearly exemplified an organizational conflict that should be addressed accordingly.

Prairie County has always been dominated by the agriculture and mining industries, as a means of livelihood of the people in this rural area. Over the years, agri-business that involves both crops and cattle has been stable enough to provide adequate employment and comfortable culture to the people of the county. The existence of mining only played a secondary role, as its operation existed in an on and off basis in the county. However, in 1992, the discovery of large pockets of natural gas in the area resulted in the mining boom in the county, which substantially changed the lives of the people (Designing and Managing Organizational Systems).

Impact of Change on the Society
The operations involved in the natural gas drilling caused the migration of tough men together with their family in Prairie County. The result of the increase of population in this rural area involved adverse consequences such as drug abuse, crime, housing shortages, inflation, and domestic abuse. In relation to this, environmental problems also become observable because it started to pollute the water and air of the county, which also made its people realize the weak federal law and other policies that protect the welfare of the citizens and the environment in this kind of situation. Furthermore, the place that is greatly affected is the county seat, the town of Ward. Ward, as the center of commerce, government, and residential hub of the rural county, experienced the largest increase in population that also brought about the problem of untoward development of the town with the existence of man camps. In addition, the new citizens of the county also created the diversity of people that have various needs, which involved special children with special needs that requires special attention and facilities. The crime rate of the county, especially those involving juvenile delinquency have also emerged as an important issue because of the conflicting perspectives of the county judges regarding it (Designing and Managing Organizational Systems).

The Department of Social Service (DSS) of the county is also experiencing great difficulties in rendering family services because of the difficult and many cases that are entering the system. The group homes, drug treatment facilities, and crisis centers are overloaded in Ward and the state capacity is almost exhausted. In order to address the problem, DSS coordinates placement, case management, and treatment decisions through multi-disciplinary teams and child protection team, which help to manage the excessive caseloads. However, conflict emerged between the team, which is causing dysfunction, especially in the child protection program because of the legal values and treatment priorities often negate each other. This conflict is greatly observable in the position of Judge Mary Ann Grimes, who supports tough law and order for both juvenile and adult offenders. On the other hand, Susan Webb, the local DSS field office director does not approve of the decisions and actions of Judge Grimes because it is intimidating and disrupting the priorities of the DSS mission. As a result, Webb and Judge Grimes have observable conflict between each other, which also affected the relation of the DSS office and District Court (Designing and Managing Organizational Systems).

Inter-organizational networking
The conflict that is observable in Prairie County, especially between Judge Grimes and Webb exemplifies organizational conflict, which should be properly addressed by finding a common ground of cooperation wherein they could both work together. In this sense, the theory that pertains to behavioral conflict should be applied wherein it is perceived as a natural phenomenon of organizational life and could be eliminated and could also pave the way for positive organizational effectiveness (Designing and Managing Organizational Systems).

An appraisal of the situation
The problems of the Prairie County when it comes to the social, economic, physical, and organizational realms of this rural area are brought about by the lack of preparedness of the county to address the changes that are brought about by the mining boom. The county did not expect such kind of changes, which is why the problem was not immediately address as they were ill-prepared for it and they also lack the necessary funds in order to properly solve the problem.

The conflict between Judge Grime and Webb is caused by incompatible emotions and opposing ideas because they have different perspectives when it comes to handling crime cases in the county, especially those involving juveniles. In addition, they also have different personalities and values when managing and dealing with their people. In relation to this, the problem with the guardian-ad-litems (GALs) or the people responsible in managing the cases in the county are also an important issue that must be resolved because the lack of proper compensation and training facility for them in the county are also making the situation much worse.

There are different approaches to address the organizational conflict in the county. One of which is through the use of confrontation wherein the disputing parties will face each other in order to solve their problems. However, in the case of Judge Grimes and Webb this strategy may not bring advantageous results because they have already experienced talking with each other, which often results in more conflict. The second strategy is the common ground, which allows the disputing parties to emphasize on their common goals, which will allow them to cooperate and collaborate in order to attain it. This strategy could bring positive effects because both Judge Grimes and Weber have the same goal of addressing the problems in the county. Nevertheless, conflict might still occur because of the differences in their personality and ideas.

Assessment of plausible alternative strategies and likely consequences
Short-term (State Intervention)
The theory of state intervention is based on the primary role of the state to maintain public order and to defend the land. The state also has the responsibility to ensure and maintain the human rights of the people. In relation to this, the adverse consequences that might come from capitalism should also be dealt with by the state (Osuka, n.d.). In this sense, the situation of the Prairie County, especially in terms of the problems that it is facing because of the mining boom requires the intervention of the state in order to properly address it.

The problem with the social, physical, and environmental problems of the county could be addressed through the help coming from the state. The aforementioned issues could be immediately addressed because state intervention would solve problems in a short-term basis by means of the funds and competent people that they will provide in the Prairie County. The means and capability of Prairie County is only limited and the officials in these rural area needs help in order to solve the problems that they are facing. The state could help the county by providing additional funds and sending competent people to assist in the resolving the problems of this rural area. First, by providing additional funds, the state could help the county in establishing more facilities that would address the needs of special children, juvenile delinquents and addicts, etc. The funds could also be used in providing health care, education, water and electricity, and others. In addition to this, the county could also use the funds in improving the compensation of the employees in the countys governmental offices and also give them the necessary training and benefits to enhance their skills.

In relation to this, the state should also send competent and reputable people that could help the county with their problems. In terms of the environment and the physical dilemmas of the county, the state could send expert when it comes to environmental pollution that are related with mining. In doing so, the officials of the county would know the right thing to do when it comes to the environmental hazards of this mining boom as well as those that come from the increase in the population of the people. Moreover, the increasing violence and crime rate of the county could also be addressed by means of sending police officers that could train the county on how to deal with the problems related with the mining boom and the influx of people. Additional police officers would also substantial help in controlling the crimes in the county. By means of the intervention of the state, Prairie County would have additional funds to use and competent people to work with, which would help in properly addressing the problems in the county.

Long-term (Conflict Management)
The conflict management theory is a means in order to address discord that occurred due to actual or perceived disagreements between people working together due to differences in needs, values, and interests. Organizational conflict may take many forms and could be caused by various reasons. The conflict management theory in an organizational entails different strategies in order to resolve the misunderstandings or disputes that might arise within an organization (Rahim, 2001).

In relation to this, the implementation of conflict management will enable to resolve the organizational problems in Prairie County in a long-term basis because it will address problems that currently exist in the county as well as other conflicts that could emerge. In relation to this, conflict management has long-term effects when it comes to resolving organizational conflicts. It seems more feasible and effective that the organizational conflict should be addressed by using the common ground method because this will enable the parties to highlight on their commonalities rather than differences. In addition, in order to prevent the differences of the two parties from creating more conflict, the strategy of mediation could also be used wherein a third party will help solve the conflict. This strategy is also applicable in other organizational problems because the conflict in the Prairie County is actually observable in most organizations in various fields, may it be in business, public administration, and others.

By implementing the necessary strategy in order to address the conflict between Judge Grimes and Webb, which is also affecting the relationship of their respective department, the organization could be able to better handle the problems that they are facing. These two personalities together with their respective department could work together to resolve the issues concerning the crime rate, social services dilemmas, employment problems in GALs, and the other problems are badly affecting the county due to the mining boom.

Choice of Action and Strategy, a Justification
The feasible solutions for the problems in Prairie County have its respective strengths and weaknesses. The effects of these alternative solutions could be seen in the way by which the major theories used in these solutions would affect the future problems of the county and also other similar cases. The alternative solutions of state intervention and organizational management are both feasible and applicable ways in order to address the problem in the county. State intervention could help address the short-term problems in the future because of the aid that it would give to the county. The funds coming from the state could help immediately resolve the limited budget and lack of facilities in the county. Sending competent people to the county coming from the state could resolve long-term problems in the future if it is properly implemented. If the state will send competent officials and experts to help the county it could really help the people in the rural area and train them to become more adept in solving the problems in their environment. The skills instilled upon the officials in the county could also be passed down to the succeeding generations, which would help in preparing them for other future problems.

Conflict Management is also a way in order to address the organizational conflict in Prairie County. This theory entails solving long-term problems in the future because the misunderstanding in an organization usually takes place. There are different conflict management strategies that could be advised depending upon the situation that needs to be resolved. Being the case, conflict management theory is an alternative solution that could be used in a long-term basis because its relevance involves a wide range of situation.

An Analysis of Generalization
Generally, the problems of the Prairie County are rooted from the lack of preparedness of the people and the officials of this rural area with the sudden change caused by the economic boom. Since the county was used to having an agriculturalpastoral industry with only a minimum number of people, the boom of the mining industry created changes that were not expected. Due to this, organizational conflict emerged as well as other social and environmental problems. Nevertheless, these problems could be addressed through state intervention and conflict management.


Coca Cola is a brand millions around the world consume on a daily basis. It has taken beverage production to new heights by not just selling a beverage but by selling an entire experience. Its advertisements are made to cater to the different cultural and preferential needs of its consumers yet its core competency, its main theme, colors and formula have remained the same so that every consumer can enjoy the same Coca Cola experience anywhere in the world. This strategic direction has helped Coca Cola achieve its overall corporate strategy in terms of highest market share, largest manufacturer of beverages and record profits.

Global Strategic Planning
Open Happiness. Open Coke. Coca Cola is one of the leading beverage brands in the world achieving an all-time since its inception in 1892. It currently markets four of the top five consumed beverages serving consumers across 200 countries worldwide. The makers of Coca Cola dont want their consumers to drink carbonated water they want them to experience happiness at its penultimate.
However, as multi nationals have become globalised, in order to make their mark and win market share, in a bid to create instant following they lose their core image. According to Levitt, The worlds needs and desires have been irrevocably homogenized. This makes the multinational corporation obsolete and the global corporation absolute. Levitt argued that advances in communications technology were increasingly inspiring consumers around the world to want the same things. Therefore, he declared, international companies should cease to act as multinationals that customized their products to fit local markets and tastes. Instead, firms should become global by standardizing the production, distribution, and marketing of their products across all countries. Sameness meant efficiency and would be more profitable than difference (Levitt, 1983)

However, globalization does not advocate monotony. Coca Colas Companys major international strategy is to focus on its core competency and that is beverage production. Whether it is juices such as Minute Maid, Dr.Pepper or its Coca Cola beverage it aims to sell the most of its beverages to consumers. Enjoyed more than 685 million times a day around the world Coca-Cola stands as a simple, yet powerful symbol of quality and enjoyment (Allen, 1995).

The strategy needs to be truly global in the sense that it can accommodate anywhere with minor changes. The main theme and idea of Coca Cola remains the same however it has to be changed not drastically or in terms of its core competency rather on the basis of cultural traditions and preferences. The drink in the Coca Cola bottle is the same that millions around the world are consuming everyday yet consumers want to relate to the product they are having so apart from the same packaging easily identifiable colors and themes Coca Cola has added that touch of local magic to their products. For example in Spain Coca Cola is not just an accompaniment to food. It is part of the recipe. Many consumers like to put coke instead of alcohol when cooking.

 The strategic planning aims to reiterate Coca Colas renowned image worldwide. It is responsible for leading the development of the overall corporate strategy of the Company along with the global planning process.  Coca Cola does not focus on beverage creation. Its focus is to create and market those beverages that are made for the needs and desires of its consumers. Therefore the people at Coca Cola make honest efforts to keep their consumers happy all around the globe by adding a local touch to their products and at the same time maintaining their global image. Coca Cola is thinking global but acting local.

For example, in Pakistan in the month of Ramadan, consumption of food and beverages is at its peak and every FMCG is trying to get as many sales as possible. Coca Cola specially designs their advertisements to accommodate their products in the holy month of Ramazan.  Therefore, even though the global strategy has remained the same and the overall product is the same but the slogans that the company comes up with are adjusted to cater to the various lifestyles and cultural heritages of different countries so that they feel part of the Coke family and see Coca Cola as a beverage that keeps their preferences in mind rather than entering the market for the sake of competition and sales.

The American Political System

The French radicals once argued that democracy is the true path towards self-sufficiency and political activism. Modern realists exaggerate the worth of democracy, believing that it is the best way to remove political evils in the society. This systemic belief about democracy is still valid, as it is the only form of political association which allows individuals to acquire political power  in a sense, leveling the playing field. However, democracy is not a perfect form of political association. As Tocqueville argued, the people, whom official power is bestowed, elects an individual, incapable of governing the nation  this is indeed the danger of majority rule. Tocquevilles assertion is as valid today as in the past. Modern propaganda systems often transform the poor leader into an imaginary ideal leader. Political groups cloud public opinion by manipulating the electoral system. In some democratic states, personality politics is the rule of thumb. Popularity, more than competence or political will, dictates the outcome of any electoral exercise.

Now, what would constitute a poor leader There are five distinguishing characteristics of a poor leader. Here are as follows 1) mismanagement of public funds, 2) indifference towards marginalized groups, 3) lack of political will, 4) lack of impunity and concern for human rights, and 5) inability to recognize political differences.

As the mid-term elections approaches, the Republicans will attack President Obama in several fronts. To the Republicans, Obamas health care reform is a total reconstruction of the countrys fledging health system. The same case can be said about the three-year moratorium on limited spending. Republicans attack the moratorium because of its serious economic implications (low stimulus).

In the Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen, Jefferson defined liberty as the freedom to do anything which injures no other individual. It is the exercise of the natural rights of each individual  this assures that the same rights are enjoyed by other individuals in the society. Initially, however, the concept of liberty was associated with the notion of political freedom from tyranny. The Founding Fathers used the concept to illustrate the tyranny of the British Parliament and George III.

The Bill of Rights has two distinct but related purposes. First, it outlines the naturalbasic rights of the citizen. And second, it outlines the necessary limits in the exercise of liberty. In jurisprudence, the right of one individual is the responsibility of another, vice-versa. Now, the exercise of a right, if uncontrolled, often results to violation of the right of another individual. Although the Constitution provides the right to bear arms, it does not require individuals to bear arms. To the founding fathers, to coerce an individual to exercise hisher right is tyranny. Thus, when political values are enforced, they are enforced within the rubric of constitutional jurisprudence.

The issue on healthcare reform is often regarded as an issue of liberty. President Obama vows to control rising health costs, guarantee choice of doctor, and assure high-quality health care for all Americans. Suppose the public option is removed, Obama will be accused of imputing authoritarian measures. This is of course speculation.

The Political History of Germany

Germany is one of the European countries that have had a very illustrious political history. From its participation in the first world war, to the German revolution, the great depression, the rise of adolf Hitler, the holocaust, the defeat in the Second World War, the division into West and East Germany, the building of the Berlin war, the peaceful revolution, the reunification and the fall of Berlin, wall, the political history of Germany makes an interesting read. This paper will look at the political history of Germany from 1918 to date, looking at the contributions of various personalities including Hindenburg, Hitler, Brandt, Kohl, Schroeder and Merkel.

The Political History of Germany
Germany was one of the countries that were actively involved in the first world and the catastrophic results of the war to the people of Germany saw the beginning of the German revolution in 1918. In the same year, Germany was declared a socialist republic in the same year and the revolution was quelled by the Social Democratic Government in 1919. In 1919 the treaty of Versailles was signed and Germany was supposed to cede some of its provinces. All its colonies were taken over by Britain and France ( HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiHagen_Schulze o Hagen Schulze Schulze, 2008). In 1919 still, the Weimar constitution was established and this seriously weakened the democratic government. The government was facing a lot of animosity from Britain and France and with the retreat of the Americans from Europe, the only friends of Germany that remained was the soviet Union and Germany became the first European country to establish diplomatic relations with the USSR .

In 1925, Field Marshall Hindenburg became the president after the 1924 elections. Under his watch, treaty of Locarno was signed which recognized German borders with France and Belgium. It is the same treaty that saw the admission of Germany to the League of Nations in 1926. The effects of the Wall Street crash that signaled the start of the Great Depression were felt in Germany. The Biggest bank in Germany collapsed and the economy went down to unprecedented levels. The problems that afflicted Germany after the collapse of the Wall Street piled pressure on the president and this forced him to appoint Adolf Hitler as the Chancellor.  Hitlers regime showed untold hostility to the Jews and under his watch, the Nuremberg race laws were established, making the Jews to lose their German citizenship ( HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiHagen_Schulze o Hagen Schulze Schulze, 2008). They were also barred from marrying non Jewish Germans. This affected more than half a million people. Hitler standing in Germany was increasing especially after the successful match into the Rhineland in 1936. In 1938, Hitler managed to make Austria a part of the German confederate and he united all the German speaking areas under one Prussian leadership. This included Czechoslovakia.

Hitler oversaw the Holocaust during the start of the Second World War where the Jewish population was subjugated in an attempt to remove them out of Germany. The Holocaust also affected all other groups that were seen to be a threat to the purity of the Germans. Nazi Germany had an upper hand at the start of the Second World War and it was the most aggressive side in the war. However, it collapsed in 1945 when Berlin was taken by the soviet and polish forces.  The Second World War saw the total destruction of Germanys economic infrastructure.  The US, UK and the French formed the federal republic of Germany in the West and the Soviet Union formed the German Democratic Republic in the East. The eastern part of Germany became a communist state while the western one was a federal capitalistic state. Through the assistance of the Marshal Plan, West Germany experienced economic growth that eluded the East ( HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiHagen_Schulze o Hagen Schulze Schulze, 2008).

The East had a soviet style administration and economy and the country stagnated economically. The Berlin wall was built in 1971 to stop the easterners from escaping to the West because of the harsh economic conditions in the East. This was one symbol of the cold war.  The relationship between the two countries remained icy until the seventies when Willy Brandt launched a rapprochement program to relieve the suffering of the east HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiFileBundesarchiv_Bild_183-1990-0123-021,_Berlin,_Abriss_der_Mauer.jpg .

The relations between the two countries improved and they were admitted to the UN in 1973. The relationship grew over the eighties and in 1989, a peaceful revolution led to the fall of the Berlin wall and the reunification of the two countries in 1990. Helmut Kohl, the Chancellor of West Germany from 1982 was the chief architect of the reunification. In the first free fair and democratic elections of the unified Germany, Kohl won by a landslide.

Kohl was very successful in foreign policy especially after bringing the ECB to Frankfurt.  However, the late 90s were economically difficult for the Germans with rising unemployment leading to the unpopularity of Kohl ( HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiHagen_Schulze o Hagen Schulze Schulze, 2008). In the 1998 federal election, Kohl was heavily defeated by Gerhard Schroeder who became the second chancellor of the reunified Germany. Schroeders first term was successful especially because of his abolition of nuclear power and funding of renewable energy. He also liberalized the naturalization laws that had been a problem since the Nazi Era. However, high unemployment rates affected his ratings and by the time for the 2002 elections, his popularity had dwindled, though he won a second term.

After the 2005 election his party lost to the CDU led by Angela Merkel. The election was disputed and after three weeks of negotiations, he stepped down as the chancellor of Germany, making Angela Merkel the first woman Chancellor of Germany and the third in the unified Germany. From 2005 to 2009, she led a coalition government of the Christian Democratic Union, Christian Social Union and the social democratic party. In 2009, her party obtained the most votes and formed a coalition with the CSU and the Free Democratic Party. Her second term as the Chancellor of Germany started in October 2009.