Authenticity of Concerns about Climate Change and Global Warming and its Impacts on International Relations

In every society all over the world, there are often complicated societal problems. There is often much uncertainty which characterize the point in time when the problem begun and what started it. The available knowledge and data concerning the problem are often in contradiction with each other. When the problem is in a global scale such as climate change, many nations, economies, cultures and traditions come to play with regard to finding a common solution which further complicates the process of handling the problem. Much debate has emerged in recent times concerning the issue of climate change and global warming.
Societies are often affected greatly by complex societal problems. The process often involves numerous individuals and actors such as decision makers, governments, international organizations, financial institutions and large companies. Each actor often has his own interpretation of the problem and often attempts to achieve his own goal apart from advancing his own interests towards the problem. The composition of actors involved in the process often changes during the process of handling the problem. Handling the problem of climate change and global warming involves some degree of knowledge, in most cases lack of it or uncertain knowledge, and the power and interests of the various actors that are involved in the process.

In order to fully understand the phenomenon, there is need for a long term integral approach especially when handling problems associated with climate change. Integral in terms of reflecting on the causes of the climate change problem, integral interventions of all the dimensions of the problem, and an integral implementations of climate change intervention and adaptation to climate change matters. However, this has not been achieved with regard to global warming and climate change owing to the tendency to privatize the merits of the problems and to socialize the costs. Being politically vulnerable, the problem of climate change has limited the influence of scientists. It is only scientists who can suggest the best way that a complex societal problem can be handled, how the uncertainties can be handled and how the problems can be optimally handled in the interest of the general public. However, it is the politicians who determine the interventions. In real life situation, complicated problems are not often handled optimally. In the handling of such problems, there is always the tendency to directly jump to solutions without investing time in exploring the problem.

This paper seeks to address the realities of global warming and how it is being handled. Of specific concern is the reason why there is much contention regarding the issue of climate change and global warming. The importance of this investigation lies in the fact that the issue of global climate change has shown its impacts within the realms of international relations and is likely to impact further on societies. As mentioned, it is the politicians who determine interventions whenever there is perceived problem and once contention characterize such sensitive issues like climate change and global warming, its impacts are likely to be magnified within the fields of global politics. For instance, it highlights the effectiveness of international treaties as tools for regulating the behavior of nations. Beyond this, it exposes the limited influence of international law.

Research questions
It is no longer a secret that earths climate is changing it has always changed. Scientists and environmentalists have been at the forefront in creating an awareness of this phenomenon which threaten the survival of not only the human race but also life in the planet. The causes of this change in climate have been attributed to human activities especially within the past hundred years. These activities are among other things a consequence of industrialization. There has been concerted effort to reverse this trend among the nations. Even though it is expected that every human individual, every people and every nation should support any move meant to save the planet, this has not been the case. Is it because the issue of climate change is unfounded or it is not associated in any way with human activity Is this reluctance among nations an indication that climate change is not as serious as might be thought, or it is a natural phenomenon that has no association with human activities If climate change and global warming is such an important issue, then why is it that political entities have failed to reach a consensus concerning the way that the trend is going to be reverse

This paper aims to investigate fundamental questions concerning the issue of climate change and global warming. Of basic concern are
Are concerns about climate change and global warming genuine
Why are scientists, politicians and commentators divided on the issue of climate change and global warming
How will global climate change impact on international relations
How do policy makers arrive at decisions concerning climate change mitigation policy.

Background to the Problem
Climate change and global warming is the most serious of all the issues that have surfaced within the past few decades. It has also become the most difficult to manage. Owing to the magnitude and severity of harms that might accompany climate change and global warming, they have emerged to be the most serious that humanity is grappling with. Numerous dimensions of human society and wellbeing are dependent to a greater extent on climatic conditions. However, this dependence has been obscured and reduced in modern industrial societies by technology and wealth. The reliance on climate can be seen in the economic damages and human suffering that have been caused by climate variations during the past century such as draughts and the El Nino cycle. The projections for climatic change in the twenty first century are much higher than for the previous centuries with the corresponding human impacts being greater.

There is much uncertainty for the projections for the twenty first century climate change. However, much has been said concerning the scientific uncertainty and its employment in policy debates. However, a basic fact about skepticism is that it cuts both ways. If there is uncertainty in the projected climate change in the twenty first-century, then the actual changes may be smaller or larger than are now being projected. This uncertainty concerning how the climate will change makes the issue of climate change even more serious. The current projections of the twenty-first century climate change include sustained rapid changes that seem to have few precedents in earths history and whose effects on human well-being and society may be catastrophic.

The Kyoto Protocol was the first international treaty to restrict the human contribution to the global climate change. This treaty came into force in the February of 2005. With this significant step in human history, the majority of worlds industrial countries became subjected to binding obligations to minimize the green-house emissions that are identified as contributing to global climate change. The event also deepened the preexisting divisions among nations that have witnessed unprecedented growth within the past decade. The widest division exists between the majority of industrialized nations being led by the European Union and Japan, and the United States. The former have embraced the protocol while the latter has rejected it. What is interesting is that the United States, the most advanced country in the world today, has rejected the protocol together with other proposals for near-term measures to reduce or limit green-house emissions while it is the same emissions that are held to be responsible for global climate change.

Even among the nations that have joined Kyoto, there is much disparity concerning the seriousness and timing of the emission-limiting measures that have been adopted, and consequently of the possibility of realizing the required reductions. If it is true that these emissions are responsible for the condition of the global climate today, then it is apparent that failure to reduce these emissions will invariably spell doom to the human race and life in the planet. In a matter as sensitive as preserving the planet for future generations, there is need for nations to come together and find a lasting solution.

Apart from the divisions among the industrialized countries, there is also a very big difference between the industrialized and developing countries. The protocol only requires a reduction of emissions by industrialized countries. It does not provide particular obligation for developing countries to limit their emissions. It is this issue that has emerged to be the sharpest controversial point. This controversy is particularly serious owing to the fact that that the protocol aims to control the emissions by industrialized countries for a period of five years from 2008 to 2012. The protocol does not have any particular policies or obligations beyond the year 2012 for either the developing or industrialized countries. While the protocol represents a noble first step towards a solid response to climate change, there is basically no progress in negotiating the wider and long term changes that will be needed to slow, stop or even reverse any human induced climate changes that are taking place.

With the political divisions growing sharper, there has also been much heat concerning public arguments with regard to what is known about climate change. It cannot be denied that climate change is the most contentious environmental matter that has been witnessed in the recent past. Newspapers and policy debates are dominated with arguments concerning whether the climate is changing or not, whether human activities are responsible for this change, and the speed and extent to which the climate is going to change in future, the scope and seriousness of its impacts, what can be done and at what cost. The arguments that have been advanced are very intense because the stakes are high. However, the bitter public disagreements between politicians, commentators and scientists over issues that seem to be questions of scientific knowledge is not only troubling but also worrying.

This research paper proposes to investigate the reason behind the divergent views concerning climate change. In particular, it will seek to assess the scientific and policy arguments that have been advanced concerning climate change and global warming. The paper will consider scientific issues that form the basis of climatic change science debate. It will also review the current scientific knowledge and skepticism concerning climate change and how the knowledge is being used in public and policy debates. The paper also seeks to assess the interaction between political and scientific debates and address the important issue of why the debate surrounding climate change and global warming is contentious and confusing while the majority of the involved parties claim that their arguments scientifically founded.

Literature Review
A section of environmental scientists across the world have raised an alarm to the effect that global warming, a consequence of human activities, is threatening the common future of human beings. To these scientists, there is credible evidence to support the view that earths atmosphere is wearing up due to global warming. In this regard, they hold that global warming is real and is already happening with the anticipated consequences being unacceptable.

Other individuals have on the other hand argued that not much is known concerning the phenomenon. The proponents of this argument hold that the view that increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases will ultimately result in further warming is an oversimplification. According to them, this view is not consistent with the fact that there is no significant warming suggested by satellite measurements in the past two decades in the lower atmosphere which is central to global warming theory.

Scientists themselves disagree on whether global warming can be attributed to human activities or whether the activities are likely to trigger natural disasters. Those who dismiss global warming as a fad therefore hold that the claim about global warming as a consequence of man-made emissions is simply unfounded and not based on any sound science. They further claim that carbon dioxide does not cause catastrophic disasters and is instead beneficial to the environment and the economy. From all these views, the credibility concerning the issue of global warming as being man-made is in question.

The science on which the Kyoto was founded has not been capable of addressing all the fundamental questions. The most dazzling question is why the earth warmed so much during the initial part of the twentieth century before the carbon-dioxide emissions boom. Another question that has been raised concerns the reason why the near earth atmosphere is not warming as much as the surface of the earth. There is also the problem concerning the difference between temperatures a century ago and the current temperature which does not indicate much disparity.

The occurrence of global warming has been denied by other scientists as a fad. These scientists reiterate that the earths climate has not warmed in the past two decades. They argue that the view of the warming of the climate is entirely based on thermometer data. According to them, superior observations from weather satellite and independent radiosonde data from weather balloons contradict this supposition. Non-thermometer data taken from ice cores, tree rings and other proxy data suggest that there is no current warming and the view that the twentieth century was the warmest in the past millennium undermines and misuses such proxy data. In this regard, the proponents of this view hold that this claim that climate models reproduce accurately records of temperature of the past century is spurious.

To those arguing that global warming is real, they attribute this phenomenon to human activities. The simplest measure of this change, according to the proponents of this view, is the earths average temperature which they argue has risen by an estimated 0.7 degree Celsius over the past century. The bulk of this increase has occurred in the past two decades. The implication, according to them, is that the world is going through a period of global warming. Their projection is that the problem of climate change will be worse by the year 2050.

The proponents of these views hold that it is a well known fact that the atmosphere, oceans and land are heating and if the climate model projections on the degree of warming are correct, then the sea levels will continue to rise for the next century. They expect that the glaciers will experience faster rates of melting and there will be significant increases in rainfall intensity. Further, there will be hurricanes. Like those who oppose the reality of global warming, the proponents of these views also hold that these projections are founded on strong scientific data. They dismiss arguments that appear to insist that there is no global warming as unscientifically founded.

The intensity of disagreements that are exuded over what might be expected to be simple issues of scientific knowledge of whether the earth is warming or not is one of the most outstanding dimensions of this debate. The heated public confrontation concerning uncertainty and the state of scientific knowledge leads to very major confusions. The state of political and public debates concerning the issue makes it difficult for non-specialists to comprehend what these advocates are arguing about or to pass judgment concerning the strength of the competing arguments.

The issue of climate change and its possible impacts
Climate change is best conceived as a threat multiplier which aggravates the existing trends, tensions and instability. The main challenge is that it threatens to overburden regions and states that are already unstable and prone to conflict. The risks are not only humanitarian in nature but also encompass political and security risks. With regard to the concept of human security, various issues that are associated with the effects of climate change on international security are interrelated and therefore demand for comprehensive analysis and response.

Global warming has been associated with competition for natural resources. In many parts of the world, there is widespread water shortage, reduction in cultivatable land, dwindling of food and fish stocks, increased flooding and prolonged droughts. The patterns of rainfall are likely to be altered by climate change which will further minimize the available fresh water by 20 to 30 percent in some regions. These impacts have been reported in the southeastern and western parts of the United States which in 2007 experienced severe to exceptional draught. Some researchers have reported that over the past decade, the harsh reality of the global warming has been especially witnessed in America West. The impacts have also been experienced by Australia that recently suffered from heat waves and incidences of wildfires.

The falling water level in Lake Powell and Lake Mead are also some powerful instances of the severity of the water crisis. The two lakes supply water to power to millions of Americans in the American Southwest. It is projected that the two lakes stand a chance of running dry by the year 2021 owing to the increasing demand for water and the impacts of global warming. But the question that is bound to be raised concerns whether these impacts emanate from changes in climatic conditions. Put in another way, can the water crises be attributed to the impacts of climate change A study by Barnett and colleagues investigated this question and reported that an estimated 60 percent of climate associated trends in the flow of rivers, winter air temperatures and snowpack between 1950 and 1999 in the western sections of the United States are human induced through emissions. The shortage of water has the potential of causing civil unrest and result in significant economic losses even in a robust economy like the United States.

A reduction in agricultural productivity will invariably result in food insecurity in least developed countries. Similarly, the shortage of water is likely to have dire consequences in regions under strong demographic pressure. The overall impact is that changes in climate will trigger existing conflicts over depleting resources particularly where access to such resources has been politicized.

It is being approximated that handling climate change may cost the world economy up to twenty percent of global GDP annually. About one-fifth of the worlds population live in coastal regions and this population may go up in the coming years. Large cities, with their supporting infrastructure like oil refineries and port facilities, are often located by the sea or river deltas. The rise in sea levels associated with climate change and global warming, and the magnitude and intensity of natural disasters often pose a serious threat to these regions and their economic prospects. Past disasters have shown that the East coasts China and India, the Caribbean region and Central America are especially vulnerable. Whenever there is an increase in disasters and humanitarian crises, there is always an immense pressure on resources from donor countries.

Scientists have also projected major changes in landmass during the twenty-first century. There is high likelihood that submergence of large sections and receding coastlines may lead to loss of territory which may include entire nations such as small island states. The world may witness increased disputes over maritime borders and lands. Various international laws may have to be amended in order to accommodate the changing territorial composition. Another aspect of competition for energy resources is based on the potential conflict over resources in the polar region which may become exploitable due to global warming. A vicious circle of migration, degradation and conflict over borders and territory would be triggered by desertification and this may threaten the political stability of regions and countries.

The instability in weak states may be significantly increased by climate change through overstretching the capacity of governments to adequately respond to the challenges that they face. This inability of governments to satisfy the needs of the entire population or to offer protection in the face of hardship induced by climate change may motivate frustration, result n in ethnic and religious tension within nations and political radicalization. This may result in instability for countries and even entire regions.

Intensified competition over access and control of energy resources may also result in conflict. This will continue to be a major cause of instability. A large percentage of the worlds hydrocarbon reserves are situated in regions that have been identified to be vulnerable to climate change. Instability is likely to increase in such regions since the majority of oil and gas producing nations are already faced with demographic, social and economic challenges. In this regard, there is high likelihood of instability in such regions. It has the potential of feeding back into the greater insecurity and resource competition. A likely greater use of nuclear energy may result in new proliferation concerns. The scramble for resources is likely to become more intense as hitherto inaccessible regions open up due to the impacts of global warming.

Failure of the international community to critically assess the issue of climate change and global warming is likely to threaten the multilateral system. The effects of climate change are likely to lead to politics of bitterness between people who are seen to be responsible for climate change and those that are feeling its worst impacts. The effects of climate mitigation policies will therefore drive political tensions both within boundaries of a nation and internationally. The potential differences will not only divide the west and the east, north and south but there is also likely to be a south-south aspect especially when the share of Indian and Chinese emissions goes up. In this regard, there will be much pressure on the already burdened international security.

Future Research
The investigation and analysis provided in this paper is entirely based on reports and data from other work. This is because of lack of adequate resources in terms of time and money to conduct a comprehensive research on the issue of climate change and global warming. However, the materials that have been used in writing this paper also present contradictory findings which may not lead to a conclusive analysis. Basically, this paper has been a review of literature on climate change and global warming with very minimal actual research on the topic.

Given time and resources to conduct research on this very thorny issue of climate change and global warming, my major goal would be to investigate how policy makers approach issues of climate change when designing mitigation policy. This is because it is important to know how the policy makers approach this issue in light of the controversy that surrounds climate change and global warming. In order to satisfactorily investigate this issue, I will conduct a conjoint choice analysis which may help in assessing how policy makers exchange criteria in the design of climate change mitigation policy.

This is my preferred method because conjoint choice analysis technique will not require many resources. The technique require respondents to choose the most preferred attribute after being shown various representations of a good described by a set of attributes. The available alternatives vary from one another in the level that two or more attributes take. When the conjoint choice technique is applied, it may bring much information concerning the importance of criteria in suggesting the choice of the optimal policy instrument.

The conjoint choice analysis enables interviews, data collection and data analysis to be conducted online. Therefore, it makes it enables the collection of data from various locations around the world possible which is likely to result in conclusive analysis. The nature of the investigation makes it very difficult to conduct research through traditional methods.

Annotated Bibliography
Dinar, Ariel. Measuring the Impact of Climate Change on Indian Agriculture, Issue 402 of World Bank technical paper, World Bank Publications, 1998

The plethora of books and articles published so far underscores the importance of global warming and climate change. On the other hand, many of these articles criticize the scientific projections of global warming. This book reiterates that most of these criticisms, as well as the seemingly irresolvable controversies surrounding global warming debate are simply a consequence of the inability of general circulation models (GCMs) to accurately present the complex nature of our climate system. Notably, most of these articles have taken issue with the unilateral imposition of carbon dioxide emission standards. However, despite these issues, it the causal role of greenhouse gases has been fully extrapolated and accepted. Sophisticated circulation models are currently being used to project the effects of greenhouse gas emissions on climatic variables like precipitation, temperature and solar radiation.

On the basis of numerical GCMs presented in popular and scientific literature, especially the Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL), the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO), the book assesses the impacts of global warming on India. The author notes that the lack of variability with the projections makes the predictions of precipitation and temperature unreliable. The strength of this book lies in its comprehensive comparative analysis of the different GCMs used in the prediction of global warming and climate change. The lack of variability as shown in the India case may serve as an impetus for reconciling the differences between the general circulation models.

Edward, Pearson.  Dessler, Andrew. The Science and Politics of Global Climate Change A Guide to the Debate. London Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Dessler and colleagues investigate the controversy and confusion that characterize confusion over climate change. They explore the arguments of those who hold that there is clear evidence of a coming climate crisis. They also assess the position of those who argue that there is insufficient evidence to support climate change and global warming.

In their assessment, they unearth the confusions over climate change and global warming even among the supporters. They argue that both the critics and proponents of climate change and global warming may both not be right in their arguments. As such, they argue that non-specialists find it difficult to sort out and assess the contending claims owing to the attempt to present the arguments for and against global warming in a balanced way.

This kind of antagonism stands in the stage for simple individual actions that can be taken to mitigate against global warming. In conclusion, the book offers a way forward in resolving the conflicting positions of critics and proponents of different views of global warming. The book is an important resource for all students interested in environmental law, international relations, and political science, in addition to the science courses.

Emanuel, K.A. Extreme Weather. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 89 v. 3 (2008)347-367.

Emanuel produces a comprehensive analysis of how the United States and Canada has been transformed and is still being transformed by climate change. He places special focus on events that have been categorized as extreme. From his analysis, he finds that North America will experience destabilizing climatic conditions due to greenhouse gas emissions. He employs the current climate models to suggest that the extreme events are likely to be common place. He suggests that extreme weather conditions will likely be the most serious challenges that the society will have to cope with.
Ferrar, Amy. Global Warming Essential Viewpoints, ABDO Group, 2007

This book begins by presenting the case of Glacier National Park located in Northern Montana. For more than ten decades, this park has been welcoming visitors who come to camp, hike, view wildlife, or wade in the pristine streams fed by glacial melts. Driving to go and watch the massive glaciers has been one of the most memorable events for those visiting Glacier National Park. Apart from these tourist ventures, the park is also an important scientific base for the study of global warming and climate change as it houses the Global Climate Change program. It is reported that in 1850, there were one hundred and fifty glaciers covering the northern Montana landscape. However, currently there are only twenty seven glaciers at the park. This is mainly attributable to the rise in temperatures which began in the late 1880s and has never ceased. The book notes that for the past one hundred and fifty years, the earths temperature has risen by an average of 0.76 degrees Celsius. Currently, global warming continues at a rate that can only be compared to the glacial period, some 200,000 years ago.
In a nutshell, the book presents practical examples backed by scientific evidence to show that global warming is not a myth but a reality. The main culprit in the worsening global warming situation is the combustion of fossil fuels such as petroleum, natural gas, and coal for industrial and transportation services. This fossil fuel gives off carbon dioxide which is the principal greenhouse gas.

Analytically, the book is a beginners guide to exploring the various controversies surrounding the global warming debate. By offering practical examples which can be seen by the naked eyes and linking the changes in glacial cover to the global temperature changes, it is a call for countries to limit their emission of carbon dioxide or else face disaster in the future. In core chapters, the book details Ways to Limit Greenhouse Gases, Policymakers Battle Global Warming, What Organizations Are Doing and the Future of Global Warming. The Essential Facts presentation is a useful reminder of the basics of global warming and climate change.

Houghton, John. Global Warming the Complete Briefing. London Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Houghton provides important information about global warming, Earths carbon cycle and the greenhouse effect. It also discusses data on climate and the inferred climate changes of the past. The source describes climate models, simulations and the probable effects of climate change. Even though Houghton concurs that global warming may pose serious threat to future survival, he also acknowledge that that skepticism concerning the subject are justifiable.

The book presents an in depth exploration of the scientific basis of global warming as well as the likely effects of climate change on the society at large. Again, Houghton (2004) goes on to address the various actions that can be taken by individuals, the industrial sector and the government to mitigate the effects of global warming. Being one of the few authors with more than a decade of experience in writing about global warming, the book definitely charts the changes in argument and positions over the more than ten years period.

Mark, Maslin. Global Warming Causes, Effects and the Future. Voyageur Press, 2007.
 Maslin defines and provide an overview of global warming. He then looks at the causes of the phenomenon and produces evidence and effects of global warming. According to him, there is sufficient evidence for global warming and what remains to be done is to find solutions for this problem. He proposes what needs to be done concerning this problem which is not far from the solutions that have been forwarded by other authors. The source predicts the likely consequences that might accompany the destruction of the Amazon and Gulf Stream rain forest and Gulf Stream.

Different authors have dealt with the issue of global warming at different levels. Mark (2007), present a very comprehensive analysis of the issue by drawing from a huge base of research evidence to inform the causes, effects, and future expectations. It succeeds in presenting the whole picture of the phenomenon as a whole and offers an insight into the types of measures that can be adopted to ease the increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. By specifically pinpointing the Gulf stream and Amazon rainforests as particularly vulnerable habitats whose destruction may spell disaster for humankind, the book indirectly calls for urgent actions to be taken to protect all vulnerable habitats through the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions.

Saunders, Stephen, Charles Montgomery, Tom Easley. Hotter  Drier the Wests changed Climate. NRDC, 2 (2008).

Saunders and colleagues present climate data taken in particular regions in the United States. According to them, the level of water in two American Lakes is reducing. They further found report on the current trend of draught and floods which they hold to have gone up during the recent times. According to them, these events are consequences of climate change due to global warming. They project that the situation is likely to get worse in the future with a high likelihood of the lakes drying within a period of thirty to fifty years.

Even though Sanders and colleagues present important data on United States climatic changes, these changes cannot be entirely attributed to global warming. The climatic conditions are not dynamic and is therefore are subject to change.

Singer, Fred Siegfried.  Avery, Dennis T. Unstoppable global warming every 1,500 years, Rowman  Littlefield Publishers, Inc. Maryland, 2007

The fact that the earth is warming is indisputable.  Physical evidence also attests to the fact that human emitted carbon dioxide plays only a small role in the warming of the earth. As such it human emitted greenhouses gases should be understood as being mere actors in a natural mild warming phenomenon that characterizes the 1,500 year climate cycle. From the Roman records dating from 200 B.C to 600 A.D, to the medieval histories of Asia and Europe, medieval warming was detected but regarded as climatic shifts rather than being part of continuing phenomena. Thus, even though there exists a wealth of evidence supporting the occurrence of climate changes every 1500, plus or minus 500 years the green house theory has risen in prominence.

The authors present the 1,500 year cycle of climate change drawing from the analysis of Dansgaard and Oeschgers climatic cycle which is supported by studies of ice core in the Arctic, Asia, North America, New Zealand, Antarctic, and Europe. The cycle is also supported by findings of seabed sediment cores, cave stalagnites, fossilized fuel and many more. According to the authors, the earth continually warms and cools. The cycle is undeniable, ancient, often abrupt, and global (Singer  Avery, 2010). By presenting the facts surrounding the natural occurrence of 1500 cycle, Singer  Avery succeed at showing the insignificance of human related activities in the exacerbating or causing global warming. Most importantly, the author draws the reader to independently read the various causes of global warming and decide the significance of human activities.

In a nutshell, the book presents strong scientific evidence for the role of natural factors in the ongoing global warming and climate change. By analyzing the current changes under the context of the 1500 year climatic cycle, it offers an alternative front for further research. A front which is different from the one offered by those supporting the greenhouse theory. The book is useful for both lecturers, students, and researchers as an in depth reference material.

Singer, Fred. Bad data make global warming a cold case. Wall Street Journal, 2003 p.A17
Singer argues that there is no sufficient data to warrant the claim about global warming. According to him, the available data suggest that proxy data does not suggest any change in the climate over the past few decades as argued by the advocates of global warming.

Singer does not seem to provide any convincing explanation to the recent changes in climatic conditions. This source however makes a strong case for the skeptics as it suggests that the available data may be interpreted to support the view that climate change and global warming are hoaxes.

Even through the author fails to provide sufficient evidence to support the current context where there has been a sudden upsurge in global warming and associated effects, his opinion still holds because it is supported by hundreds of years of climatic data and predictions. However, these data do not explain the rapid changes in global surface temperatures ever since human beings began exploiting fossil fuels, and instituting changes in land use patterns. Nonetheless, the text is a useful information source for the natural causes of global warming and climate change. It is also a useful reference tool for researchers intent on comparing the different arguments posited by different authors in the global warming and climate change debate.

Victor, David. The Kyoto Protocol and the Struggle to Slow Global Warming. Princeton Princeton University Press, 2001.

Even as more evidence of global warming surfaces, the international response to this threat is divisive. Nations are finding it difficult to meet their Kyoto commitment. Developing countries on the other hand do not have any limit to their emissions. David Victor provides an explanation of why the Kyoto Protocol was unlikely to become an effective instrument. He assesses how its collapse provides opportunities to create a more realistic alternative. According to Victor, the international treaties like Kyoto can only function when emission trading becomes functional.

The Kyoto Protocol requires industrialized nations to minimize their greenhouse gas emissions to specific levels. Victor views the collapse of the Kyoto protocol as inevitable. At the same time, he sees it as providing the political space for rethinking strategy. Better alternatives, in his view, will be based on policies meant to control emissions. This source provides an important analysis of the role of nations with regard to global warming and climate change. It looks at the foundational principles of the Kyoto Protocol which was meant to reduce the adverse effects of global warming.

While Kyoto may have been one of the best strategies adopted to curb the increasing global surface temperatures by pushing countries to take decisive steps in curbing their own greenhouse gas emissions, analysis of the text yields insights into the reasons behind its failure in meeting its objectives and the desirability of a better protocol. For students studying the legal measures that can be instituted to curb the increasing global surface temperatures, this book is extremely useful.
Weart, Spenser. The Discovery of Global Warming. London Harvard University Press, 2004.

Weart traces the history of global warming from the moment when world governments and scientists agreed that the Earth is heating up in rate that has not been witnessed before. He also illuminates on how the conclusion concerning global warming was reached by the scientists. According to this source, the conclusion was a consequence of unprecedented twists and turns coupled with formidable intellectual, scientific and political obstacles. He further explains the relationship between politicians and scientists in the face of the issue of global warming. He admits that the issue of global warming and climate change is challenging to scientist and hence full certainty cannot be realized.

It is important to reiterate that for the author to satisfactorily chart the relationship between scientific evidence and politics in the resolution of the climate change phenomenon, the book suggests that given that the legal framework is political in nature, any strategies adopted to curb the worsening global warming trend must be congruent to the political demands in different countries. Despite an avalanche of scientific evidence about the occurrence and potential impacts of the phenomenon, the political establishment has not been able to institute strategies aimed at curbing any additional increases in greenhouse emissions. As opposed to other texts offering just the scientific arguments for either the man-made causes or the natural causes, this book ties together different facets and presents climate change in the context of political, intellectual, and scientific environment.

Short Synopsis

The ability to provide an alternative view to the application of US foreign and security policy during the post 911 environment coincides with not only the adherence towards the notions and aspect of war but sought to redefine it in accordance to the needs of the time. The article examines the conditions why the American response towards the war on terror was exceptional and how the necessary conditions were set to allow a new way for determining the definition and implementation of war.

Using the principle of exception by Carl Schmitts, the analysis of the US foreign policy during the post 911 showcased a new purpose particularly for the Bush administration to use such incident as a benchmark to set a new norm towards the way such conflict is fought. In particular, the use and application of new principle surrounding the treatment of detainees and their fundamental rights during times of war were redefined by the US in order to limit the control brought upon by its obligations to the Geneva Convention.

Such capacity then illustrates how the American application of its foreign policy remains to be linear and coincides with the application of the conventions brought about by its legal and moral principles. Given this analogy, it placed great emphasis in the value of how being a failed state serves as a justification for threat and possible course towards military response or war.

However, the article also conveys an alternative point critiquing the argument of Schmitt. In particular, it highlights how liberal precepts have allowed the capacity to induce an alternative view towards what is happening. In particular, it cites the ruling of the Supreme Court over the relevance of maintaining the norms and direction of US policy prior to 911.  This capacity to exercise such decisions remains worrying because it would now showcase how a particular liberal institution can promote and establish control outside its own territory. This then becomes an important source of debate in determining the role of Americans in seeking out the application of international justice and adherence to its own values and principles for such.

Barack Obamas conduct in office in the realm of domestic policymaking

Using the criteria developed by Joseph Nye and shown in Table 3.3, evaluate Barack Obamas conduct in office in the realm of domestic policymaking

The personality taken for the study is Barack Obama, the President of United States. This paper focuses on the administrative and leadership style of Barack Obama in taking decisions related to domestic policy making. He is a well known personality, popular throughout the world. His legend is a momentous one in record, but in the middle of publicity and routine news bulletin phase, some imperative fundamental truth about the man are less recognized by the common people. What follows is a discussion about the leadership styles of President Barack Obama, which consists of soft power inspirational, hard power inspirational and smart power inspirational capabilities of his individuality and his style of functioning.

Effective leadership styles soft and hard power skills
Leadership is the process of influencing others by showing them the right way through which the predetermined goals can be achieved. This trait mainly comprises both soft and hard skills. In reality, each presidency has its own political dynamic, shaped by the size of the initial election victory, the contours of the economy, conditions of war or peace, public impressions, and legislative victories and defeats (From campaigning to governing Politics and policymaking in the new Obama administration, 2010, para.7). It is a matter of general knowledge that Obama took the oath of office on January 20 facing a most daunting set of immediate policy challenges (From campaigning to governing Politics and policymaking in the new Obama administration, 2010, para.3).

He has responded well to these changes and implemented appropriate policies which manifests his dynamic capability to lead the country in an effective way. When one examines its aftermath it becomes evident that the immediate changes in the policies have had only positive impacts on the country. Political resources cannot be seen just as a limited commodity created in the election and then swiftly exhausted in the conflict to endorse a guiding principle program. The leadership capability of the president can be explained in detail by taking all the inspirational aspects into account.

Soft power (inspirational)
Emotional IQ
Emotional IQ refers to the ability of a person to manage his own feelings in such a way that it can be expressed to others in an effective and appropriate manner. Barack Obama has a good amount of self control and remains calm during all the pessimistic confrontation and whenever mudslinging from any corner occurs. It seems that he always keeps a check on his emotions. Self-control and self-awareness, thats two out of three for Obama (Posten, 2009, para.17).

His high degree of patience shows that he has strong self control which serves as an important quality for a leader. His charisma and the message of hope he gives to the public has greatly influenced Americans and also helped in creating a sense of feeling in their mind that he will do great things for the country.

2. Communications
President Obama exerts a pull on followers by using his striking tone that plunge the citizens back as people of promise. His oratory skills are excellent and his speech usually has the power to mesmerize the audience and this imbibes trust and belief in them. He has an extra- ordinary style of leading people which makes the whole population feel at ease. His speech also encourages the public to dream again, encompass confidence, and feel and believe in themselves in a self assuring manner. He deploys his wordings and conveys his message in such a way that the audience instantaneously shifts from inactive listener, and remains proactive contributor who understand what he says. He inspires us to be fully persuaded that Kennedy Camelot can return and that Reagans shiny city on a hill is not so far off in the distance (Evans, 2010, para.2). These traits reflect Obamas capabilities to stand up to his responsibilities, and to continue the hopefulness that the nation possesses as a whole, as bestowed by his predecessors

The first and the foremost thing that President Obama considers is the protection of the Americans. He firmly believes that when a certain issue arises in any country, it must be considered as the problem of Americans because it may affect the US at a later stage. He also believes that America alone cannot eliminate the menace of terrorism, but there is no doubt that it is not possible to erase this threat without the involvement of America. He focuses strongly on building relationships and associations besides forging partnerships to tackle common challenges like these.

Hard power skills of Barrack Obama
Leadership and Power are interrelated. To be an effective leader, one needs power that he can use. He employs his commanding skills to inspire people to follow him for getting things done efficiently and effectively.

Organizational capacity
Barrack Obama uses his hard and transactional powers in combating terrorism and in assisting overseas aiding program. He has used hard power tools to run the country and institutes appropriate policies like in state department and foreign support budgets which are together known as 150 federal budget function These hard power instruments of 150 policy are defined here, somewhat subjectively, as those with direct and near-term security relevance such as security aid and the Office of Stabilization and Reconstruction at the State Department (OHanlon, 2009, p.129). He manages both administration within the country and also the international community with certain ease as can be seen in the instances of the handling of economic recession as well as handling war region issues like Afghanistan.

Barack Obama is a credible leader and he insists on strong policies in terms of both military as well as economic development. He is a believer of equality which is an essential quality of being a leader. He states that United States should build a community where, at the very least, everyone has the chance to work hard, get ahead, and reach their dreams (Dupuis  Keith, 2008, p.106).
Obama is a much focused political leader, because of which he wants to secure wins right from the beginning of his presidential career through his direct and indirect leadership abilities. His direct leadership traits are evident from the choosing of staff for his team where he has considered only intelligent people for filling the official posts. He is a very good manager of the reward system and immediately recognizes the achievements of his employees, without any bias or prejudices. He always keeps himself updated on the information systems and stresses the use of new information systems which are innovative.

Machiavellian skills
Obama is a Machiavellian leader which means that he is a well groomed person who efficiently blends skill and power according to the specific needs to desire optimum results. He has excellent bullying, buying and bargaining skills which are evident in his approach to foreign policies in which he wants to secure all nuclear weapons from states that sponsor or harbor terrorism. He is an able leader in building and maintaining coalitions, which are of utmost benefit for the country. He is a strong leader in winning the coalitions beneficial to his state. He is a very good diplomat in buying process and a good negotiator in the bargaining or negotiation of deals. His international coalition skills are evident because he wanted to advocate a policy for North Korea when it wanted to handle nuclear weapons and was quite successful in the venture. His hard powers of Machiavellian skills are very helpful in formulating domestic policies where dominant authority is needed for taking administrative decisions. Obama uses his hard power skills in order to smoothly handle various responsibilities and govern the state administration efficiently.

According to Joseph Nye it is more important that a leader has the diplomacy to get things done through gentle persuasion rather than use of coercion or force. He believes that by using seductive methods it is possible to win over opponents and detractors rather than using aggressive and violent methods. But Nye also hastened to add that though soft power skills are better and more effective than hard power skills, it may not be applicable at all times and in dealing with all kinds of people. He also opines that with some dictators and autocrats likes Saddam Hussein, Idi Amin, Adolf Hitler, etc, soft power would not have worked and it becomes necessary to resort to tough bargaining and perhaps, Machiavellian methods. Moreover, in the present day context, there is need, in certain situations to show ones true powers in order to conquer challenging or threatening situations.

Perhaps one of the major victories that President Obama has been able to achieve is the closing down of the notorious Guatemala prison and the directives to FBI not to use torturous methods on prisoners. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, which the President signed less than a month after taking office, was the boldest countercyclical fiscal action in American history. Together with Administrations Financial Stability Plan, its actions to aid distressed homeowners, and actions by the Federal Reserve and other regulators, the Recovery Act is generating one of the sharpest economic turnarounds since World War II (Romer, 2010, para.2). Besides the above, the effectiveness of Obamas leadership can be gleaned regard to the enforcement of the 787 Billion economic recovery plan, which sought to rejuvenate the staggering economy and bring it into the path of quick recovery and progress. The main aspects of this plan is to reduce the tax burden on the middle class people and seeking better relief for the unemployed, very much in line with the stated principles of Joseph Nye, in terms of soft power display. The break up of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, 2009, ARRA as it is called, marks a significant departure from the conservative methods adopted by his predecessors, and perhaps augurs a more unconventional and path breaking kind of reforms package that is believed to stimulate the economy and bring it well within the path of progress. It is believed that ARRA laws would benefit the nation greatly and would also help to bring the economy back into the rails and to a large extent, and help in taking care of all the ills that plagued the economy. Besides these economic packages and other reform measures would show the American President in the true soft power light that Nye desires, in order to save and create jobs, get our economy moving again, and transform it for long-term growth and stability(Current legislation American recovery and reinvestment act, n.d., para.1).

The issue of climate change

Personal answer
Given the eminent climatic catastrophes, it is worth accepting that climate change is real. The world has over the past two decades witnessed varied climate anomalies such as extreme whether conditions, which include prolonged droughts and floods. Such climate changes have been closely attributed to the ever increasing greenhouse gas emissions, such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, leading to global warming. According to scientific findings, carbon dioxide, the most common byproduct in industries acts to cushion the earth, thus improving its surface temperatures for sustaining lives. However, the high amounts of carbon dioxide have resulted into global warming.

Based on this scientifically proved principle, it is quite clear that an unchecked increase in greenhouse gases could have a direct result of increasing the earth surface temperatures. The high rate of industrialization across the globe has led to increased greenhouse gas emissions, a factor which has seen climate changes. Evidence of these changes include this ever common and unpredictable severe storms, rise in sea levels due to increased ice melting, increased tropical diseases, and high temperatures among others which are being experienced in many parts of the globe.

All these existing changes in climate have led to increased concern by the international community in seeking a sustainable solution to climate change. As an individual, I impact less in greenhouse gas emissions. However, the effects of these gases on the climate are equally affecting all human beings. It is based on this reason that I believe there is need to implement both mitigation and adaptation techniques for saving the globe from global warming effects. By mitigation, we need to adopt low greenhouse gas emitting production technologies, while adaptation involves such practices as planting trees, which would reduce the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Answer from my production industry boss
The question of industrialization and its impact on climate change has been received with much controversy particularly by investors. According to my boss in the production industry business, climate change is not to be seen to be a result of industrialization. Global warming is basically due to our negligence towards environmental conservation. It is to be noted here that the worlds forest cover has rapidly decreased over the past few centuries, a reason to the natural resource imbalance being experienced in the globe.

As per his conviction, increasing the worlds forest cover through tree planting initiatives could greatly help in combating global warming.  According to science, plants play an important role in air purification by converting carbon dioxide to oxygen during photosynthesis process. Carbon dioxide has been found to be the leading cause of global warming. Therefore, for the production industry the increased plantation of trees could limit the level of carbon dioxide present in the atmosphere. This will have the ultimate impact of reducing the cushioning effect that this gas has on earth and will have end result of containing the problem of climate change.  

Still cited by my boss is that the fate of the world is fast spilling out of our control. He claimed that, given our modern economic development, it would be costly to implement low greenhouse gas emitting production technologies. It is clear that the world is heavily dependent on industrialization. This means that any move to implement mitigation as a solution to the global warming problem could greatly compromise sustainable economic development across the globe.

Subjects that came up on the question
From the view of my boss, human beings and their activities are to be blamed for the current trend of global warming and climate change. Still from our discussion, we agreed that deforestation as well the emission of green house gases from industries and other fossil fuel consuming engines, such as motor vehicles are the main cause of increased amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.  It has become clear that the major drawback to the elimination of climate change problem is industrialization and its immediate economic importance. Industrialized nations will always perceive mitigating global warming as a potential loss in their current economic superiority. However, it is globally accepted that climate changes are mainly as a result mans activities.

Introduction to the United Nations

Mid-term Exam Questions

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The following are the midterm exam questions.

(1). Which is not a correct description of the ITUs activities

It meets at intervals of five to eight years
Non-political experts rather than conferences are assigned the task of resolving
technical issues.
The penalty for nonratification by its members of an amendment is loss of vote
in ITU organs.
Decisions are always reached through unanimous agreement.

(2).  Which  actor  below  sought  to  eliminate  colonialism  for  reasons  other  than
humanitarianism and nationalism

The Soviet Union
Indias Mahatma Gandhi

(3). Which of the following is not how some states view disarmament

Disarmament would result in the loss of jobs.
Disarmament is viewed by all states as the inappropriate involvement of the UN
in state sovereignty.
Disarmament  is  viewed  as  posing  an  economic  threat  to  the well-being  of  the state.
Disarmament is viewed as facilitating economic savings.

(4). What is the minimum population size for admission into the UN.

There  is no minimum any  independent  territory  with at  least one person may
30,000 non-seasonal residents.
It depends on the recognition of the state by its neighbors.
It depends on the economic strength of the territory.

(5). Which of the following is false

ECOSOC has contributed to womens rights.
The  United  Nations  continued  the  League  of  Nations  practice  of  centralizing
Lack  of  cooperation  with  ICAO  is  related  to  technical  limitations  and  are  not
A convention proscribing torture entered into force in 1987.

(6). The Amphictyonic councils was not based on

Shared temples.
Common foreign policy.
Common culture.
Established rules.

(7).  What  event  signalled  the  end  of  U.S.  Congressional  support  to  United  Nations

The chairmanship of UNESCO by Algeria.
The end of the Cold War.
The 911 attacks on the World Trade Center.
The collapse of the Berlin Wall.

(8). Class C Mandates exclude which qualification

Small geographic extent.
Territories  requiring  transitional  administration  to  independence  because  of
military occupation.
Remoteness from human civilization.
Small population.

(9). Which aspect of the UNs representation is not egalitarian
Equality exists within the seven main committees.
The application of international law.
The disbursement of project funding.
Participation in international conferences.

(10). Si vis pacem para bellum has what effect on nuclear weapons

The legal principal implies responsibility for nuclear first use.
It produces greater insecurity in arms races.
Threats produce greater horizontal proliferation.
Weapons producers are legally bound by the consequences of their exports.

 (11). Which  organization  has  not  been  associated  in  a  regional  cooperation  with  the
United Nations


(12). Which African state did not possess UN membership in 1960


(13).  Which  grouping  was  surpassed  as  having  the  largest  number  of  UN  members
between 1998 and 1999

Asia and Pacific.
Latin America and Carribean.

(14).  Which  state  refused  to  impose  naval  limits  subsequent  to  the  1921  naval
limitations conference


(15). SORT committed the US to reduce its arsenals to what amount


(16). When do regular sessions usually begin for the General Assembly

First Monday in October
First Tuesday in September
Third Tuesday in September.
Last Monday in October

(17). The United States departed which organization in 1977


(18). Which state was denied independence by France in 1956

Tunisia .

(19). What theme was not discussed at the Millennium Summit

Conflict prevention.
Poverty and development.
Environmental problems.
Weapons proliferation.

(20). The League Covenant did not establish which organ

The Assembly.
The Secretariat.
The Security Council.
The Council.

The Electoral College

The Electoral College consists of people who come together to vote for presidential candidates. The system is being used in the United States. The citizens are expected to vote for the candidates of their choice who later become the electors to choose the president. The system can be traced back to about two hundred years ago. The main reason for its establishment was the growing concern about the ability of ordinary citizens to make proper decisions while choosing the president. At the time of the formation of the Electoral College there were possibilities of election difficulties due to the existence of thirteen states with greatly varying sizes and population. They were very jealous to safeguard their wellbeing. They were also suspicious of the central government which was national. It had a population of about four million citizens who were widely spread with limited transportation as well as communication infrastructure. This rendered national campaigns very expensive and exhaustive ventures which could never be done adequately to give citizens adequate information (Keyssar, 2003, p.16-18).

Political parties were deemed to be mischievous at the time this idea was more so influenced by political thinkers like John Bolingbroke. They felt that a gentlemen were not expected to campaign in order to get public offices. Instead, it was thought that such offices were supposed to find the suitable people to hold them. The Electoral College was found to be the best means of choosing a president without the need of a political party or national campaigns. The Electoral College is mandated to choose the president as well as the vice president. Currently, they are 538 in number (Keyssar, 2003, p.16-18).

There have been antagonistic views on whether or not the Electoral College should be maintained as a way of appointing the president. Many critics of this system have emerged over time raising a number of questions concerning the suitability of such a system. Personally, I feel that the system ought to be abolished. I cannot deny the fact that it has been helpful in the context of American history, only that the problems we face now as Americans are different from the ones which used to exist during the foundation of the country.  This opinion has been aroused by a number of considerations which I have examined and also after evaluating different views of other critics and also the views of the proponents. This system was established to ensure cohesion in the country since it requires it sets as a prerequisite, that a candidate should have a distribution of support to become the president of the United States. The system was also meant to ensure that minority interests were upheld and not necessarily subordinated by the interests of the majority. It was credited with encouraging a two-party system hence contributing to political stability within the country. It also led to the preservation of federal government system as well as representation (Best, 1975, p.12). While this may be taken for a fact, the problems that were faced at that time are not the ones experienced within our country today. Times have changed and new problems have evolved in the course of time as get over the old ones. The challenges we face today are not similar to those which were faced by Americans 200 years ago.

The critics also argue that many regions have interests which are strongly skewed towards them and often disregard the interests of other regions. They feel that if the popular support has to be distributed for a contestant to become the president, then cohesion is bound to be maintained in the country. This is correct but it is not possible for a presidential candidate who does not command a considerable amount of popular vote distribution to become the president. Which such an instance was more or less possible in the context of a small population, some of the reasons behind its establishment are no longer viable. American population cannot be equated to what it used to be during those times. During such times, there was a possibility that a state with majority population could elect a president on their own based on the popular vote without considering the distribution. Now, it is not possible, popularity vote is able to cater for distribution. This is to mean that a presidential candidate who gunners the highest popularity vote has to more or less have a favorable vote distribution.

They express the opinion that the mechanism is very efficient in ensuring that populous regions do not dominate the other regions in the election of the president. Metropolitan regions which are characteristically large are also moderated against such dominance over the rural areas. And also that, by virtue of the Electoral College, presidential candidates are inclined to choose vice president from other regions rather than their own. This is because no region has an absolute majority, now set at 270, electors to enable them choose the president on their own. Presidential candidates have ensure that there is a balanced state as well as regional representations in their potential governments to ensure that they can get support from most of these regions required to win. In one way or the other, the Electoral College might have influenced cooperation among political leaders. There are many states in America and the president and his vice have coming from different states, does not necessarily mean regional representation. The other states may also want to have a stake in the leadership. If anything looking at the concept from that perspective is bound to lead to animosity rather than unity among states.

There are bound to be inconsistencies as have been witnessed in several occasions whereby  a candidate with more popular votes ends up losing the presidential seat depending on whether or not his support spans across a number of states or is strong in a small number of states. This can be equated to neglecting the views of the majority and favoring an individual with minority votes (Bickel, 1971, p.52-59). This is politically wrong, since politics is all about giving the majority side. Neglecting the views of a greater number of people in favor of a minority interest is bound to lead to animosity. The animosity may grow to an extent that the majority may turn against the minority. The interests of the minority can still be addressed by exploring other avenues and not necessarily pegging them on such a crucial and delicate exercise.

Popular support majority is very important and by far outweighs popular support distribution. The system depresses voter participation hence ensuring that it is only the states or the regions which vote rather than the entire population. Small minorities have the advantage of making a contestant win or loose the electoral votes from a particular state. Ethnic minorities groups have been found to be higher in areas with greater electoral votes they take a very active process in electing the president than would be the case when the entire population was involved in the presidential election process. The majority groups are bound to be disillusioned. There are other relevant bodies that are able to fight for the interests of the majority. While giving the minority groups an equal opportunity to choose the president, it is important to consider the fact that the president is bound to lead the whole country and not necessarily the minority interest. This system ensures that the president caters more for the interests of the minorities at the expense of the majority. Critics feel that if the election of the president could be solely through popular majority votes, the president would only try to address the needs of the majority groups at the expense of the minorities (Best, 1975, p.57-61). The president serves the entire nation and there are checks and balances in his work and also bodies that have the capacity to regulate the decisions made by the president. There is no chance that he would engage in the unethical practice of neglecting the minority.

This system encourages two-party system. The two-party system limits other parties which could best represent the needs of particular people. Third parties are forced to conform to the existing parties and are not able to forward their own interests which may be very genuine in nature. This is more so due to the fact that new or minor parties cannot win sufficient popular votes in several states to have the probability of getting the presidential seat. If they are able to win sufficient electoral votes, to make changes at the House of Representatives, they will be required to command more than one half of State delegation to be able o elect their own presidential candidate. If this is the case, then such a party seizes to be minor. Any third party that may want to crop up is automatically forced to join one of the two parties which are in existence. This may also be due to single-member congress representation of the state. Parties which may be out to fight for their own interest have to moderate their ambitions to ensure that they have some following within a given state. The net result is the maintenance of the two main parties which have views which are generally acceptable by the people as opposed to a number of parties with divergent and extremist views. This leads to the assimilation of smaller political parties by large parties (Pierce  Longley, 1981, p.23).

A direct election by voters is bound to encourage the cropping up of alternative political parties. This ensures that citizens are able to join the parties which they feel can best represent their interests. The senate represents the states on an equal basis with no regards to the population size within such states. This means that there are structures in existence which seek to address the needs of the states. The concept of the state should not be used again in choosing the president (Pierce  Longley, 1981, p.34).

The system is bound to depress voter turnout. They may feel that each of the states has the same number of electoral votes regardless of whether or not they turn out in large numbers. They claim that this may probably leave the delicate election process in the hands of very few people. It can lead to minorities deciding for an entire state. The Electoral College has failed to portray an accurate reflection of the national will. Areas with limited population are accorded the same voting strength as their counterparts with large populations. There have been incidents of faithless electors who do not reflect the will of the people. These are electors who are given the mandate of choosing a particular presidential candidate but end up going against such mandates by electing another contestant (Pierce  Longley, 1981, p.45-68).

The Electoral College is a body that has exercised the mandate of choosing the presidential candidate for a very long time. It was successful in implementing its function. The problems we face now are limited to our context and there is no need of allowing a system that is no longer efficient to us, by virtue of the fact that it had been helpful in the past. It is true that it was established when American population was scattered and conducting campaigns were difficult. We are in a new world that has been graced by the advancement in technology. This is not the time when a single state could be able to elect a president on its own. Times have changed and we should reflect this by adopting systems which serve our interests.

The Role of Fear in The Leviathan

According to Thomas Hobbes, men have no pleasure in keeping company where apparently no power is able to overawe them all. Individuals, for Hobbes, seek to overpower other individuals (to be secured and valued). Thus, in the nature of man, there are three principal causes of quarrel competition, diffidence, and glory. The first quarrel is directed towards gain the second for safety and the third for reputation. To secure these aims, violence is necessary. Violence ensured gain, safety, and reputation. It also strikes fear to enemies or competitors.

Thus, within the state of nature, according to Hobbes, there is no law except some natural principles. The first principle is the so-called right of nature  the liberty each man has to use for his own preservation. The second principle is right of delegation  every man be willing, if other agree, to lay down his rights to all things and be contented with the first fundamental principle. Thus, according to Hobbes, the state of nature is chaos and savagery. Society is governed by fear  fear of being killed, fear of being looted, fear of being abused, and fear of being captivated. Fear is the distinct characteristic of the state of nature. Indeed, as Hobbes argued, no society and which is worst of all, continual fear, and danger of violent death and the life of man, solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short (Hobbes, 39).

Fear though is the cause of organization. It is what drives men to transfer their rights to all things to a single sovereign. As Hobbes argued

And because the condition of is a condition of war of every one against every one, in which case every one is governed by his own reason, and there is nothing he can make use of that may not be a help unto him in preserving his life against his enemies it follows that in such a condition every man has a right to every thing, even to one anothers body  (Hobbes, 44).

Men, fearing the uncertainties within the state of nature, transfer their rights to a sovereign. Men make a social contract to a sovereign to provide protection and organization.

This social contract though is established by fear  and therefore obligatory. Because it is a contract, the exchange of values need not be equal. By transferring all rights to a sovereign, men are bounded by an obligation to obey the sovereign. The sovereign acts not in virtue but in the necessity of preserving the lives of his subjects, as necessitated in the covenant. For whatsoever reasons, the sovereign may follow the contract through fear  for the benefit of the state, rather than the individual.

Fear is the basis of social contract. It is also the means by which it is enforced. Fear of the sovereign is the characteristic definition of the state. Indeed, the efficacy to which individual rights are assumed to be rational depends on the sovereign. The sovereign holds a sword and a staff, covered in thick plating. This indicates the extent of his political and religious power. This also indicates the level of fear attributed to him

Are U.S. policy makers guilty of torture

In war, soldiers are supposed and expected to carry themselves and behave in a particular and agreed way.  With this knowledge available to soldiers on both sides of a conflict, then war in so much as it is destructive is fought with clear rules of engagement. The challenge however arises when one of the parties in the war decides to change the rules of engagement without informing the other party.  It becomes challenging to both parties to agree on what the rules are anymore since each is seeing the war from their own perspective.

In war it is accepted that soldiers should not target civilians intentionally and when they find them in the course of war, they are to remove them from harms way.  Additionally, captured soldiers are to be treated with respect as their only crime is fighting for the opposing side. In the same breadth, soldiers are not to fight from or shield in residential areas as this undermines the civilian population.  This are generally rules that govern both sides of a conflict.

This unfortunately is not the case when dealing with the war on terror.  To begin with, the combatants who perpetuate this war do not prescribe to the generally agreed rules of engagement.  To them children and women-non combatants, are fair target.  They also do not fight from a clearly defined theater of war.  They hide among civilians and use them as human shield.  They use non acceptable practices  coercion, to get civilians to do their biding.

This said it defeats logic that the rules that apply to combatants in war should apply to them.  When a person has sent a child or woman with explosives to blow up a school or train station, there can be no time to reason with them.  Instead all effort need be used to aid in the discovery of the status of the explosive before it explodes.  Similarly, how can the rules of war apply on a person who claims that they do not recognize the said rules in the first place

Civility can only be practiced on people who appreciate it.  The rights accorded armed combatants are much more than they accord to their casualties.  One does not wake up in the morning prepared to suffer injuries from explosives detonated on a bus to work or at shopping mall as they buy their groceries.

Any one caught while trying to perpetuate the war on terror should be dealt with as forceful as possible in order to aid in avoiding further casualties.  Some of the tactics used like water-boarding have been labeled as torture or enhanced interrogations techniques (Edwards  Webster, 2008).  Whatever anyone calls them, the truth is that they have been successful. For a person who believes that killing Americans is honorable and that they will gain sainthood in the process it becomes very hard to reason with them.

Any person claiming to fight for the rights of the terror suspects must explain to the American people what rights they have to expect to be blown up to pieces or have a plane flown into their place of work.  They also need to make it clear, what rights the American people have when they are killed just because they are Americans.  In truth, the war on terror suspects enjoys more rights than they care to give Americans captured by them.

Pictures of an American soldier being dragged from the back of a pick-up truck in Mogadishu, Somalia are still fresh in peoples minds (Lindner, 2001)).  It is worth to remember, Americans went to Mogadishu under the invitation of the UN and in an effort to save civilians caught up in fighting.

In truth, there is no case for those advocating for prosecution of Cheney and by extension Americans on charges of war crimes or crimes against humanity for engaging in torture and enhanced interrogation.  It should be clear to them, the information gained from these acts have ensured their continued safety.  It has made it possible for American forces to foil and deter terrorist plans aimed at American and the people of the free world.  Enhanced interrogation or torture as one may chose to look at it should be used but only on cases of people who have chosen to be irrational in their reasoning.

Module 3
Both Kuttner and Weidenbaum have put forth compelling arguments to support their points of view.  However, this writer agrees with Weidenbaum assertion that U.S companies who open overseas factories provide low cost components and materials to U.S. based producers who are thus able to improve their international competitiveness (2001).  In truth most of the investments by American companies are rarely in third world countries.  They happen to be in first world countries which have similar or even more stringent policies on environmental regulations.
It is nave to claim in this day and age that any investment done by an American company in the third world would be in order to gain from cheap labor.  The savings gained from the relatively lower labor costs are incidentally taken up by other costs like transportation of the finished product and the general cost of doing business.  It is worth to remember, the third world countries do not have the same infrastructure as is available in America.

 For instance, where electricity is constant and guaranteed in America, in the third world countries it is not only much more expensive than America, it is also more unreliable.  It is common to find companies running diesel generators to power their machines simply because there is a power outage.  On the same breadth, it is worth to remember to that most of production at present is mechanized.
 Operators need to be highly specialized in order to run this expensive machinery efficiently. The training costs can not allow the companies to have a high turnover of staff.  They thus have to pay them a competitive wage in order to retain them over long periods of time.

Importation of goods helps more than it hurts the American people.  What imports do to the local economy and the local consumers is offer a variety that would not be possible in a closed economy.  In truth the American economy can not produce all the requisite minerals and metals necessary for the continued growth of the American industries.  Similarly, by the nature of expertise needed to produce certain manufacturing components, it would not make sense to produce them locally at a high price while they can be outsourced cheaply.

What this portends is that the American consumer gets to enjoy cheap finished products.  Especially at this time when there economy is in recession, these cheap products have become a life line to the American families and elderly.  In reality exceedingly even people who previously did not care for discount store are increasingly being seen here in search of bargains.

The biggest number of American for a long time bought American cars and as such ensured the survival of the American car industry.  This was despite the availability of cheaper, more reliable and much more fuel efficient cars from Asia.  However when the oil crisis hit, the American car industry was exposed for its lack of foresight and greed in not investing for the future.  Currently American families are seeking Asian cars since they can no longer afford to maintain the high costing American brands.

If this option was not available, the American economy would have collapsed in entirely when finally the financial crisis brought the automobile industry to its knees.  It is wise to remember, any jobs lost in production are ably gained back in sales and service of the imported products.  In truth, the service and sales jobs pay much more than production ones.

In the present economic recession, imports have become life savings lifelines to all population segments.  There is not a single segment that has not found solace in imported goods.  The American people chose to become a consuming economy and as such rely on imports for all their needs.  In addition, with the rising population, it is no longer possible to have all the requirements met by local production.

By the nature of the American people, the land of the free is made up of people from all over the world.  With their influx they introduce new products that find a following in America.  In the end, to satisfy the new consumers won over to the new product, it has to be imported from the producing country to be enjoyed.  Producing it in America is not an option since most definitely the raw materials are to be found in the countries of origin.

In a democracy every voice counts and there is an equal opportunity by all to be at the helm  if only they convince a majority of those with the voting right in the population.  When one is aggrieved and takes the dispute to a court of law, they expect that should they get a favorable judgment, it will be enforced. The above two scenarios unfortunately do not apply to the IMF, World Bank and the WTO.
In their design the IMF and the World Bank make policies that are pro investors at the expense of the workers and producers.  By advocating for structural adjustment programs, they made third world economies take on policies that were not for the good of the citizens (Shah, 2010).  A critical look at the policies which it is now generally accepted were faulty, all they did was to open up these economies for the first world economies to dump their excess production and kill the local industries.
In addition, they made the third world produced goods so expensive as not to compete in the first world economies.  Even as the World Bank and the IMF were pressuring the third world governments to abolish subsidies to producers in their economies, the first world  Americans and the Europeans, were busy increasing the same and making their farm produce uncompetitive and cheap (Associated Press, 2008).

By forcing the privatization of the core sectors critical to human survival  education and health, the IMF and World Bank Cleary showed they did not care for the consumers.  With the majority of the population already living below the poverty, how were they expected to finance their childrens education and pay for quality healthcare (Jindal, 1998)  The paradox is that in England the biggest healthcare provider is government funded and in America where this does not exist, all the poor and middle class families can not afford health care.  Even with the IMF and the World Bank living and housed in this two particular countries, they still insisted that what was working there was not good for the third world countries.  When the third world countries tried to raise their voices, they were in no uncertain terms told to comply or they would receive no funds which by the way were loans to be repaid with interest.

The WTO on its part is at most a toothless bull dog.  In its short time of existence it has passed some judgments which have been largely adhered to but for the crucial ones affecting on the giant economies this has not been the case (Davey, 2009).  All rulings passed down by it can only be enforced with the assistance of the local companys law enforcement agencies.

Should they choose not to or that to them the case is not a high enough priority then the judgment becomes less worth less than the paper it is written on.   This being the case, and especially with regards to the economic superpowers, the WTO is just a talk shop.  They come here to fulfill formalities and to them the WTO is only useful when they have a dispute amongst themselves  government to government, like to do with taxation regimes perceived as unfair to their products.
Additionally, since these bodies are optional by nature, only member countries signatory to their charters can be bound by their rulings.  A nation signatory to any of the charters can not seek intervention against another country which is not a signatory.  Their rules are thus not universally accepted.

Between increased economic interdependence endangering national security and workers and countries being exploited as a result of globalization (Kuttner, 1998), this writer believes they carry equal weight between them.  They expose a country especially those in the third world to equal risks.  However, for this paper, this writer contends that the latter is more a cause of concern.

Increasingly, the requisite raw materials that are being used to drive the world economy are being found in the third world countries.  In addition, these countries happen to have the biggest unexploited resources.  Thus they hold the potential to make or break the world as we know it in the 21st century. Due to the nature of competition in the world, companies have consolidated in order to enjoy economies of scale.

The result is multinational some of which have operational budgets that totally dwarf countries GDPs.  When they come into a country to harvest and use a paarticular resource, they can afford to arm twist governments.  They have been know to buy of officials to look the other side as they exploit workers and the environment  in Ghana and Nigeria there is evidence of toxic waste dumping from Britain (Milmo, 2009).  In other cases where governments have refused to accede to their wishes, the multinationals have been accused of orchestrating coups in order to have leaders sympathetic to their cause and willing to do their bidding in power.
Whenever a dispute occurs between two parties, there is always need for negotiations to resolve the disagreement between the conflicting parties. Negotiations are done in our day to day life in trying to solve disputes using different approaches depending on the level of education, culture, upbringing and even the life experiences of the parties involved in the negotiations. Acuff (2008 9) in his book, how to negotiate anything with anyone around the world, outlines about six basic stages that can be used in any negotiation. These stages include the preparation for the negotiations, establishing an identity for the conflicting parties and setting the tone of the negotiations, reformulating their strategies or exchanging information, decision making that is brought about by hard bargaining, agreement and closing of the deal and finally performing follows up.

According to craver (2004 1), an exhaustive preparation before starting the negotiations, is very important step towards a successful negotiation. Information on relevant facts and issues like the economic, legal and political issues need to be provided to enable the negotiators understand their party as well as their opponents. The negotiator may endeavour to hear from each party separately to understand the issues of contention among the conflicting parties. The process can also be called an orientation and fact finding stage since it is at this stage that information about the organization of the opposing side is provided. Before any negotiations, Pirani (2009 1) suggests that, people should determine whether there in a reason to begin negotiations anyway. There should be clarity on want they want to negotiate about and then set out some specific agendas before the start of the negotiations. At this stage, representatives of a party to be involved in the negotiations are identified and their responsibilities and authority in the negotiating process are well defined. The people identified to be involved in the talks must be well equipped with information about the organization and structure of the opposing party. This will be crucial in helping them to have the true picture of their opponents and enable them to analyse their needs, motivations and aims in comparison to those of their own party. This will provide them with the conflicting issues to be addressed after comparing their demand with those of their own party. After all the relevant information has been gathered, the negotiators should try to explore and discuss all the possible outcomes that might be arrived at in the negotiations. They should discuss for example, what will happen in an event where their opponents fail to compromise their position during the talks They should seek for the best alternative in case of any negative eventuality resulting from their negotiations. The venue of the meeting and the time is then identified at this stage. The time and the venue should always favour both parties.

The second stage of the negotiation process will seek to establish the identity of the negotiators and then set the tone for the negotiations. The negotiators will engage in some basic talks which will seem harmless and unoffending to enable them find some areas of common interest. This is important in the negotiations because if you find some thing that you share in your opponent, then you will tend to like him and in the process set some positive response towards achieving the desired goal.

According to Pirani (2009 1), this stage will aim at developing the foundation of the discussion without bringing in the details of the negotiations. This will make the negotiators share and agree on the basic concepts of the agreement that should be arrived at, at the end of their talks without necessarily discussing the details. It is at this stage that the roles and objectives of each party are well defined and through this, they establish some level of compatibility. This will set a positive mood to the discussions and generate the targeted mutual accords and at the end help the two groups achieve efficient agreements. Conditions for the partnership are re-framed to suit to both groups. This is achieved by allowing each side provide their position and incorporate them to fit to the partys individual demands.
The third stage involves serious discussions of the issues of contention, hard bargains and decision making. At this stage there is information exchange between the two groups, the parties begin to brainstorm on substantive issues to be negotiated. This can be achieved through asking of broad open ended questions, which require explanations and not short answers. This will enable the negotiators disclose more details on issues affecting them thinking that their opponents know about them. They should start narrowing down to specific areas when they are sure that they know enough about their opponents and these question will now aim at clarifying specific areas on what they might have been told. Negotiators should listen more keenly on leak end of their opponents as they explain their demands. The best example here is the choice of word for instance, the oppornents man say that they want a certain item, say item A, they can also say they need another item, say item B, or they can also say that they could like to have another item, say item C. there will be different interpretations of each of the above demands. This will imply that the first item is compulsory, but the second one is necessary to them but not compulsory while the last item is just optional. Such loose ends should help in the talks in an attempt of striking am agreement.

Sometimes the opponents can ask very confidential questions that the other party will not be willing to answer. Politicians found in such a point where they are fixed between a wall and a hard place choose to divert the question by either overemphasising on a small part of the question while the other part that is confidential is left unanswered or sometimes some of them in an attempt to hide such confidentiality misinterpret the question intentionally and answer the misinterpreted question. Others choose to ignore the question or refuse to answer the question completely (Craver, 2004 4). These, according to Craver, are blocking techniques which are common in any negotiation.
The next stage is called the distributive stage. Distributive in the sense that the talks shifts from inquiring about what the other party wants in the negotiations to what they must obtain themselves or what they are willing to take so as to sign the deal or the agreement. This is a very crucial stage in the negotiations since the side that unknowingly ignore the aspect of competition will lose to the manipulations of their counterparts who will maximize on their weaknesses. This stage is, according to Craver, the value claiming stage because parties are trying to determine what they are going to get out of the deal. This calls for the parties to set hard-line, well defined and firm positions before they enter this stage of negotiations. They should agree on concession patterns that will enable them get a fair deal out of the agreements. At this stage they should not be the ones to make their compromising offer first.  Mostly the side that makes their offer first are likely to disclose a mistake which the other party may take advantage against them. Another advantage of waiting for the other side to determine their position is to enable you to start your negotiations at a point that this far away focusing that at the mid point from where the other party is, to where you will propose your offer, you shall have obtained a fair deal. There are other tactics that will help a party in their negotiations. These tactics are patience and silence. If the other side makes an offer, and their opponent keep silent, the group that had given the offer will feel uncomfortable by the silence and make another offer quickly to soften their stand.  It is always wise to remain silent and if they remain silent too, try to ask them whether they are preparing to answer or what they might be thinking about such an offer. Threats and warnings are normally used to generate some responses from the other party. On the other side of the threats and warnings, there are promises. Threats and warnings indicate that if the other side improves on the offer they will also do the same. Throughout the negotiating period, the negotiators should remain focused to their current alternatives.
At the stage of setting an agreement, it is advisable to take time and not rush into agreements. Less competitive bargainers will always rush into an agreement since the nature of human beings is to sign an agreement and move to something else. This stage is  a time for being calm and taking deliberate actions. The parties should be careful not to jump into concessions which are not reciprocated by the other group. They should however try to make the other party to feel that the only solution of achieving a consensus is for the other group to move towards their side. this can be achieved by showing high degree of the inner patience.

The last stage of negotiations involves cooperation and then a follow up. The cooperation stage involves the reaching of a tentative agreement and shaking of hands. It is wrong to end up such an involving and shoulder rubbing negotiation without shaking hands with your opponents. This stage is necessary because it shows that the conflicting parties have maximized on their mutual benefits obtained from the agreement or deal. Acuff (2008 9) observes that this stage is often forgotten by the negotiators. It is through an effective follow up that you set a stage for the next negotiations. Remind the other side that they made a good decision in reaching the agreed upon decision.
It is not easy to come up to an agreement more especially when both sides feel that they have been offended and therefore should be given the lions share of the deal. It will need high levels of compromise on both parties to be able to attain an amicable solution to the disagreement where everybody will be satisfied.