APEC a Regional Trade Agreement

APEC Asia- Pacific Economic Cooperation is a trade agreement aimed at the promotion of trade in the region as well as the initiation of global economic growth.  This corporation is comprised of Brunei, Peru, Australia, Russia, Singapore, Korea, China, Mexico, Vietnam, Canada, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Taiwan, Philippians, Papua New Guinea, Chile, Indonesia, Thailand, New Zealand, Mexico, and Japan. The APEC formed in 1989, has since then demonstrated powerful development, growth of individual nations investment and global trade promotion not forgetting the regional economic growth.  The economic corporation accounts for 54 of the global gross domestic product, while it takes a share of world trade of 44.

The APEC is progressive since its formation because records reflect increased APEC imports from U.S amounting to 137 since 1994. APEC provides forums for the member State leaders to meet and forge way forward towards economic development and deliberate on how to fight world economic crises. For example, they met first in U.S Blake Island 1993 and are planning to meet again in the US in 2011.
 APEC has faced challenges in its trade affairs management like the reluctance of some member states to vote for removal of specific trade barriers to encourage quicker movement of trade goods. Trade liberalization and globalization aimed at uplifting global economic status that has been dropping is challenging though it is currently recording progress. APEC has been encouraging economic integration in the region so as to solve the financial havoc recorded by the WTO. This would further expand trade region, reinforce trade goods safety and ensure proper trade information dissemination to the member States. Generally, progress in APEC has been worth its credit for the good performance recorded in the past years and the projected strategies on global economic growth.

A Photographic Representation of Globalization and Its Influence on Culture

Mention the term globalization to an average American and youre more likely to see a frown than a smile.  Understandably, in this harsh economic climate in which the U.S. is seeing unemployment figures in record numbers, globalization is associated with concepts like outsourcing and down-sizing, with major corporations taking jobs overseas in an effort to find cheaper labor.  However, there are some positive implications for globalization, in addition to these negative connotations.  Perhaps the discipline of Art in all its many forms (I.e. dance, music, painting, photography, fashion, etc.) is the most hopeful way to re-examine the idea of globalization, looking at the glass is half full impact that the blurring of cultural, social, political and fiscal borders can also create.   

Attached is a picture of musical artist, Gwen Stefani.  More than your garden-variety  singersongwriter, Stefani is a global pop star with fans in countries some people have never even heard of.  In addition to being a  pop-cultural icon, she is also a fashion designer and her unique take on fashion often displays an eclectic mix of global influences.  Often, she is seen in old movie star glamour, but she also loves to wear fashions that are influenced by Reggae artists and her experiences in the Caribbean.  But, she is probably most frequently associated with the Harajuku Girls  fashion of Tokyo, Japan.  In fact, her off the rack clothing line is called Harajuku Lovers.  The fact that Stefani is influenced by Japanese fashion is particularly fascinating because it creates a chicken and egg type quandary, since Japanese fashion, in turn, borrows heavily from Western cultural influences, particularly pop music, goth subculture and hip hop. Although globalization hasnt been particularly good to all aspects of American fashion (I.e. American garment industry workers have suffered terribly from the outsourcing of their jobs to China and Mexico), the creative aspects of fashion and Art, in general, has benefited from having increased  access to inspiration and creativity crossing borders. 

_mn i j o p f

International Relations and Politics

Morgenthaus Realism
Why is Morgenthaus realism identified so closely with American views of the international system and international politics Referring to Professor Wights talk, Morgenthaus realism focused mainly on concepts like power, interests and the state. Morgenthaus realism tends to be pessimistic with efforts and foreign policies aiming to achieve ideal world order. The US for example pushed for liberal democracy ideologies in the Middle East but somehow faced resistance. For Morgenthaus, international conflicts are ever present as human has inherent evilness and lust for power.  While he believes in efforts for international order in government and to avoid a state of anarchy he stressed that politically powerful states like that of the US can posed threats even more.  Conflicts of interest and lust for power is what characterized realism in politics and international relations.

What is the more appropriate name for Af-Pak and how does that identity challenge the US, Pakistan and Afghanistan as to the attempt to defeat the Taliban Af-Pak is the term used by US military operations, envoy and the NATO for the 2 regions to directly pertain to their places of operations. A shorthand word used to help them identify easily the operations associated within the boundaries. It aims to encourage most especially Pakistanis to be active in participating in the US effort to fight terrorism and the Taliban in Afghan territories. More appropriate name could be, is to name it only under Afghanistan operations as to avoid putting Pakistan on equal with Afghanistan as the states differ greatly from one another.

The Meaning And Nature Of Terrorism An Introduction

Understanding the meaning of the term terrorism is the key to fight it with a clear eye and unprejudiced mindset. But looking at the history of the past sixty years, it seems like this task is very difficult to define terrorism from a single point of view. As Eqbal Ahmed puts it in his article Straight talk on terrorism, To begin with, terrorists change. The terrorist of yesterday is the hero of today, and the hero of yesterday becomes the terrorist of today or as Keeley, Robert V says in his article Trying to define terrorism One mans terrorist is another mans freedom fighter,. It is the main problem before the world leaders and the public in general. It is too difficult to define terrorism so that one definition will not be enough to categorize the term. The issue of defining terrorism is complicated as well as exhaustive. Governments wont define it because it involves a commitment to analysis, research and adherence to some basic rules and regulations. I think the criteria to describe terrorism should be based on the goal of certain actions of selected individuals or organizations. The history of terrorism before us, from 1940s to the present day, shows that there exists not one kind of terrorism but several kinds of it state terrorism, religious terrorism, criminal terrorism, political terrorism, and oppositional terrorism.

At this point of time the natural question that comes to ones mind is that why do terrorists commit such heinous and barbaric crimes The first reason is that they want to be heard. They want the world to acknowledge their demands and their grievances. It was the sole reason behind many terrorist incidents across the world, principles among them were the Palestinian attacks on Israeli properties, terror attacks in Kashmir, Chechnya, Argentina, Russia and else where. The cult of the freedom fighters is another motive behind such attacks. The will to resist oppressive governments, or to overthrow a government, sense of betrayal, anger against a particular regime can be the breeding ground for terrorism.

Now the United States has become the prime target of the terrorists, especially the Islamic brand of terrorists. In order to avoid it E. Ahmad has come up with some recommendations for the US to follow. In his opinion America has to abandon its alleged principles of double standards. America needs to be even handed with the countries that it deals with. America, in his opinion, needs not to condone the attacks of her allies but to condemn it. He advises America to avoid covert operations and low intensity warfare. In my opinion E. Ahmed has gone a little overboard to advise America on how to cope with the situation that it is facing today. He made some good points but I dont agree to all of them. I like the point where he says that America should focus on the cause of the problem and remove the root of the problem, but, as is the case, sometimes force is necessary to root out terrorism from the its breeding ground. Who wants to fight terrorists like Osama bin Laden with a bough of flower or a bucket of money

American Revolution or American War of Independence can never be justified as terrorist acts. First of all terrorism is not an ideology, it is only a destructive means to upset order and incur maximum damage to the victims. American Revolution on the other hand is a project, the project to liberate America from foreign hands. The revolutionaries had a well-established plan to install order and rule of the law of the land. Often the aim of the terrorists is to achieve narrow or short political gains by indiscriminately killing non-combatant civilians and innocent people. From any angle the American Revolution could be judged as terrorist acts.

On the other hand the Palestinian organization like Hezbollah claims to be the organization of freedom fighters as the aim of this organization is to liberate Palestine from Israel. So its natural that a comparison is drawn between American freedom fighters and so called freedom fighters of Hezbollah. As Robert V. Keeley points out the goal of Hezbollah is anarchistic and nihilistic. The action of Hezbollah can be used as a perfect example to the definition of terrorism a symbolic act designed to influence political behavior by extra normal means, entailing the use or threat of violence. The definition summarily puts Hezbollah in the domain of a terror organization.

Our current understanding of the word terrorism can be affected if we mess up just war with right to revolution. Right to revolution is a legitimate right of an individual or a collective group. It is the right which is recognized by many constitutions of the world the right to overthrow an oppressive government which acts against the common interest of the people. On the other hand Just War is a kind of theory that holds that a conflict can and ought to meet certain philosophies, criteria, and political justice. If we take Just War at its face value, it can sometimes border on terrorism in its strictest sense.

Sweden Politics

Sweden is a nation that has a distinctive political structure with twenty-one counties. Dating back as a nation, Sweden conjured the images of mainly the settlers and raiders but today it stands out as one of the most advanced nations globally. This nature is revealed in her through gender equality, politics, living standards, social welfare, arts, technology and the role she plays in both global and regional expansions. These will be considered in this paper in addition to the political parties and other features. The document will equally focus on the contrast relayed by Denmark and Norway with respect to the existing institutions, their parties and their striking features.

Sweden has a distinctive Western European style of historical democratic leadership and this has a great hand in the contemporary democratic regime exercised today.  The present day Swedish Government has clung on to Parliamentarism. The politics of Sweden occurs in a structure composed of a parliamentary representative type of democratic constitutional dominion. The countrys Executive power location is solely engrossed in the government, which is under a Prime Ministers leadership and a cabinet composed of twenty ministers. The members of parliament carry out the prime ministers election and the elections done are multi-party structured (SWEDEN.SE, n.d).

The Swedish Judiciary system is independent of the government but the prime minister together with the cabinet carry out the appointments. The prime minister has the mandate to appoint this cabinet. Its legal system which is partly influenced by the customary law mainly entails the civil law. Moreover, the Legislative power vested is in both the parliament and the government. It important to note that, the Swedish monarch has officially been maintained as the head of state, which is a special ceremonial position that has no command over the countrys armed forces. This ceremonial post holder is also not allowed to preside over the cabinet assemblies. Concerning the succession of the throne, both male and female succession is permitted.

 Legislative power is vested in a type of unicameral parliament under the government. This parliament has three hundred and forty nine seats as at now. Its members are elected on a four-year term basis that is also done proportionally as per the universal suffrage. A break down of the current political parties consists of the Social Democrats, the Liberal Party members, Greens, the Moderates, the Christian Democrats, the members of the Center Party and those of the Left Party (SWEDEN.SE, n.d).

The Social Democratic Party has its roots tied to trade-union movements and has always made the reduction of unemployment its priority. Goran Persson is the leader of this party, which stands for the strong public sector that houses the Blue-collar public-sector workers who form base. The Center Party is an additional to the Swedish parties, which is under Maud Olofsson. The conservative Moderate Party led by Fredrick Reinfeldt encompasses its foundation on the demand for minimum government involvement with the people, tax reduction and the need for public assistance on private businesses as well as industries and a strong defense. There is also the Liberal Peoples Party that is under Lars Leijonborgs leadership. 

The Left Party, yet another party in Sweden, has both communist and socialist traditions and usually stands in support of the Social Democratic government. The same party opposes the Economic Union membership with the fear that European regulations and integration may jeopardize the benefits for Swedish human resources. Lars Ohly leads this party. The Green Party has no formal leader but the partys spokespersons are currently Peter Erikson and Maria wettersrand. Finally, Goran Hagglund leads the Christian Democratic Party which has for a long time supported a traditional significance and values-based type of government. The party demands that developing countries be given more aid and that a more liberal immigration grant should be adopted. It is strongly anti-abortion and pleads with the government for greater support to help families fight problems to do with the youth, matters related to crime and alcoholism.

There are a number of distinctions between the Danish and Swedish political systems. Denmark, unlike Sweden has fourteen counties and two boroughs. The minor difference that distinguishes the Danish legal system is that its legislative acts undergo a judicial review. Although the prime minister appoints the cabinet in Denmark, it must be approved by parliament. Unlike Sweden where the prime minister is elected by parliament, in Denmark after the legislative elections are carried out, the leader of either the majority party or coalition is appointed by the monarch to be the prime minister. Denmark has fewer seats in the unicameral Peoples assembly consisting of one hundred and seventy-nine seats including two seats from Faroe Islands and another two from Greenland (DENMARK.DK, n.d).

The number of political parties in Denmark is six and that of Sweden is seven. Political parties in Denmark include the Social Liberal Party, Liberal Party, Conservative Party, Social Democrats, Danish Peoples Party and the Socialist Peoples Party. However, the main difference comes in the Danish parliamentary Unity List that excludes the two seats from Greenland and another two from the Faroe Islands. As noted, the Swedish parliament does not have any exceptional reserved seats or a unity list. The monarch for life appoints the judges in Denmark.

The Norwegian political system equally has some distinctions with respect to the Swedish system. Norway has nineteen counties that are slightly less than those in Sweden. The contrast that exists between the Norwegian legal system and the Swedish is that there is the incorporation of the common law traditions into the law of Norway and the Supreme Court is in a position to render its advisory opinions on enquiry. The parliamentary approval that is required during the state councils appointment done by the monarch is another difference existent between these two political systems (GOVERNMENT.NO, 2010).

In Norway, the monarch with parliamentary approval appoints the prime minister and the person appointed must be a leader of the majority party or coalition. The Norwegian unicameral Parliament has one hundred and sixty nine seats and has nine parties that include the Labor Party, Red Electoral Alliance, Progress Party, Conservative Party, Christian Peoples Party, Center Party, Liberal Party and Socialist Left Party. This parliament usually sub-divides itself in two chambers. Finally, the judges are monarchial appointees unlike Sweden.

Although there are dissimilarities that exist between the Swedish, Norwegian and Danish political system, it should be appreciated that the three nations have maintained a constitutional monarch type of unicameral governance. They all have the civil law within their constitution, their suffrage that is eighteen is equally universal and it is clear that all the monarchs of these states are hereditary.

Politics of Italy

Italys constitution provides that powers are vested in a parliament, democratic republic and a multi-party system. This system recognizes individual freedom and advocates liberalism in all aspects of human life. Its republican character permits popular rule within the country for a better government. Different parties serve as advisors of the Prime Minister on measures for handling issues while ruling the country and for effective administration of the political and government activities.

There are three distinct branches where government, politics and powers reside  Executive, Legislature and Judiciary. The President, often being a figurehead, heads the entire state. As the head of state, the president serves as the uniting figure of the nation and assumes the duties and responsibilities that are previously given to the King of Italy. As the head of the judicial branch, he also acts as protector of the Constitution of Italy and he can openly reject anti-constitutional laws by not signing them. The president is also the commander-in-chief of armed forces. He is elected to a renewable seven-year term by a joint session of parliament and three delegates from each of the 58 regional legislatures.

The Executive power rests with the council of ministers (cabinet) headed by the prime minister appointed by the president. As the head of the council, the prime minister advises the President of the Republic on the members of the Cabinet who will be in-charge of the various departments of the government. The council is responsible to the parliament. In effect, the prime minister runs the Italian government through the cabinet. They have the governments power to issue and confirmed decrees.
 The legislative powers are vested in a parliament consisting of 630-member chamber of deputies and a 315-member senate. Seats are also allocates to a small number of life senators who are former Presidents of the Republic. The President can appoint up to five members for their significant contribution Country in the social or scientific field. Except for a few life members of the senate, both houses are elected by universal adult suffrage for five-year terms. Starting 2005, both houses have been using a party list electoral law where a majority prize is awarded to the coalition obtaining a plurality. The Chamber should obtain the highest number of votes at the national level and Senate at regional level. The Constitution states that the two Houses possess have the same rights and powers and independent from each other.

The Parliament exercises its legislative power by enacting laws. A text should receive votes and pass both Houses independently in the same form. Each House can discuss amend and approve or reject a bill. The House can either promulgates the law or rejects it. The vote of the Parliament is required as support to the Government, which is appointed by the President of the Republic and lead by the winning coalition leader of the elections. Without the support vote by both Houses, the Government cannot officially exercise its power and the Parliament can always demand a new vote of support if any of the two Houses deem it necessary. A Government which is not backed by support vote of the Parliament must resign. This situation warrants the President of the Republic to decide whether to form a new Government or to abolish the Houses and hold new elections. In turn, the Parliament elects the President of the Republic and can vote to decide an allegation of high treason or attack to the Constitution against him.

The judicial system is based on the Roman Law with variation based on the Napoleonic Code and eventually, decrees. It is developed by combining adversarial and inquisitorial civil law systems. Generally, appeals are treated almost as fresh trials. Italy does not acknowledge the laws under the International Court of Justice. The laws the country follows are those mandated by their own Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale.

Political parties are fully functional and play a vital role in Italian politics. As soon as a citizen reaches the age of 18, he or she has the right to choose whichever of the parties her or she is willing to vote
 The politics of Italy is unique in its own right though it has some important parallelism with Austria and Spain. For instance, Austria is a constitutional federal republic in contrast to the democratic republic system of Italy. But like its counterpart in Italy, Austrian President, popularly elected for a six-year term, is the head of state and most governmental power rests with the chancellor and his cabinet. Also, the cabinet can function for as long as their policies enjoy the confidence of parliament. The chancellor, or prime minister, also heads the political party with the largest number of seats in the lower house of parliament or the National Council. Council members are elected for four-year terms. Members of the largely advisory upper house, the Federal Council, are elected by the provincial legislatures, the number from each province being appointed on the basis of population. Each of the nine provinces has a governor chosen by its unicameral legislature.

On the other hand, the politics of Spain takes the structure of a parliamentary representative democratic constitutional monarchy. The Monarch is the head of state while the President of the Government is the head of the government in a multi-party system. The Monarch is also the head of the National Movement, which is the nearest thing to a political party in Spain. The govern16dgu,

Drawbacks of private security vs. traditional

Security is a need that should be provided to every individual after the provision of all basic needs.  In fact, once one has acquired sufficient basic need satisfaction, they tend to be advanced in term of economic status and life styles.  It is worth noting that at this level the individuals are wealthy or relatively rich as compared to the common citizen and their basic requirement at this level is security to guard their personal security and property security. 

Security can be provided by public security agencies or private security agencies.  Private security providers have their own advantages and disadvantages.  Usually, private security firms are contracted to provide security to the hiring firm of individual thus they work in under contract basis.  The security is provided under signed contract so as to secure the firms property, or personal property or to guard the home compound or even to secure business premises (George, 2006).

The private security sector consists of private investigators, retail detectives, security guards, and body guards.  The disadvantage of this security provision companies is that their training skills and technology is low.  The different security officers of the private sector have inadequate policing command.  They also need to be licensed agencies which are inspected for their provision.  The lack of enough training is the major point of contention in the private security sector. Their level of training does not upgrade sustainability to the job retention strategies as they are in the public sector.  Their competence is low because limited exposure to strict training environment (Friedman, Fisher, 1997).  They also work on contract basis and are therefore paid on performance contract, which means that they may always be subjected to contract termination.

However, Service delivery in the private security sector is quality because the individual officers are paid on performance basis thus they are motivated to work hard and diligently.  Their salaries can be negotiated according to their performance and they could have their services terminated if they are none performing. Most of the private security firms are not limited in funding their projects because they reallocate their budget considerations depending on the market need for their security service provision (David, William, 1995).  The officers are accessible to new technology but their training strategies are below the public sector level.  This sector is rarely short of working equipment since this depends on the security provision needs.

On the other hand, the public sector security provision body which is usually a government has quality training of staff.  Their job retention is on permanent basis and the security officers may not be motivated to perform because their salaries are not negotiable. The public security sector officers are covered by the law of the country and hindered by restrictions to access the latest technological advancements.  Their inability to access the advanced technology is due to their reliance on the government funds and budget allocations. However, the public sector policing are ever understaffed (John, Ian, 2004). The sole reliance of on the public sector may be problematic for individuals and firms that have high investment projects that need extra security provision.

Finally, although the private sector security officers are not as qualified in training as the ones in the public sector, they are highly needed because of their performance and good service delivery. Another reason as to why the private sector policing would be required is because that public sector police may not satisfy the market since they are understaffed calling for hiring of private security by investment firms and individual.

Economic Development of South Korea

South Korea (hereafter Korea) is a prime example of one of the resilient economies that grew from poverty to riches and continues to face challenges in its ways. It has witnessed various cycles and incidents, yet, still remains a strong economy.  Korea developed with strong, fundamental policies that led to its being counted as one of the countries of East Asia that saw Miracle Growth.  By 2005, it had become the fourth largest economy in Asia with GDP per capita of US 16,000 (Harvie and Pahlavani 2006)

Koreas economic development began with the surrender of Japan in the Second World War in 1945 that brought with it the end of Koreas colonization era.  However, the Korean peninsula is divided with North Korea within the Soviet influence and South Korea being in the sphere of US influence.

It is argued that one reason for Koreas emergence as an independent nation could be due to the influence of US ideologies that contributed to its early strategic policies and agenda.  The ideological and economic thought wars prevailing at the time between Communism and Capitalism led Korea to choose its path with a mix of state role and capitalism that proved fruitful for its development.
The rise in terms of economic growth and development came through the vision of the military dictator Park Chung Hee.  Parks main goal was to make Korea independent of the assistance of US and to build an economic and regional independent state. It was this particular vision that military under Parks rule turned to economists and intellectuals to build a structural framework that would ensure development of the country. The Economic Planning Board was formed in 1961 (Country Studies US). The Board developed strategic Five Year development Plans that were to see that rise of Korea as a developed nation. It is to be noted that various developing countries did follow this pattern of creating Five Year development plans, yet, only a few saw the growth like Koreas.

The first strategy that was enforced was the decision to use foreign aid from the US during the 1950s to build an infrastructure that included a nation-wide network of primary and secondary schools.... across the whole country (Country Studies US). This particular strategy of creating human capital became the backbone of a successful industrialization process. The strategies set for industrialization were kicked off by a well-educated labour and investment in infrastructure. One critical point to be noted in the case of the development of industries is that the state followed a mix policy of protectionism, import substitution and export-led growth.  According to Rodrik (1995) by the late 1950s, Korea had exhausted the easy stage of import substitution. Thus, once that stage was exhausted and the timing was realized, export-oriented growth policies were adopted.  The policy was backed up by preferential treatment in obtaining low interest bank loans, import privileges, permission to borrow from foreign sources and tax benefits (Country Studies US).  Once the industry matured, it was the state that worked in creating the conditions for its exports. Income taxes were reduced for businesses and entrepreneurs, exemption from tariffs for raw materials and accelerated depreciation allowances (Hyundai Corporation) all set the stage for an export-oriented growth. In return, the businesses realized their competitiveness in the world market and they used up idle capacity and the demand for investment in new manufacturing arose.  It is believed that during the 1970s Seoul had the worlds most productive economy and it was the manufacturing sector providing the main stimulus, growing by 15 -21 (Country Studies US).

However, Rodrik (1995) argues that it wasnt only the export-oriented policies that led to the rise of Korea economic development. Rodrik (1995) argues that the interventions by the state came at the right time and there were other factors that allowed Korea to reap the benefits of development. Firstly, it had a well-educated human capital which made it productive. Secondly, there was a relatively equal distribution of income and wealth which was critical in economic growth. The absence of large inequities gave several advantages firstly, the government was insulated from the pressure of large interest groups and was free to intervene. Secondly, the historical equities of income and wealth gave the leaders free time to focus on economic goals and keep a close eye on the bureaucracy (CEPR 2000). Thus, the policies enforced were favoured by the initial conditions of the country that led to its rapid rise. Yap (2000) contends that government spending of Korea is an example of how allocations can be strategically used without undermining the democratization processes. 

However, like all the economies, Korea has seen its own share of crisis. Korea saw a shift in development strategy in 1970s due to adverse side effects of the earlier policies which included sectoral imbalance between light and heavy industries, light industry exports began to weaken highlighting the need for new exportable products, the gap between domestic and export businesses widened (Harvie and Pahlavani 2006). In addition to these problems, came the inflation pressure, increased budget deficits, but most importantly, insecure investments that were made without sufficient analysis of their feasibility that led to bankruptcies of major industries.
By 1980-89, the economic policies shifted towards stabilization and liberalization emphasizing trade and financial liberalization, and allowing foreign investment. However, the measures made the country more vulnerable to rapid transfers of hot money and the existence of deregulation without state monitoring set the stage for the 1997 financial crisis. The financial crisis also engulfed other countries of East Asia such as Thailand and Malaysia. The collapse of exchange rate is blamed for the crisis, but, it is argued that the diversification and reckless expansion of the conglomerates in Korea without taking productivity and profitability into account played a role in the financial crisis (Fathom 2000).  The financial crisis led Korea to agree to a bail-out package of US 60 billion and most of its policies were to reform the corporate and financial sector at the behest of IMF. The growth rate returned to 6 by 2000-2004, yet, again in 2002-2003 there was a credit card bubble that led to an economic downturn. The downturn was also due to emergence of China as an increasingly important trading partner.

The interplay between Korea and globalization has remained complex partly, because globalization has its own challenges and partly, because of the cultural and political environment that Korea has remained in over a period of time.  It is argued that the democratic state continues to face tensions with industrial conglomerates, labour and a combative civil society (Fathom 2000). On the other hand, with China emerging as a major global power and trader in the international world, Korea faces tests in terms of its industrial production and exports, which has the capacity to filter the effects on the economy through various channels such as employment, production of goods, consumption, quality of goods, and productivity of the labour. The current financial crisis has added further to the test as the world faces deep recession. Korea will have to implement strategies that combat the side-effects of the current crisis without destabilizing its own economic growth. The rising oil prices and the weak dollar are also playing their role in the global economy. The oil prices will have an impact on Korea as the country relies heavily on oil for industrial production.

Korea is a strong model for developing countries in terms of achieving growth through growth and sustainable economic policies. Although it remains to be seen how Korea will handle such a crisis and the course of its growth and development. Yet, it is for sure that Korea will survive and re-emerge as one of the advanced and strong economies of the world.


Study on Nigeria IT Industry

Information technology has showed tremendous growth within the past three decades when computer technology provides many innovations, which lead to reduced costs of manufacturing desktop computers. This condition immediately speeds up the number of home users worldwide as operating systems microprocessors, etc are available in many models and price.

Moreover, computer technology development continues finding new tools that help human to do their work much easier, simpler, and better. In 1980s, most computer applications come in the form of text-based user interface such Word Stars and Chi Writer. Then in 1990s, we start using a graphical user interface in most computer applications such as Microsoft Word, Word Perfect and many others that we use on daily basis. In the 21st century, most applications have emerged to be graphical than we have encountered before so that we are more familiar with the term GUI, which stands for Graphical User Interface.

Another factor that contributes to the growth of information technology in a country is the Internet that starts growing in early 1990s. This situation also rapidly influences countries in the world as intercontinental fiber optic cables are deployed to enhance the connectivity. Today, the internet has been an inseparable part of business and also for individuals not only in developed countries but also in developing ones.

Concerning these issues, this paper will discuss the study on Nigeria IT industry compared to Malaysia. In addition, the study will highlight the condition where Nigeria currently increase efforts to attract inflow foreign direct investment in order to favor the growth of IT market in the country.

Research Objectives
As the development of information technology sector is influenced by many factors, it highlights that each country may have different level of growth. Due to this situation, this paper has several research objectives as following

This paper intends to describe factors that influence the information technology developments.
Using the non-participant observation method, collecting data and analyzing qualitative information from journal, books, magazine and other online materials, this paper discusses the study on Nigeria IT industry compared to Malaysia.

In addition, the paper aims at elaborating the current efforts to attract inflow foreign direct investment in order to favor the growth of IT market in the country.
Literature Review
Factors that influence the information technology developments
Pricewaterhouse Coopers (2000) describe that Information Technology (IT) is actually a lot younger than the computer technology. In the 1970s, the need for timely, accurate and reliable information helps the Information Technology to grow widely. But it was due to the small computers or refers to desktophome computers that are discovered in the 1980 that increase the impact of Information technology toward individuals and businesses. Today, the technology has developed into corporate weapons to face fierce competitions. The role of the IT business as a strategic advantage of is widely recognized (The Importance of, 2000).

In addition, it is also discovered that the use of internet in business is increasing rapidly, despite the fact that within that year -2002- international business are having a little downshift in its development. However, the share of online transactions in total B2B sales is growing quickly on both sides of the Atlantic, estimated to be 20 in 2006. International dialogues have been made to address the internet-induced changes in the global economy. The condition represents a major shift of global business to the on-line environment (E-Commerce and Development Report, 2005 Corbitt, 2003).

The study on Nigeria IT industry compared to Malaysia
As computer technology and internet become two major factors that speed up the IT development of a country, it drives authorities in Nigeria to present the infrastructure that would favor the increasing traffic of internet. As the result, within the 21st century, the country experiences the tremendous growth on internet traffic.

Figure 1 Countries with the highest net additions of Internet users in Africa (2000-2008)
Source httpwww.mashada.comblogstagAfrica
In another literature, the growth is detailed where Nigeria records a remarkable growth on the internet users from 200,000 users in 2000 into magnificent 11 millions users in 2009 as shown in the figure 2.

Figure 2 Internet Usages and Population Growth in Nigeria
Source Internet World Stats, 2010b

This development is comparable to Malaysia that also experiences significant internet users growth during the 21st century (see Figure 3). The difference is Malaysia already has better internets penetration rate about 15 in 2000 as the geographical condition in Malaysia support the mass deployment of IT infrastructure. This is much different from Nigeria that requires multiple modes in order to increase the number of internet users in the country due to the challenging geographical conditions.

Figure 3 Internet Usages and Population Growth in Malaysia
Source Internet World Stats, 2010b

Factors that support the development of internet users both in Nigeria and Malaysia are contributed by changing policy. In Nigeria, for example, previously the country face hurdles as they have unreliable and underdeveloped fixed-line infrastructure. However, the country then changes the regulations to intensify the competition and let the advances wireless broadband access technology to serves customers. This changing immediately adds the number of internet service providers (ISPs) into 400 licensed ISPs in addition to the growing number of gateway operators, internet exchange, and data carriers (Internet World Stats, 2010b Berkey, 2002 Bo-Ling, 2001).

As the information technology does not merely depend on fixed-line access, the country also deploys the Next Generation Networks (NGN) that becomes the basis for triple-play services composing of voice, data and videoTV services (Internet World Stats, 2010b).

This regulation factors also become one driving factors that contribute to the increasing IT sector in Malaysia. The country also introduces the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Project that highlights the governments commitment to the improvement of technological society. As the IT infrastructure in Malaysia is advancing, this would attract foreign companies to establish branches in Malaysia (Internet World Stats, 2010a).

Nigeria efforts to increase inflow foreign direct investment
As a country that becomes one of the biggest and fastest growing telecom markets in Africa, Nigeria has lucrative markets for growth in all sectors. Learning from Malaysia that develop seriously the Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) Project in order to attract foreign investors to invest in Malaysia, Nigeria also learns that the building of reliable and widespread IT infrastructure will be the keys to increasing number of foreign direct investment to the country. Figure 4 shows the historical trend of Nigerian inflow foreign direct investments during 2001-2006 periods.

One major move that Nigerian government take in information sector is the privatization of incumbent telecommunication operator, Nitel, which will enable them to compete aggressively and effectively in the future. The government also introduces the licensing regime in 2006.

Figure 4 Nigeria inflow foreign direct investments
Source Internet World Stats, 2010b

The changing regulation in telecommunication sectors will attract new operators to provide both fixed and mobile services in Nigeria in which some of them are backed up by foreign companies. Once these operators deploy network throughout the Nigeria by delivering both fixed and mobile service, Nigeria expect that it will significantly raises demand for Internet access and broadband capabilities.

In this paper, we will employ the non-participant observation method especially by analyzing qualitative information from journals, books, magazines and many more. In addition, the data collection is carried out through indirect approach, highlighting that the information obtained is secondary in nature. The data used within this study is generated from direct observation performed by a member of the organization which we are about to discuss. This approach is appropriate because a direct observation would provide a more detail and more accurate information about the object of study.

The most important of conducting observation is it provides researchers with an understanding about the perceptions about things or people we observe. However, since observation deals with someones perception, we plan to avoid preconceptions since it would provide this research with some bias.

In addition, to provide a comprehensive and reliable discussion on IT development in Nigeria compared to Malaysia counterpart, this paper will conduct some researches using the data and observation of the working environment. In this situation, it will employ various sources including electronics journals and surceases investigations and books that relate to the topics of discussion in IT development.

The method does not involve direct interviews which will slightly reduce objectivity and the accuracy of information. We are retrieving more reliable data from experts analysis, journals and various publications from available media. Using the data resources above, we are hoping to present an independent and objective analysis toward the IT development in Nigeria compared to that in Malaysia.

A Mirror of our Society

Crash, the 2005-released film directed by Paul Haggis and depicting of the human struggles leaning on racism that is prevailing in the Los Angeles area, is a moving saga on the sad realities that human nature seemed to be incapable of eradicating.  Here, each character is given an extensive background, not only for their respective notions on racism, but primarily for the reasons behind their beliefs.  The substance of the messages of the said film makes it as an essential case for review for those who aspire to pursue the field of Public Administration, as it is a field that is primarily concerned with the welfare of the general public, irrespective of their race, creed, economic background, or political beliefs.

In the film, one theme that was consistently distinct was racism.  This was true for every character, whether he is a Latino, an African-American, a Caucasian-American, an Asian, or Persian.  Despite of this unfortunate reality, it was nonetheless clear that each of them has his own reasons for having his pre-conceived notions on racial issues.  Thus, by having a deeper understanding on this topic that was the focal point of Crash, Public Administrators can view societys inherent diversity and its complexities.

Societies, especially the ones in the United States, are a mixture of different cultures and religions, each struggling to retain a decent semblance of his own mores.  This situation makes it almost improbable for public administrators to possess a single-faceted standard for dealing with different races.  They must have an understanding that it is their responsibility to dispense just and fair services to anyone who is under their scope of influence.  Likewise, a public administrator must be impartial of any negative notion that the society may have unjustly attached to a particular race.  Given these high standards that are to be expected from individuals aspiring to serve the public through governmental agencies, it only strengthens the need for public administrators to first acquire the necessary values discussed in the aforementioned film before they proceed with the important mission of serving the people. 

For one, the very theme that Crash had expressed, which is racial equality, should in reality be the standard from which a public servant must adhere to.  The adage stating that all men are created equal must always be the guiding principle of those who have opted to serve a multi-raced society.  Regardless of the persons color and social standing, every citizen must be awarded with the respect that has been entitled to him by the laws governing our nation.  This tenet should always hold true unconditionally. 

Another facet that the film had suggested, in relation to its importance to Public Administration, is the tacit understanding of a need for a public servant not to be swayed into having prejudiced attitudes toward any race different from his own.  The opposite was evident in the film, where almost all characters had his misconceptions about the other races such as with Jeans (who was portrayed by Sandra Bullock) inferior estimation on her Mexican house keeper Jeans impression of all Chicanos as being gangsters Ryans perception of Shaniqua being incompetent simply because of being American-African Camerons futile attempt to act like a white in order to succeed in his directorial profession, and others of the same circumstance. 

The film Crash has shown the unfortunate racial characteristics that should not be prevalent in any society.  It is indeed a sad reality that what is on the real world is a mirror of the society and culture reflected on the movie.  If only people, especially those who have direct responsibilities to assure that everybody is treated equally, will be gifted with eyes that that can transcend skin colors and view everyone as a people of one race, which is humanity, then we can be assured that the world will be a much better place to live in.  Perhaps those behind the film, Crash, were thinking of instigating changes in the way that succeeding generations will appreciate each another and that finally, all Public Administrators will have a single missionto administer just and unconditional service.

Policy Design Analysis Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act 2009

Higher Education Act
The Higher Education Act which was first legislated in 1965 is the culminating legislation designed for the improvement of the higher education system in the United States. With the help of the Higher Education Act, the relationship  between universities and colleges and the United States government increased dramatically.

The state and the federal governments now provide a substantial amount of resources to universities and colleges enabling it to create scholarships and provide financial aids. Because of this new policies and grants in the higher educational system, the number of students who attend post secondary education increased fivefold since the time it was legislated up to 1980. The Higher Education Act is reauthorized every 4 or more years and its latest authorization was on 2008 which is due to expire on 2013. (Forest  Kinser 2002)

Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act 20091
The Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act of 2009 is a bill that amended the Higher Education Act of 1965 and for other purposes.

Goals of the policy
According to  Schneider  Ingram (1997) goals are the objectives of the policy and what it intends to accomplish (p. 82) . In a general retrospect the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act 2009 is a part of the current administrations effort and approach to the improvement of the educational system. It will help in reaching the current administrations goal of producing the most college graduates by 2020 by making the single largest investment in higher education in all time. (Miller 2009)

Specifically, its goals are (1) Invest the bill s savings to make college affordable and help more Americans graduate (2) Provide reliable, affordable, high-quality Federal student loans for all families (3) Provide reliable, affordable, high-quality Federal student loans for all families. (Miller 2009)

Assumptions are basically the foundations of the specifics of the policies drafted and legislated. According to Schneider  Ingram (1997)  We might think of assumptions as sort of like the axioms that underline math.  Assumptions are essentially the unquestioned opinions or values held by the policymakers that guide them in constructing the design.  (p. 82)

In many respects, Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act 2009 is a continuation of the past legislations including the Higher Education Act beliefs and assumptions that there is a growing demand to  revolutionize the education system more specifically the post-secondary levels. The enactment of Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act 2009 is in accordance to the assumption that prior legislations in the Higher Education Act does not correspond anymore to the present demand of our time. Due to inflation, growing Consumer Price Index and other factors some of the enacted specifics of the law are no longer viable and productive. The Section 101 of the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act 2009 for example has increased the Pell Grant1  for up to 5,550 in 2011-2012 and 5,975 in 2017 as the maximum amounts for grants. (SAFRA 2009  Miller 2009)

Additionally, the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act 2009 is a response to the growing criticisms regarding the failure of The Federal Family Education Loan Program (FFELP) wherein it was said that loans granted favors the banks rather than the students and its families. (Miller 2009)

In a nutshell, the rationale of a policy is the culmination of the arguments of the policy makers why there is a need for a policy. According to Schneider  Ingram (1997),  rationales link design elements to context, making explicit claims that the design is responsive to the issue and will have positive effects.  (p. 99) Many critics had observed an ongoing crisis in the educational system of the United States. It was been reported by the National Commission on Excellence in Education that Americans prominence and lead in commerce, industry, science and technological innovation is being threatened by competition throughout the world. In a recent documentary entitled Two Million Minutes A Global Examination, wherein six students from China, India and United States were compared, it was concluded that American students casual attitudes when compared with those of their overseas counterparts, pose a clear and present danger to Americas economic future. American students are unfocused when compared to their counterparts who plan ahead for their future and do works outside the course requirements. (Gardner 2008)

As a response to this alleged crisis, the current administration of President Barrack Obama had given much emphasis to the role of education in battling the financial crisis and pushing for economic growths. Obama believes that the prosperity of the nation in the long term will be attained if we have better educated workers. As he said in his speech in the Hispanic Chamber of Commerce, Education is no longer just a pathway to opportunity and success, it is a prerequisite. To fulfill this growing demand for the improvement of the United States education sector, he outline different measures to fulfill it. This includes improvement in K-12, recruitment of better teachers and instructors, promotion of innovations and excellence, reduction of students who drop out and the reassessment of the Pell grants to meet the inflation and other demands of modern times. (Jackson 2009)

Hortatory Tools
According to Schneider  Ingram (1997) hortatory tools are of the policy that push its target population towards the direction of the policy. This includes the use of the mass media, public speeches, interviews and other means that can encourages or exhorts the subject to be educated and to be able to decide (p. 96) . In the Section 217 of the Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act 2009, the Congress had tasked the Secretary of Education to conduct outreach activities that will inform students and their families regarding the changes in SAFRA. This tasks includes the broad dissemination including the operation and maintenance of an internet website that will provide the necessary information,  development and dissemination of information to high school seniors and their parents concerning student loans and student aid, giving  assistance to institutions of higher education to educate students on the repayment of Federal Direct loans and other necessary and appropriate measures to accomplish the goal. (SAFRA 2009)

Learning Tools
When the policy makers are not really sure on the way how the goals can be achieved or there are some lapses in the information or intelligence regarding the target population or the policy itself, learning tools are used (Schneider  Ingram 1997 p. 97).

In section 406 the Congress is obliging the Secretary of Education to submit an annual report to the committee of Education and Labor of the House of Representative and to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions of the Senate that includes information such as but not limited to (1) The activities undertaken by States to increase the availability of high-quality early learning programs, (2) A summary of State progress in implementing a system of early learning, (3) A summary of the research activities being conducted under section 405 and the findings of such research, (4) The number of children in high-quality early learning programs, and the change from the prior year, disaggregated by State, age, and race (5) The number of early learning providers enrolled, with assistance from funds under this title, in a program to obtain a credential or degree in early childhood education and the settings in which such providers work.

In addition to this, Section 406 requires all each state that receives grants to submit an annual report to the Secretary of Education.  (SAFRA 2009)

In a nutshell, agents are the government agencies, departments or office that will supervise and implement the policy (Schneider  Ingram 1997 p. 90). In the case of Student Aid and Fiscal Responsibilities Act 2009, it will be primarily supervised by the Department of Education wherein the secretary of the department will held the implementation of the policies. The Congress had authorized the Department of Education to assign or provide grants (Section 108), to lead biddings and to award contracts (Section 214), to perform outreach services that inform and educate students and their families (Section 217), to make grants to states for the modernization, renovation, or repair of public schools (Section 312) and many other tasks. Additionally, the Congress had assigned the Department of Education to submit a report to the Congress annually. (SAFRA 2009)

With the current financial crisis and the rising cost of college education, it is almost impossible for low income families and individuals to pursue a college education. Without assistance from either the state or private institutions, college education will remain a privilege that only rich people can avail. If we still believe that education is the biggest investment anyone can put their hands to, the state must continue to provide subsidies to citizens who are deserving to have it.


In political science Europeanisation has generally been regarded as becoming more European like. More specifically than this the term has been defined in several ways

According to Bulmer (2006), the term Europeanisation has five different uses. First, Europeanization is connected with the external boundary changes. The most open examples of such rules extensions institutional requirements and values are the alterations associated with the EU membership preparation for the recent member states that joined in 2004 and 2007. Secondly, Europeanisation is used to define institutional developments at the EU level. The term is also used as penetration of the national governance systems (Bulmer 2006). This is the main use of the term and encompasses the processes of adaptation as concerns the institutions, political behavior patterns policy and the like. The fourth and fifth usage of this term concerns the political organization models exportation as well as the development of governance capacity at the EU level.

This paper reviews the insights offered by Europeanization perspective in understanding the eastern enlargement of 20042007.The eastern enlargement of 2004 and 2007 was a process of process of expanding the European Union by acquiring new member states (Dimiter 2008). The process commenced with the six inner members who came up with the European steel and coal community in 1952. Since that time the membership of EU has grown to 27 including the recent expansion to Romania and Bulgaria in 2007. As at now negotiations on accession are in the process with a number of states. This enlargement process is occasionally referred as European integration. On the other hand European integration is also used to refer to the growth of cooperation among EU member states as the state governments allow for the ultimate national laws harmonization.

Eastern enlargement 20042007
The eastern enlargement of the European Union has been taking place since the second part of 1990s. It is a major Europeanization project that was from the start justified by a pan European community ideology and it entailed a common European identity. In the process, the Central and East European Countries (CEECs) brought forward their accession claims of their alleged belonging to Europe, not only in terms of their geographical location but also in terms of their membership in the normative European community (Knill 2001). Their ambition to return to a European identity, multilateralism, and liberal democracy after an artificial break was prepared. In formal terms enlargement is the legislative and institutional systems alignment in the applicant states with an acquis communautaire consisting of large amount of legislative material referring to a number of policy fields including gender equality.
Just like what the Mediterranean states did in the 1980s, the communist states in the Eastern and central Europe just came out of dictatorship and wanted to bring together their new democracies. They also wanted to make themselves part of European Union and make sure that they did not plunge back into the Russian sphere of control. The NATO and EU provided an assurance to these nations idea and EU was as well taken to be fundamental in guaranteeing economic success of these countries (Dimiter Toshkov 2008). However, the desire of EU to accept the membership application of these countries was less than rapid. The fall of communism came quickly and an anticipated. Dealing with the unexpected reunification of Germany and the addition of its seventeen million poorer people and still maintain the union projects on line was a great challenge for EU.

However the earlier communist states were able to overcome these issues. The United States of America also put a lot of pressure on EU to accept the membership application of these states. Although lastly trying to control the number of members and the US encouragement, the EU got into talks with the ten countries and they were able to somehow offset the influx of the large poor eastern member states (Bulmer and Burch 2005). At the end of it eight Eastern and central European countries which were (Estonia, Czech Republic, Latvia, Hungary, Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania and Slovenia) as well as Malta and Cyprus, the Mediterranean islands became members of EU in may 2004. This enlargement was the largest in terms of landmass people and number of countries though not in terms of Gross Domestic Product.

The main concern to the more developed countries of EU was the less developed state of these new countries from the east. As a result these countries put some travel restrictions on citizens of these countries as well as limits on getting work permits in the more these more developed states. Due to these problems Bulgaria and Romania whom the commission regarded as not ready to join EU in 2004, came to join later in January 2007. Just like the earlier states they too faced some restrictions such as lack of EU funds due to their lack of progress in their judicial systems.

Insights of Europeanization perspective in understanding the eastern enlargements of 20042007
According to Bulmer  Burch (2001), Europeanization can also be defined as an incremental process of diverting the shape and direction of politics to the degree that the European community economic and political dynamics develop into part of the organisational national and logical politics and policy making. According to the bottom up approach, when the countries start to affect the European Union policies in a given area, thats when Europeanisation is said to occur. The certain area of change is in European institutions, the European Union enlargement and the measured authority acquirement over the national member governments in several areas hence creating a centralised European polity. The issue of whether Europeanisation is an ongoing process that will lastly result to complete European government or whether centralisation wont be able to outdo the continuing national identities and the growing localism interest, is a matter of debate.

The thought of Europe as a unified economic or political entity is more recent than assumptions about its historical and cultural commonality. According to Bulmer  Burch (2005), paralleling developments since the formation of the ECSC (European coal and steel community), to the coming out of the European Union and beyond, there has been intensive studies on continents integration. The European community has expanded from a six member union to a twenty seven member state. A total of six enlargements have occurred during the last half of the past century with the greatest of all being that of 2004.

According to Schmidt (2006), the constitutional treaty failure provoked much questioning on the future state of EU. It was not understood whether it would be possible for further integration, whether the enlargement would go on or whether the EU would withstand the long term challenges. Many feared that the European Union would lapse into a condition of increased reunion as this was viewed as a watershed moment in the European Union development. The two different bases of EU legitimacy whereby one derived from democracy and citizenship while the other derived from treaties between states, showed existing tension due to their different opinions (Schmidt 2006). The failure of the constitution treaty was due to the fatal and unavoidable ambiguity between the two sides.

The Blair era in Britain had one of the most prominent legacies of European policies concerning its public salience. Though the European integration was seen as a high salience issue at the start of new labours tenure, the process was transformed into a low salience issue at the end of Blairs period in office. Due to the Euro-scepticism of the British public and the new labours which were somehow pro-European outlook, the fall in salience of the European policy was attributed to the electoral interest of Blairs government (Oppermann 2008 p.173). The new labour pursued a mix of diverse governing strategies that were meant to add to the evident downward trend in the salience of European integration.

Rationalist institutionalism represents a logic of consequentialism which treats actors as rational goal oriented and purposeful. According to Dover (2007), actors take on strategic interactions using their resources to enhance their utilities on the basis of given, fixed and ordered preferences. These actors follow an instrumental rationality by weighing the costs and benefits of different strategy options taking into consideration the behavior of other actors. From this angle Europeanization is considered as a rising political opportunity arrangement which provides some actors supplementary resources to exercise influence while sternly constraining the efforts of others to pursue their goals.

Neofunctionalists come to the opposite conclusion that Europeanization provides sub national and societal actors with new resources since the EU enables them to by pass the national executives. Multilevel governance approaches proponents argue on the other hand that Europeanization does not empower one particular group of actors over but it increases their mutual interdependence giving rise to more cooperative forms of governance (Schmidt 1996). For instance at the time when French firms gained more power vis--vis their national government by passing, the Spanish firms did not. The Italian regions have been far less able to ascertain their domestic power as compared to their British or Austrian counterparts. While the Spanish territorial system is going through intense change, the German federalism has been reinforced by Europeanization. On the other hand the equal treatment and equal pay orders that empowered women in Great Britain showed no effects in France.

Europeanization took a new turn with the fall of communism and the post communism merger between the east and the west which led to its gradual association with the EU enlargement to the east (Bulmer  Burch 2001). the scope of Europeanization expanded covering the impact of European union integration on states that previously different economic and political experiences. Europeanization, Eastern style is associated with the transition to market economy and democracy as well as the adaptation to the exigencies of the western advanced models. The European Union allowed the west to introduce a new model of coercive adaptation for the green countries of Eastern Europe. The Europeanization of the southern countries is taken as a good example of effective European Union impact on the late developing countries. Southern Europe stands out as a promising case of victorious economic development and democratization that was mostly influenced by EU membership.

Generally the understanding of Europeanization is multifaceted, dynamic and malleable which is also introverted and associated with the enlargement and internal development of the European Union (Dimiter 2008). Different implications of Europeanization are meaningful to south east Europe which is a region of starkly contrasting development levels, cultures, geographies and strategic interests. South Europe is in several ways the best case not only for the beneficial and successful effect of the process of Europeanization, but also for how the identity of Europe will be formed in the future.

A great deal of the debate on Europeanisation has somewhat been inward looking with much focus being on the way in which the already existing member states are being transformed following their partaking in the European Union structures. The unions willpower to ensure the compliance of the applicants to the acquis communautaire before they join the club, and the political importance attached to the membership of the union by the accession applicants, points to the fact that Europeanisation is not only confined to the current member states but also to those outside the geographical boundaries of EU. In the same perspective, its clear that expanding the Europeanization scope beyond the current member states of European Union, will help us understand better the eastern Europe transformationenlargement process and the accession negotiations  that are in progress as well as enable us to contribute towards the modification of the terms rather distorted conceptual content.
Europeanisation of candidate countries and new members is rather a recent and still relatively small but it has been a fast growing research area since 2003 primarily in the context of the European Union eastern enlargement. Europeanisation is not concerned with the question of why and how states decide to surrender their sovereignty aspect to supranational polities but it rather focuses on Europeanisation research in what happens after a country joins the European Union. However such exclusive post-ontological focus on Europeanization made it harder to sustain the study of European enlargement. The current understanding of Europeanization in the Eastern Europe is not sufficient as compared to the understanding of the same in the central and Western Europe. This implies that more information on the Eastern Europe enlargement is necessary.

The Nature of Equality in Carl Sandburgs Soup

In the short poem  Soup  by Carl Sandburg, the poet uses the simple and universal image of a sole man enjoying bowl of soup to convey the basic and inherent quality of all men. Though famous, the man is vulnerable to the same desires and necessities of a poor man. While Sandburg purposely identifies the man as famous and therefore separate from the ordinary man, there is nothing in his actions to distinguish the level of social inequality between this man and the impoverished and unemployed worker bent over his free meal in the soup kitchen. Instead, as Sandburg illustrates in his own distinguishing language, it is society and man himself who has built a wall between the classes.

The poem begins with the image of soup as representative of basic survival,  I saw a famous man eating soup. I say he lifted a fat broth Into his mouth with a spoon  (ll.1-3). The use of this image of soup as a common principle that can be applied across the spectrum of class, is important to the overall tone and message of the poem. It can be seen as a generic term for nutritional sustenance, a need that is shared by all men. On the other hand it can also be seen as representative of the working and lower-classes, who more often than their wealthy brethren may find themselves facing the line at the soup kitchen. The term soup kitchen itself is synonymous with the economic inequality of American society, where some men dine on a single meal costing hundreds of dollars while still another must make the choice between starvation and charity.

It seems likely that the use of soup carries both connotations, equality and social division, illustrating how a single image can carry dual meanings. The spoonful of broth the man lifts to his mouth, is not a watered down gruel or a culmination of the necessary frugality of a family trying to stretch meager wages into a livable budget. Even the famous mans soup is distinguished as  fat broth,  which indicates more than food for nutritions sake. This is a soup, that like the man, is an inflated concept of itself.

The man, aside from the description by Sandburg as being famous, is simply a man. There is little else to distinguish him from his poorer brethren who struggle for their bowls of not-so fat broth. This is an important component of the poem, as the signs that would otherwise  be used to read the social status of another such as outward signs of wealth and prestige in the form of his person are all but absent. We are never told why he is famous only that  His name was in the newspapers that day Spelled out in tall black headlines And thousand of people were talking about him  (ll.4-6). Despite this fame, there is an air of relation between this lone man and the masses of people who take to the streets every to live their lives. Like him, they go through the minor but integral motions of living. In the man, Sandburg recognizes the kindred nature of human survival that are part of the day-to-day lives of men and woman across the social hierarchy,  When I saw him,He sat bending his head over a platePutting soup in his mouth with a spoon  (ll.7-9).

By using the simple act of eating as a symbol for the basic survival behaviors of man, Sandburg illustrates the common nature of this survival instinct which has nothing to do with wealth, politics, or social equality. Instead, Sandburgs poem is representative of how the nature of man is to be equal, in dividing themselves along social and economic boundaries man has, ultimately, denied his own nature.

International Politics

The sun that rose on September 11th 2001 brought with it self tremendous amount of issues. Several questions were raised, the answer of whom the world would find later on. What is said and widely believed is that four passenger jets were hijacked by the terrorist out of whom three flew towards Washington DC and New York and the fourth one was subsequently heading towards White House but crashed in the fields of Pennsylvania. Out of the other three one each hit the twin tower of the World Trade Centre and the last one stroked the Pentagon.

Not only the political environment was changed but apart from that the personal life of most of the people around the world also changed in a profound way. Questions of security pervade became common, and comments like whether a destinations is considered safe or not became a routine matter. Airports and other passages were cordoned for security checks in short life became very hard for a normal citizen ever since these terrorist activities (Krauthammer 2002). 

One very important development which took place soon after the terrorist attacks was that, all of a sudden there was a debate that started on international security, and previously what it was called the post cold war era now became the post 911 world. Credit must be given to the American supremacy and their domination in world affairs that how they handled the whole event. All of a sudden it was termed as international terrorism which became a serious threat to the U.S security and it was also accepted by many as a severe confrontation that the world would going to face in the coming days (Smith 2002). 
To an extent it was right that the incident was very bad for the U.S and so as for the rest of the world, reason being the heavy influence which the U.S has in the world economically and politically. Also another question that was raised that time was that if the worlds most powerful nation could face such audacious terrorist attempt than the other small nations were always at risk (Weber 2005). 

According to Charles Salmon, former foreign policy adviser of the Commander in- chief U.S pacific command There is nothing so alarming as the idea that a nonstate actor could do so much damage
When we consider the changes and effects which felt on the international politics after these attacks, then the most significant change which one would observe would be the change in the American foreign policy. Soon after the terrorist attacks the newly elected Bush administration shifted its approach from unilateralism to multilateralism. Many consider that this policy shift was because of strategic nature, which was to cope up with the current situation, and to seek help from the intelligence agencies of other counties to trace out the terrorists (Boulden 2004).

After the end of the cold war a common perception which prevailed was that after the demise of the Soviet Union there would be a multi polar world but this was not the case as the US remained to be the most powerful. Some of the experts argued that the world would became better with the US unipolarity reason being that as US is the only super power of the world and if US is not capable of maintaining security in its region then no other country would be able to provide a better alternative. Secondly US was the only country whose influence was widespread (Waltz 2008).   

While these attacks brought lots of changes another thing which was of noticeable attention was that as the war against terrorism became international collations were formed. Around hundred collation partners followed the US for the response against terrorism. The event was not only tough for the terrorist but it was also a clear message by the Bushs famous words that either you are with us, or you are with the terrorist.

This was another major shift that had a major impact on the international politics. The US emerged stronger after the event of 911 and also was able to add to its strength with increasing budgets on military and intelligence expenditure. Also how they convinced the world that the war against terrorism was not their individual war but the whole world is getting affected by it (Smith 2002). 

By far the most important political change that happened was that ever since the demise of the Soviet Union there is a clear imbalance of power in the world. There is no other country in the world that can challenge US economically, military or technologically. They are controlling most of the happenings in the Western Europe and with the introduction of three old Soviet Union countries in the NATO would allow them to establish their military bases in that region and eventually fulfill their primary objective which is the encirclement of China (Waltz 2008). 
Apart from all the reason given in accordance to the war against terrorism, its a lost battle for the US. After over nine years in Afghanistan there is no positive news coming from the ground. Same was the result in Iraq where the weapons of mass destructions (WMD) were never found. Billions of dollars have been spent on these results less wars, and if even a slight bit of this would have been spent on the economic conditions of the public this current recession would not have taken place.   

Disarmament and Balance of Power

The term  disarmament  usually refers to nuclear disarmament. This refers to the reduction and final elimination of nuclear weapons from the earth. In his 1961 inaugural speech John F. Kennedy talked about nuclear weapons. He cautioned against allowing the  dark powers of destruction unleashed by science to engulf all humanity in planned or accidental self-destruction.  He then talked about a need for the two superpowers powers (US and The USSR) to move towards a multilateral agreement to control use of nuclear weapons (disarmament).

Balance of Power exists when there is an equilibrium in the strengths of nations such that there is no threat of war for fear of the amount of damage that would result from war. In his inaugural address, Kennedy talked about the great powers  both racing to alter that uncertain balance of terror that stays the hand of mankind s final war . In 1977 Jimmy Carter also talked about the world being  engaged in a massive armaments race designed to ensure continuing equivalent strength among potential adversaries  and pledged America s continuous efforts towards disarmament.

It is important to note that these speeches were made in the middle of the Cold War one of the features of which was the nuclear arms race between the great powers. The Cold War started at the end of the second world war (WWII) during which the first and only incidence of nuclear bombing occurred. In August 1945, the US bombed Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japan thus securing Japan s surrender and bringing the war to an end. Having fought together as allies against the axis powers, the US and USSR disagreed on the division of countries after WWII. At the time, talks of disarmament were at a stand-still.  It was not until after the Cuban Missile crisis a year later which brought the superpowers to the brink of nuclear war that the superpowers and the United Kingdom signed Nuclear Ban Treaty of
August 1963 and five years later, the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty. However, even after this, the Cold War and nuclear weapon acquisition remained a problem. This is also evident from the fact that Carter in 1977 and much later, Reagan in 1985 were still talking about nuclear weapons, disarmament and balance of power. USSR s 1979 invasion of Afghanistan did not help matters in terms of ending the Cold War and removing the threats to global security. 

Globalization and Human Rights.
Globalization can be defined as the  the growing interconnectedness between political, social and economic systems beyond national or regional borders  (Palmowski, 2004, pg. 244). Economic globalization is defined as the  process by which the whole world becomes a single market  (Black, Hashimyade and Myles, 2009). In his 1961 address, after warning about the dangers of nuclear weapons, Kennedy appealed that both sides  bring the absolute power to destroy other nations under the absolute control of all nations - a globalization of the power to deploy nuclear weaponry. He went on to appeal that both sides collaborate to explore the positive potentials of science- a globalization of efforts to eradicate disease amongst other things and also a globalization of commerce.

Several other US presidents talked about globalization in their inaugural addresses. In 1989 George H.W. Bush talked about people of the world moving  toward free markets through the door to posterity   and securing a prosperous life for man on earth through free markets amongst other freedoms. Bill Clinton in 1993 pointed out the effects of globalization.  There is no longer a clear division about what is foreign and what is domestic-the world economy, the world environment, the world AIDS crisis, the world arms race they affect us all. 

US presidents talked a lot about freedoms. Freedoms here, referred not only to freedom of markets etc. but also human right freedoms. Human rights are rights that accrue to
human beings by virtue of their being human. They can be defined as   basic rights and freedoms that all people are entitled to regardless of nationality sex, national or ethnic origin, race, religion, language or other status.  (Amnesty International). Carter talked about America s  abiding respect for individual human rights . George H.W. Bush asserted that freedoms such as the freedom of speech, and exercise of free will unhampered by the state are  right  and that they  work . In 2001 George W. Bush alluded to the fact that America s ideals on freedom have been widely accepted by other nations.

While globalization has existed for a long time in some form or the other, it was towards the end of the twentieth century that different dimensions such as increased communication through satellite and world wide web systems de-localization of domestic problems and the possible defeat of capitalism which led to the adoption of most of the world of similar principles in terms of political economy. In 1961 these dimensions were only being explored as is reflected in Kennedy s address. By 1989 the Soviet Union a pillar of Communism had almost completely collapsed. America generally saw this as a victory for capitalism and this is reflected in Bush s assertion that freedom works. This perceived victory was seen as a victors of the totality of American ideals including human rights. By Clinton s time in 1993 the effects of globalization as a means of internalization of issues such as health epidemics and environment were more pronounced.

An Introduction to Collective Bargaining and Industrial Relations

Q1. Collective bargaining and labor relations are quite important in building a strong and reliable employer-employee relationship for the good of the organization. Through collective bargaining, employees stand a higher chance of having their grievances addressed by their employer (Katz. et al, 2008). Quality labor relations serve to improve the morale and work satisfaction among workers in an organization as it makes them feel part of the organization.

For the organization, collective bargaining can help management in resolving employee concerns as a group. This is much easier than dealing with individual employees. Collective bargaining also tends to give employees a sense of job security. Therefore, the company will be assured of long term existence of its trained and qualified employees. Effective labor relations serve to reduce employer-employee conflicts, a crucial factor in ensuring sustainable employee engagement thus realizing competitive advantage in an organization (Katz. et al, 2008).

Q2. Some of my basic assumptions about labor and conflict are that in any society competition for resource is bound to be. Employer-employee conflicts are due to feeling of unfair distribution of these resources. Another assumption about labor and conflict is that they arise due to structural inequality in an organization. Employers are always out to maximize profits by using their employees thus an inequality on sharing benefit will always exist between employers and employees (Katz. et al, 2008).
Revolution as a tool for realizing change in a society is also another assumption. Competing sides will always engage in conflict to change things for the better rather than adapting to current condition. The last assumption is that, even at the verge of breaking an organization, employer-employee conflicts will always lead to change for the better of both employee and employer if well utilized.

The Rise of Hugo Chavez Right Wing vs. Left Wing in Latin America

President Hugo Chavez, a strong Venezuelan leader was born on the July 28th, 1954 in Sabaneta, Venezuela. Chavez is known for his reforms as well as his strong opinions. Chavez had attended the military school where he graduated with a degree in military sciences and arts in 1975. Chavez continued to serve his nation as an officer in a paratrooper army unit. This essay shall be a prompt into the characteristic model of leadership exercised by him in his right wing versus the left wing in Latin America

Hugo Chavez rose into prominence first in 1992 following a failed coup. Speaking of the coup attempt, Chavez referred the attempt as an opportunity for sowing the seed of a popular insurgency against the false democracy. Chavez spent two years in jail but he later made the world marvel on his wining of the 1998 presidential election in Venezuela. Least to say, Chavezs victory was a shock to many particularly taking the fact that he had great opposition from the Washington, multinational corporations, oil companies and almost all media organizations in Venezuela (Vivanco, Wilkinson, 2008).

After his presidential triumph, he went further to declare a socialist revolution that caused havoc among the elites ruling the country including the middle classes. In spite of his great opposition, Chavezs programs of poverty eradication, land reforms and the wealth redistribution have nevertheless pleased the low class in Venezuela. Contrary on the other side, the powerful forces in Venezuela were largely angered particularly in the West. For instance, key actors in Washington in 2002 provided a backup to a coup by the right wing ruling elite.

The opposition arrangements temporarily finally saw president Chavez unseated. However, after a short time, he was rapidly ushered back into power following the taking into streets by thousands of his supporters. After taking to the streets, the Chavez supporters surrounded the presidential palace that had previously been commandeered by the plotters of the coup. The supporters than demanded the return of President Chavez into office. Restored into the presidential office full swing, Chavez went further to hold a referendum regarding his presidency and then reclaimed his presidential seat by a large majority of 5842. Chavez effectively won in the presidential run and silenced his critics (Wiarda, Mott, 17). He then strengthened his defeat of the principally white ruling elite.

Chavezs popularity among the people of Venezuela is not an issue to doubt about. He has dedicatedly used the oil wealth in Venezuela to establish numerous feeding stations all over the country. The penniless poor have now the hope to see another day due to free meals which are provided courtesy of Chavezs feeding programs. Thousands of Cuban dentists and doctors have been imported into Venezuela in an exchange program of Oil for Doctors. This group of doctors and dentists from Cuba has been spread all over the country to provide free healthcare and dental care.

Chavezs policies have realigned greatly the Latin America power axis, forging a close relationship between Cubas Fidel Castro and the people of Venezuela. He has also forged a strong relationship between the united forces and the left-wing governments on the continent in order to weaken what Chavez refers to the imperialists seize of the Latin America. Chavez effort of fostering the relationship with Cuba has been received with much criticism as well as international condemnation. For instance, while addressing the House of Commons, the British Prime Minister said, rather in ironical way, that he would love to see Cuba having a proper working democracy following its relationship with Chavez.

As problems of poverty and great economic downturn in Venezuela persist to bite, the people of Venezuela have no time for philosophical debates. President Chavez persistently seeks the right to maintain his power realm by ducking the constitutional elements which limit his term in the presidential office. As Chavez is determined of this, the European and United States media keeps an eye and keeps on wondering on the erosion of liberal democracy in Venezuela as well as the future of Bolivarian socialism. The immediate problems of rampant inflation, violent crimes and economic turmoil are the major concerns of the people of Venezuela (Reich, 5). Chavez aptly uses these problems as baits to winning support from the people of Venezuela.

After ten years of Chavez rule, the voters of Venezuela still complain of the deteriorating domestic security as kidnappers and robbers rub shoulders with the civilians daily. The national murder rates have increased significantly and since Chavez entered power, about 100,000 cases of murder have been reported and the cost of violent crimes keep eating into the economy of the people of Venezuela. It is interesting to note that with the biting recession and the economic liberalization coming under global attack, the people of Venezuela keep singing the song of anti-Washington invective. Chavez has shut down all radio stations in Venezuela to silence foes and the media and at the same time spreading aid and blessing to the guerillas of Colombias Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC).

The opposition of the right wing in Venezuela has attempted to portray Chavez as a dictator and a terrorist who is answerable to all the mess that has caught the country. As the conservative Uribe government, very much concerned with its increasing isolation amidst a growing left wing consensus in South America, latched onto the accusations that Chavez was involved in the funding of the FARC rebels. In the past years however, there has been a trend in the rise of the leftists and the populist leaders in the entire Latin America (Levitsky, 2008). An interesting question that seems to arise out of this is whether the current rise in leftist leaders can be considered populist in nature or a different case altogether.

It is essential to understand the concept of populism which is a political phenomenon that involves considerable mobilization by a single charismatic leader who mobilizes a mass of people against whole established elite. In history, figures like Peron in 1940s can serve as classic models of populism. Hugo Chavez represents the modern example of populism as he came in and threw the whole political elite that had extensively been established. People like Evo Morales and Peron can compare with the Venezuela president, Hugo Chavez since they overthrew the political elites of their time. This implies that center-left governments in the Latin America such as Brazil, Uruguay and Chile are not populists because they are socially democratic.

Explanations about the true origins of the populist movements in Venezuela have been sought. Others have linked the movements to the political oppression that happened in the last twenty years while others connecting the economic reasons to the movement. The truth of the matter is that the left wing is coming to Latin America due to democracy. Predominantly, Latin America has been democratic for the past two and half decades. In about 35-40 years ago, there used to be military coups rising against the left-wing governments. For instance, in Chile, the party that is in power was overthrown in 1973. Elsewhere, in Uruguay, the military gained power in part so as to fight the folks who are now in power in Uruguay.  In Argentina, the party that is presently in power was overthrown in 1976 and there is no single doubt that Lula of Brazil would have been overthrown if he were elected president in 1980s (Margolis, 2009). This means that it is the consolidation of democracy which allows the left wing to peacefully come into power in the Latin America and should not be interpreted as a response to repression.

Efforts to figure out the exact cause of the wave of election of the left wing government have been low. However, there are two major reasons which can be attributed to this phenomenon. Perhaps, the economic crisis which hit Latin America between the years 1998 and2002 have an explanation for these events. As of the 1990s, everyone in the Latin America had some economic policies which could be referred to as Washington Consensus. These policies were supporting the market and also the United States economic policies. The opposition was left in the 1990s in several countries since the governments whether left wing or right wing, all were behaving like right wing governments (Parenti, 11).

In the beginning of 1937, during the financial crisis in Asia, the Latin America dejected into one of the worst five-year periods ever. After this worst period, poverty mounted, unemployment peaked and economic growth maintained at zero level throughout Asia. In addition, crime rates were high and the only solution was to throw out the incumbent. The opposition side was in the left wing while the incumbents were in the right-of -centre. When the election was done, the incumbents lost in 1998 while the opposition triumphed with great number of votes.

The United States policy has much to explain the exact reason why the wave of election of the left wing government has maintained a low profile. During the 1990s, the United States was so much popular among the Latin America. Over time, this popularity has significantly changed due to a variety of reasons. One of the reasons being the perception of the united states neglecting the Latin America as well as its immigrations, trade interests and others (Wiarda, Mott, 52). The invasion of the Iraq by the United States also resulted to a significant reduction in popularity among the Latin America.

The current rise in the left wing leadership has created a reaction that it may lead to a politically or ideologically unified Latin America that may be potentially against the United States. However, this scenario will never happen because the interests of a nation always predominates the ideological or political interests. Talks have been held for a very long time particularly in the earliest populist period in Latin America of uniting the states and the mechanism to make the nations to work in a collective way.

In Venezuela, an important event still rolls, as Chavez with his mighty moving further towards the stand of socialism despite the heated rhetoric of anti-U.S. Chavez has great plans of nationalizing very large companies in Venezuela and rule by decree. It has been observed as a threat to the peace and stability of the united states of Chavezs anti-democratic moves. After being sworn in for his second term of six years, Chavez, the Venezuelan President, there were fiery pronouncements for which Chavez, the most controversial leader has become famous. For instance, he referred Jesus Christ to be the greatest socialist who ever lived in history and made a promise the change Venezuela into a socialist state and on another ceremony, Chavez made a shout mentioning that he swore that death would result if the fatherland socialism would not prevail (Parenti, 16).

The active Chavez, after a few days made an announcement plan to nationalize all the companies in the electricity and telecommunication industries. He then called for the greater government regulation over media and the natural gas projects. This shows how strong the leadership under Chavez is and the principles which he believes in cannot be shaken. According to Chavez, it is only death which will shake the foundations of socialism.

For a number of years, Chavez has been known all over the world for his socialist and anti-American bluster although no action has been taken with majority of his actions only being mentioned instead of actions being initiated. In another occasion, Chavez hit headlines when he called President Bush the devil during the United Nations meeting. Chavez can be remembered by letting the private companies go about their business without any regulation. However, of most controversy is his plan to nationalize major industries that happen to be controlled by companies owned by Americans. The step to nationalize the American companies tends to send a signal of the Chavezs intention to adhere to the promise of socialism. Reacting to this decision by Chavez, a majority of Venezuelans maintain that president Chavez should be taken seriously in whatever he says (Levitsky, 2008). Chavez has a vision of the 21st century socialism and therefore regarded as a leader with reflections.

Since Chavez re-election, his policies have sharply turned to the left wing. In the custom of several Latin American strongmen prior to him, he tends to be accumulation his power and making a move to suppress every form of opposition including the refusal to renew the TV station renewal license which has criticized him. This shift which Chavez names it as a new era has created alarm among the officials of the United States including other neighbors of Venezuela. It may be estimated that about 28 percent of all the Latin Americans have a positive image of Chavez. Chavez does not score so badly since even president Bush had a rating of 30 percent popularity among the Latin American.

The legacy and administration of Chavez is a complicated one he is an extra ordinary political figure who has achieved a lot for Venezuela. In his achieving, both negative and positive values can be put on him. It is known that the Venezuelans oil reserve is one of the largest worldwide. President Chavez, in spite of the many controversies he is identified with, has used the profits from the oils to feed the poorest of the nation of Venezuela. The president has improved the general infrastructure, health, education, literacy as well as other social maladies which the people suffered from them (Wiarda, Mott, 112). Under the guidance of Chavez, Venezuela has finally emerged as a leader in Latin America for the people who do not necessarily have a feeling the united sates is ever a the best model to follow ever.

The concern of Chavez for the poor living conditions in Venezuela is genuine. To present, a majority of the lower socioeconomic classes have supported the government of Chavez with unwavering support. For instance, in the wake of 2009, the people of Venezuela approved the referendum which was meant to abolish the term limits on elected officials purposely allowing Chaves to run indefinitely. 

There are groups of people who have a great opposition both from the upper class and the middle class Venezuelans. Chavez is blamed of nationalizing some of the industries and lands which have been behind the many trials to oust him. There have been unknown fears Chavez could be developing a government of dictatorship although it is not wrong to observe this. In deed, Chavez has a streak of dictatorship in him (Vivanco, Wilkinson, 2008). Critics argue that Chavez temporarily suspended Congress more than once while his referendum victory in 2009 essentially allowed him to be the president sol long as the people elect him.

The elections at Venezuela are rarely squaky-clean with Chavez having full power to control the results of the elections. This implies that even if the election is done and the voters select a different candidate, Chavez will be there to decide on the fate. Chavez has often been cracking into the press and suppressing the media leading to increasing the restrictions and punishments for slander. Chavez has not spared the court structures he drove through major changes in how the Supreme Court should be structured. This allowed him to stack the Supreme Court with loyalists.

The relationship between Chavez and the United States is not a healthy one the United States has widely reviled Chavez for his commitment to deal with such nations which the United States considers to be rogue like Iran. Chavezs hatred for the government of the United States seems to approach the paranoid. Chavez has accused the government of United States as being behind all sorts of plots planned to assassinate or remove him from power. This perceived hatred has driven Chavez to pursue a counterproductive strategy like supporting the Columbia rebels who can act to protect (Margolis, 2009). In addition, Chavez has gone a step further to denounce Israel and at the same time spending huge sums of money on the Russian-built aircrafts and weapons.

Generally, the efforts of Chavez to transform the nation of Venezuela into a socialist state has been perceived as a major setback for the policies  of the united states government of promoting open markets and democracy across the Latin America. Unfortunately, the United States remains with very thin options as Chavez stands firm to protest all the plans by the United States to introduce its policies in the Latin America. Chavez maintains that he cannot afford to sit back and get convinced by the United States on such policies he is prepared to protest against such proposals. What Chavez should maintain is the left wing which encourages socialism the rise of the right wing should mean that Chavez is trying to slowly giving in to such policies crafted by the West.