Political and humanitarian aspects of womens rights

It has been for long perceived by very many people that women rights are an issue only in typical religious countries where religion is law. Other still, to make it worse perceive women rights as not being a major issue. However, going contrary to theses beliefs, women rights are a very important issue in the contemporary world used as a measure of the comprehension of the global well being of mankind. Gardam (1998), states that human rights reports indicate how womens rights have not been observed. In some countries, though women rights policies may be present, they are changed in such a way that at the final end they are still violated. Religion and traditional beliefs has been a major barrier to the implementation of womens rights. Some governments though they have implemented women rights policies, are not honoring their promises. In other countries, these rights are greatly upheld (Gardam, 1998). The United States is a very good example of the countries that have upheld the womens rights. Though womens rights policies are being established in every corner of the world, they are still faced by a major challenge of violation.

Violation of women rights
According to Gardam (1998), women in the past and also the modern world have been faced by a lot of circumstances that violate their rights. Some of these include being denied a chance to participate in decision making for matters that directly affect them, lack of fair political representation, denied ownership of property, poor working conditions and wages, domestic violence, and restricted provision of basic amenities

Violation of womens rights at the work place
Women have in the past constituted the highest percentage of the most hardworking people. The type of work done by women ranges from simple office work to the very difficult household chores. A lot of agricultural products in the world market are produced by women, yet they have been receiving little if any credit for this. The world has adopted a trend of giving women jobs that are of low status as compared to men. The types of jobs that have been in the past assigned to women are more precarious with few social benefits and little security. As a result, a lot of women end up being underpaid (Pickup, Williams, and Sweetman, 2001).

Violation of womens rights in property ownership
According to Benschop (2004), women have not only been earning less as compared to men but also have owned few assets. Financial house hold constraints and little salaries have both contributed to lack of capital to invest by women. Traditions have been the major hindering block for ownership of properties by women. Many traditions do not allow inheritance of properties by women. In some communities, if a woman owned something before she was married, that property automatically becomes her husbands property the moment they get married. This greatly violates the rights of women to own property (Benschop, 2004).

Gender discrimination
According to Pickup, Williams, and Sweetman (2001), gender discrimination in some communities starts even before a child is born. Some of these communities have greater preference for boys than girls. As a result, they end up killing girls before they are born. Others still do not educate their daughters. During adolescence, the girl child in some community experiences a lot of violence. These range from female genital mutilation, premature marriage, sexual abuse and trafficking. During their old age, women suffer in the hands of abusive men and governments that at times do not look at their plight. Poverty, a major human disaster is mostly experienced by women (Pickup, Williams, and Sweetman, 2001).

Womens rights
The basic human rights of women are addressed in the treaty for the rights of women. They are aimed at reducing brutality and prejudice against the girl child. They do this by ensuring the girl child has equal access to all basic requirements in life as the boy child. These requirements include proper health provision, quality education and security from any form of abuse. Women rights have been a major tool for use by women in the world in the process of fighting against violence and discrimination. Some of the womens rights include reproductive rights, gender equality, right to choose to stay at home, right to security,
Reproductive rights

According to Gandhi (2003), it is the rights of women to be allowed to participate in matters of family planning, healthcare and other reproductive health related matters. The government should make sure this right is upheld by providing more health facilities that will attend to womens matters pertaining reproductive health. David (2004), states that the Government should also develop policies that do not hinder improvement of women health and family planning.  In a family setting, a woman should be given a chance to contribute in family planning. This will play a very great role in minimizing poverty mostly brought about by a large number of children. Allowing women to access to information on reproduction will enable them make concrete decisions in family planning. This will greatly help the government in controlling population growth. The freedom of women to control their reproduction according to Gandhi (2003) is a great contributor to socioeconomic success of not only the family but also the government. It is the right of women to be accorded security towards sexual and workplace harassment, sexual assault and matrimonial harassment. Women have the right to choose their partner. In case of an unplanned pregnancy, a woman has the right to decline and refuse any coercion to have an abortion from her partner or any other person (Gandhi, 2003).

Gender equality
Women have in the past faced discrimination and disempowerment in all aspects of their life. Considering the fact they play the major part in child rearing, this disempowerment have negatively affected the well being of children and the whole community. Observance of gender equality has great benefits to both women and children, these benefits later trickle to the community. Families should empower women in order to overcome poverty and increase general productivity of the family. Empowering women will give children a chance to live to their potential. Development of productive families will in turn lead to growth and development of the nation (Gandhi, 2003).

There are three major sectors of life where gender equality is a major issue. These are household, work place, and political sectors. According to David (2004), universal declaration of human rights affirms that women should be given equal chances to take part in economic, social, and political development. Women should also be given an equal share of the developments of the world. It is the right of women to have equal access to employment as well as equal salary for the same job. The presence of women in the work place should not be generally regarded as gender equality. Gender equality requires that women be given the same jobs as men if they have the qualifications required. Promotion of gender equality and empowering women will play a major role in the attainment of other development goals like alleviation of hunger, reduction of childrens death, improvement of maternal health, tackling of HIVAIDS pandemic, and safeguarding the environment (Pickup, Williams, and Sweetman, 2001).

Right for women to choose to stay home
Women have achieved a lot in their fight to integrate the labor force. However, this does not mean that all women should be forced to work against their wish. Women have the right to choose whether to join the labor force and provide for the family or not. If a woman chooses to stay at home, it does not give her partner the mandate to mistreat her or take her work for granted. Even if the household work is not paid for, she has the right to this lifestyle as long as it is fulfilling to her (Gardam, 1998).

Political rights for women
Davis and Go (2009), states that women have the right to stand for election and to vote. The issue of gender equality has been politicized so much by men who see women as a threat to their political gains. This makes gender equality a very sensitive political matter. It has been proposed that in order to have equal representation of women in the political arena, some seats should be reserved for them. However, this has raised a major debate as to whether seats should be reserved for them or let them battle it out with men in the field. Some argue that if women are for gender equality, then why accept reservation of some positions (Davis and Go, 2009).

Governments mandate to fight against discrimination towards women
The governments around the globe have undertaken the responsibility of ensuring that women human rights are upheld and all forms of gender discrimination are abolished. The government makes sure that it supports the implementation of the exciting human rights frameworks in order to ensure that the rights are impacted and realized. It is the mandate of the government to take special consideration on vulnerable groups particularly the poor women. The government has the mandate of ensuring that all frameworks that respond to cases of violation of womens human rights are working. It is the duty of the government to make and respect policies that uphold gender equality (David, 2004).

It is high time people stopped perceiving womens human rights as an issue only in typical religious countries and realize how important the matter is in our day to day life. Human rights policies though they have been implemented by numerous countries, much need to be done to ensure these policies are followed to the latter. Some governments and countries like the United States though have done a commendable job concerning womens rights. Womens rights have suffered violation at work place, at home, in property ownership and gender discrimination. Much has been done in order to reclaim the lost glory of womens rights in terms of fighting for gender equality, reproductive rights political freedom and rights to make their own decision. The government has not been left behind in the process of implementing womens human rights. The government has implemented policies that make sure women are not discriminated by men in whatever circle of life.

A Critical Essay on Articles on Policy Representation

Elections have been considered as a democratic practice, a system of establishing a government that is supposed to reflect the interests of the people.  However, the  degree of the effectiveness of representation has been subject to discussion this is to say that although elections are a means to provide channels that determine the prevailing essence of governance that will be established according to the expressed interest of the majority, how this translates into substantial policy representation elicits further discourse.

This paper evaluates three articles that address the issue of policy representation.  In an article by Dalton (1985), the author discussed the emergence of the party system as what seems like an effective electoral selection as a system applied by many Western democracies, the party system has become a venue of representation especially as these parties --- in an ideal scenario --- function on behalf of the interests of its supporters.  However, Dalton pointed out that when it comes to the actual performance of these parties once installed in the government, there are certain issues in which the gap between the policymakers and the public is more apparent.  The second article is Huber and Powells (1994) discussion on the congruence of the vision on liberal democracy between the policy-maker and the citizens.  This is a critical factor because the latter, albeit their representations based on principles, still have to function within the spectrum of politics, and cooperation with the other representatives from different parties are also considered to be crucial.  Last but not the least, McDonald, et al. (2004) highlight the median mandate, especially in terms of how citizens express their preferences of governance and how elections reflect the combination of emphasis on the issues that need to be addressed in the particular society.

Dalton Political Parties and Representation
Daltons articles lies in the theory that parties serve as the political linkages between the public and the political elite.  The differences in the opinion between the masses and the elite in the pressing issues need to be balanced by the parties, and it is the presence of the political legislator or the delegate that further secures this linkage.  In the article, Dalton examines these dynamics through the data resulting from the elections of the European Parliament however, the author stressed that the study was not interested in the Europarliament elections per se... (but to) compare the beliefs of top-level party elites and the party voters in cross-national terms (Dalton, 1985, 272).  In any case, the core of this article is how affective the citizen-elite agreement is, and how these differences determine the degree of representation, especially as the delegate usually comes from the political elite.

The measure of difference between mass public attitudes and the perceptions of the elite highlights how the social spectrum is made up of citizens with varying degrees of interests.  How the delegate or representative positions himself or herself in these dynamics do echo the level of political sophistication which combines with the ability to relate to the general public.  Overall, the article has a strong working concept that mostly serves as the fundamental element of the study this is to say that Dalton managed to present effectively and sufficiently the theories behind the dynamics of the public and the elite, and how these influence the level of representation in governance.  The author has established the importance of the agreement between the views of the citizens and the elite, thus providing a significant insight on how parties try to find the middle ground that will determine their ideological leanings and performance as representatives.

However, in application of this theoretical platform versus the actual sampling of the study (the data from the Europarliament elections), what would have made this study more effective is how Dalton would have actually compared the evaluation of these data from the elections and the results of actual party representation.  The strong suit of the article is that it weighs heavily more on establishing the role of the linkages, but the paper could have taken the study more and examined the years of governance resulting from that elections.  Given that the importance of measure is based on the agreement from an actual data, these theoretical foundations would make greater sense if the author had taken the study further and compare the relationship with the actual performance.  What the article mostly did was point out which issues the mass public and the elite had significant differences, but how these translates into representation was lacking in the discussion of the paper. Thus, it is easy to discuss the ideological leanings of the public, the elite and the representatives, but for such article and given the opportunity that the election resulted to some years of performance of the Europarliament resulting from that election, the study would have made greater impact if it just stepped beyond the concept of representation and actually looked at the linkages that was forged after that exercise of democracy.

Huber and Powell Congruence and Liberal Democracy
Huber and Powell focuses on liberal democracy and how congruence is a characteristic of democratic exercise.  This time, the authors highlight the difference between what potential conflicts in the idea of representation the publics preferences and how these preferences are actually represented by the policy-makers.  The authors thereby mentioned the visions of democracy the Majority Control vision and the Proportionate Influence Vision.  The former is a simplification of a general understanding of a working democracy, and that is to make sure what the majority wants will be implemented.  The latter, on one hand, defines democracy by means of finding a consensus that also takes into consideration the interests of the other citizens who do not necessarily belong to the greater majority.  These visions are then evaluated as a model of elections or a venue of congruence.  The authors stated the congruence prediction of the two visions in Majority Control the government is the policymaker and is close to the media voter whereas the Proportionate Influence needs to have a median legislator but average weight of all policymakers will be closer to the median voter (p. 302).  The study resulted to the Proportionate Influence Vision giving better venues of congruence but the authors also mentioned precautions especially as this could lead to the formation of a coalition government.

Overall, Huber and Powells article presents a very well-rounded discussion on congruence and liberal democracy.  The thesis of the paper shows how the authors established a definition of democracy outside its common notions how democracy may be also served without just emphasising the needs of the majority but rather to find a balance between the majoritys preferences and also factoring in the concerns of the minority.  What comes to mind in this argument is how in reality, the concerns of the popular vote may not necessarily serve the best interest of the nation.  This explains why the authors pointed out that democracy is not just singular in dimension.  Furthermore, in order to integrate objectivity in the study, Huber and Powell also discussed the pros and cons of the resulting vision of congruence according to the tenets of a working liberal democracy in the context of representation (the Proportionate Influence Vision).  The article also concluded by mentioning how the results of the study could possibly be different should the political environment the study examined was different.  The authors admitted the shortcomings of the study and identified the factors that could make the study contrastive.

On the other hand Huber and Powells article could be further strengthened by citing examples in which the balance of citizen preference and policymaking could be contested.  As the article is mostly founded on a strong theoretical framework, the ideas could be further expounded by identifying certain policy issues that could use an application of the authors theoretical recommendations.  As the article mentioned the results of the study was general, and admittedly the authors found the shortcomings in the research design.  This shows how studies that are mostly founded on theory and concepts would gain more mileage through application, and the authors could easily find an conflicting issue in policy and governance, and present how the theoretical discussions of the study can actually lead to a set of possible solutions.

McDonald, et al. and the Median Mandate
McDonald, Mendes and Budge (2004) presents an interesting point in relation to Huber and Powells article how the popular mandate has been more influential to policymaking albeit the formation of a proportional representation system such as a coalition government.  This time, McDonald, et al. highlights the median mandate which lies in the median party in the parliament.    Thus, the authors proposed a specific set of roles of the median party which are basically instrumental to the definition of the legislative majority.  The authors then supported its thesis through collected data from 254 elections and 471 governments... (from) the first constitutionally authorised election after 1949 to the formation of any government in 1995 (p. 5).  Hence, to prove that the proposed median mandate would work, the authors relied on these data.  The framework of the median is based on the scale of votes according to the dynamics of the left and right.

The main strength of this article is the research design basically, as the authors had to prove the critical role of the median in a government consisted of polar opposites and other forms of opposition, the proposition of the median mandate already puts the centrists as the most valid choice in the elections.  By means of using actual election results, the authors showed how policies and policymaking are actually influenced by biases and distortions, in addition to the conflicts in the distribution of representation whether there is a pronounced majority or there are to parties that are neck-in-neck in control, the authors found that the median mandate functions in contemporary democracies.

However, what can be deemed problematic in the idea of the median mandate is that it already puts the centrist positioning as the most reasonable choice.  Although it seems that the median serves to balance conflicts, it does not necessarily mean that the interest of the people and the nation in general will be well served.  Hence, what can be criticised in this article, albeit the strengths in the research design, is the ideological element.  The authors proposed that in order to apply the median mandate the important step is to change the concept of the elections.  Such proposition can be considered problematic mostly because it somehow takes away the core element of democracy, and that is acknowledging the voice of the citizens.  The median tendencies of these contemporary societies can be mostly due to bargaining and politics, but nonetheless the median mandate is not a working solution for societies that need to implement change.

Based on the three reviewed articles, it can be gathered that the essentials of policymaking is based on how representation actually works.  These three articles present premises that aim to elucidate on how representation works and how representation can actually work for the interests of the society.  Overall, these articles present three distinctive facets on the discussion parties are representation, congruence and democracy, and the median mandate.  Interestingly, these three articles have their prevailing themes and the divergence can be found in the lenses that are used to examine the most workable policy representation.

Among the three Daltons article presents the more traditional lens the article is mostly academic or the article serves as a good reference when it comes to literature on parties and representation.  The lack assessment as to how theory was applied through the Europarliaments performance is the shortcoming to the article, and can definitely add more to the study, if not, present certain contradictions that can context the authors thesis.  Huber and Powells discussion on congruence can be regarded to have the most sensible explanation on the ideological practice of democracy, elections and policy-making yet the lack of example and application that would present their thesis as a working solution is the downside of the article.  Last but not the least, albeit having the strongest research design, McDonald, et als. work do not have substantial ideological explanation despite the presence of significant data.  As a result, their article ends up having a problematic proposition especially as the recommended actions are more conceptual in nature and not as solid as the methodology.

Analysis of Competing Hypotheses

Developed in the 1970s by the Central Intelligence Agency, the ACH or Analysis of Competing Hypotheses is a reliable unbiased methodology for assessing multiple competing (or contradictory) for observed data. In general, this method helps the analyst overcome or at least minimize some of the cognitive constraints inherent in any intelligence analysis. According to Heuer and Richards (1999), there are five processes involved in ACH. Here are as follows

Hypothesis. Hypothesis is defined as constructive guess based on preliminary observed data.

Evidence. This step involves listing or classifying evidences and arguments for and against each of the considered hypothesis

Diagnostics. This step is also called elimination. The analyst, with the help of a complex matrix, applies evidence against each hypothesis in an attempt to refute as many considerations as possible.

Refinement. The analyst evaluates the findings. A thorough identification of gaps and overestimate is done to eliminate as many of the remaining hypotheses as possible.

Inconsistency. Inconsistency is defined as the over-duration of expected value against actual value. The analyst draws tentative conclusions about the likelihood of each hypothesis.

Sensitivity. This step involves general testing of conclusion. With sensitivity analysis, each hypothesis is weighted  key evidences are introduced to test the stability of the hypotheses.

Evaluation. The last step involves a general assessment of alternatives. A list of the rejected hypotheses is prepared to provide a detailed description of the process.

ACH reduces biases in the research process by 1) removing hypotheses which do not meet assumptions, 2) utilizing non-variable matrices, and 3) providing venue for group analysis. By removing faulty hypotheses, the analyst will likely to choose reliable and valid hypotheses (which follow from preliminary findings). Utilizing non-variable matrices allows the analyst to view each hypothesis in different contexts (this prevents the analyst from making faulty assumptions). Individual analysis is often vulnerable to measurement error. Group analysis allows the research process to be both valid and suited to preexisting conditions.

Bias reduction is not sufficient though to meet the requirements of a good intelligence analysis (Jones, 1998). Validity and reliability are the other requisites. Reducing bias directly translates to increased validity (as conclusion follows from factsassumptions). The question is are the factsdetails reliable In the diagnostic process (elimination), data are screened based on their authentic applicability. Evidence is weighed against contradicting evidences to measure the likelihood. If the evidence is likely to be true then it is reliable.

Thus, in the whole process, bias is reduced while validity and reliable are optimized.

Spheres of Justice

In his Spheres of Justice, Walzer largely focuses on the definition and dynamics of inclusion which make one to be either admitted into a new society or rejected. Owing to the fact that they are highly mobile, people oftentimes leave their communities to join other communities with the aim of changing their economic, political, educational, or environmental conditions. When such movements occur, the migrants find themselves in new communities and in new territories where the host communities may admit or reject them. Admission makes them members of their new communities while those who are rejected but who insist on staying with the new community become stateless, and thus have limited access to the resources available for the community members. Rejection may take the form of formal measures such as immigration policies and other admission-related policies, and other informal measures which are used by different communities.

People are wont to move from place to place, community to another. Apart from the proportion of people moving from one place to the other for leisure, the rest move not because they love to move but because they have goals to achieve (Walzer, 38). More often than not, people are more likely to live with their communities unless the conditions there are so uunbearable that they have no choice or unless the shift to another community promises very good opportunities. The move to a new community is not always easy as the members of the host communities tend to view the newcomers as being out to take shares of their resources, and who should thus be excluded. This is best manifest when there arises a shortage of resources available to the community. During such crises, hostilities against new-comers are common (a case best seen in South Africa recently when South African youths attacked immigrants from Zimbabwe and other Afrian countries, accusing them of taking all employment opportunities and leaving them jobless). Such attacks go to show that law alone may not give one full membership to a community.

While laws may give one an identity through citizenship to a country, Waltzer observes that giving one citizenship to a new community must be accompanied by the process of naturalization. Without naturalization, though one becomes a legal member of a community, the membership is incomplete. Naturalization helps the newcomer to gain an identity in the new community. Countries put in place laws and structures which help them regulate the number of people entering their national borders. While some are allowed into the foreign countries, many are rejected or barred from entering the foreign countries. Of those who are admitted, most become resident aliens in the new countries while only a few are naturalized or allowed to become full citizenship. Political and economic considerations play an important role in deciding who is admitted into the country or community and who is rejected. Territorial admission is therefore more important than many people realize (Walzer, 52).

The author offers a deep and well-argued case into the dynamics membership to a community. While it appreciates the role played by legal, social and cultural structures in the determination of possibility of one becoming or remaining a member of a community, the case raises the question over the best order of ranking of these structures. The importance of this ranking becomes apparent among people who have been part of the same community but who find themselves separated by artificial borders, that is, when a national border crosses through a community confining a part of the community in one country and the other part in a different country. The issue becomes critical if the two countries develop acrimonious relationship with each other. In such a case, a member of the community in the one country may regard himself as a member of the community across the border, but is unable to claim that membership legally.

Contemporary International Problems

What is Power
The idea of power revolves around the capacity of one particular actor to affect its decisions and actions over particular issue. In here, careful consideration is given in the ability to exert influence and interplay of intentions and objectives among people, organizations, and states. Thus, power becomes clearly manifested with the efforts to induce ones interests over the other without the other party seeking to do so otherwise (Roskin, 2007).

How can some types of power be unusable
The concept of power being unusable stems from the idea concerning its application and relevant situations happening between two parties. In here, it involves the inability to achieve its original intention of pursuing its objectives to the other regardless to the nature and application of power used accordingly (Roskin, 2007). Seeing this, the idea of power being unusable becomes viable during periods of inability to meet the expectations that the imposing state seeks to set on the other.

What is an International System
The idea of international system circumvents from the idea concerning the distribution of powers (in its different forms) among a particular area in a given period of time (Roskin, 2007). In here, different distribution patterns are created depending on the capacity of one state to exercise its control and legitimacy in the manner they portray their actions towards a state or a number of states.

Migration, Immigration and Their Effects on Religion, Women, and Minorities in the Developing World

This paper aims at exploring the issues of migration and immigration in relation to Iran. It will also look into how such aspects have affected religion, women, and other minority groups in the country.

Traditionally, there has been very minimal immigration to Iran safe for the Shia Muslims that checked in from Iraq. On the converse, there has been widespread emigration to the west especially Europe and the United States of America. This was in particular to people that sought to further their studies during the revolutionary time of 1979. Approximately, 1000, 000 Kurds were transferred to Iraq as the suppression of the Kurds rebellion took its toll. The period between 1980 and 1990 saw the fleeing of Shia Muslims into Iran from Iraq due to the atrocities of the gulf wars. At the termination of the war, about 1, 250, 000 people had taken refuge in the Iran. This serves to allude to the fact that Iran has been an epicenter of immigration and migration in the recent past. However, the Iranian government perceives the immigration level as disturbing while finding the migration level satisfactory (Adelkhah, 2000).

The inflow and outflow of people within a country presents a major challenge to any state. To begin with, it affects the countrys economic conditions, it induces new elements into a country, and an outflow of individuals may lead to brain drain. In a nutshell, the positives and the negatives of the immigration and migration aspects are far reaching and need to be explored.

Religion and its impact
Christianity remains a minority religion in Iran, though its history can be traced back to the early days of the faith. The major state religions include Shia Shia Islam Islam, Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism. In the older churches there also exist divisions in the sense that different ethnic groups identify with different and distinct denominations. This presents a divisive aspect. During the revolutionary times, there was outright persecution directed towards members of the Christian churches. Due to this and other more pressures that were believed to have been occasioned by the revolution, a good number of Christians were forced to opt out of the country in search for a save haven and  this prompted unprecedented emigration to the USA, Canada, and Western Europe. It is also pointed that the Muslim community was also emigrating due to issues associated with the revolution (Adelkhah, 2000).

While the government of Iran made efforts in providing for the basic rights of Christians like parliament representation, production and sale rights, complaints relating to expropriation, forced closure, persecution among other issues have been directed towards the Christian community. This was however rampant in the formative years. Recently, the jailing of Hamid Pourmand Hamid Pourmand, a pastor, and the murder of Ghorban Tourani Ghorban Tourani, another pastor from the evangelical church is a pointer to the complexities of religion in the country (Cheissari, 2006).

The fact that Christian churches are currently growing by spreading their gospel, is a cause for friction. This is because the membership that they seek to enlarge depends on the downsizing of other religions like Islam. Basically, the growth of Christian membership must come at a price because it is the defection of Muslims to the faith that makes it possible. Given this scenario, there is a conflict of interest. The Muslim community does not view it kindly when the Christian faithful attempts to encroach into a zone they unduly consider theirs. From this point, it is clear that the chase for converts is a recipe for confrontation between the two groups (Adelkhah, 2000).

The Christian faith bestows in a woman as much responsibility as it does to men. This aspect of the Christian doctrine is in a clear head on collision with the Muslim code which demands that men presume a superior role to women. In regards to this, a conflict is inherent. The two systems appear to be splitting the society and creating friction in the socio-cultural relations of the population.

Another sticky aspect concerns the dress code. In the muslin world, women are supposed to be covered in veils, a requirement that is not supported by the Christian world. Any woman that appears to contravene this Islam requirement regardless of their faith is likely to be courting trouble as Muslims are unlikely to take it lightly.

Iran ethnic make-up
As an approximation, 70 percent of Iranians speak native languages. The main groups occupying this category include Kurd Kurds, Persian people Persians, Gilaki Gilakis, Pashtuns Pashtuns, Mazandarani Mazandaranis,  Lurs Lurs, etc. The other main group speaks Turkic. Small communities include Brahui and Georgian (Adelkhah, 2000).
The Persians are the dominant group representing about 35 million people. They differ both linguistically and religiously. They form different strata that reflect the different divisions in the Islamic religion. The Azeries who are Turks form the second largest group. They are bilingual and they practice Shiism. This is an Islamic differential though its effects can not be laid in the open because the ethnic group is tied in one approach to religion. The Lurs and Bakhtiaris are Persian-speaking Shiites. They maintain identities that separate them from Persians on the basis of their historically tribal ways of life. The Kurds population presents a clearly segmented ethnic group. 90 percent of them identify with the Shia religion while the remaining portion identifies with Christianity and Sunni (Axworthy, 2008).

Members of religious minorities like the religio-ethnic and Bahais groups composed of the Armenians, Jews, and Assyrians were forced to flee at some point during the Pahlavi regime due to persecution trends. The second wave of revolution was to come during the revolution. The revolutionary elements, followed by women, and children were the next to leave (Afary, 1996).From the above revelation, it is clear that the Iranian society embraces Christianity and Islam. It is however noted that the Christian faith forms the minority religion as it enjoys a limited following. Christianity is closely linked to the west. It is a fact that the west and Iran have always remained on cold terms over policy matters and international issues. The Christian faith is hence viewed as a western tool to extend their influence, an issue that jeopardizes the faiths development in the country.

On the basis of this paper, the country of Iran has witnessed a high level of migration and immigration. These two aspects have in turn played a significant role in shaping the relations in the country. The spread of the Christian faith has not been fast though progress has been made. The two aspects have influenced the ethnic make-up, economic conditions, and social relations in the country over the past and will continue shaping the country for some time to come.

The Bipolar World The West-Soviet Divide

It is said by some that a more stable world existed when the United States was balanced by the Soviet Union. Those who support this view argued that the bipolar system prevented both superpowers from formalizing their interests in war-torn regions. The United States blocked Soviet attempts to increase political control over Finland and Greece after the Second World War and over Afghanistan and Iran during the Soviet Afghan War. The Soviet Union also disrupted American neo-colonialism in South East Asia during the critical period of 1963 to 1969. Indeed, both powers were driven by fears of nuclear holocaust rather than the melodrama of political trickery.

A more prominent effect of the West-Soviet Divide is the partial empowerment of Third World Countries. During the 1960s, non-belligerent countries signed a treaty formalizing the prohibition of nuclear arms in their respective territories. An agreement was reached to allow member countries to engage in diplomatichumanitarian missions to countries affected by civil wars and political instability.

The general aim was to lessen the effects of the Cold War or in general to neutralize Soviet-American military influence. This action stabilized the global political arena  a move which protected the interests of countries not included in the Warsaw Agreement or the NATO Pact. With the collapse of the Soviet Union, this set-up was not possible. American influence increased rapidly  in Latin America, in Central Africa, South East Asia, and the Middle East. If the Soviet Union did not deteriorate after 1991, it would have, in theory, prevented the United States from launching military assaults against Iraq and Afghanistan (this is not a moral issue). As a power player in global politics, it would be irrational for the Soviet Union to allow the United States to increase its grip in the Middle East.

One is then forced to argue that indeed a more stable world was more prominent during the Cold War than today.

Clothing from India

The history of India goes back to several thousand of years. Although, it is a multicultural country but its culture is primarily influenced by Hinduism and has a significant impact on the dressings of the people of the region. Men and women have different attires. There are some variations in the dressing depending on the regions but some of the dresses are common. The women and men have completely different attire. A woman is seldom seen wearing a shirt and pantjeans as per the traditional norms.

Firstly, the attire of men is simple and elegant. They are usually covered from neck to foot with white clothing. The dress is called as Kurta Pajama. The dress has two parts. The upper part is called as Kurta and the lower as Pajama. The Kurta length is from neck to knee and the pajama is worn from waist to ankle. The pajama can also be substituted by a Dhoti. Dhoti became a popular because of Mahatma Gandhi. It is a smooth cotton fabric which can be as long as 7 yards. It is knotted around the waist such that the some part of the calf and sheen are left exposed.

The attire of woman in the country is unique. They have a wide variety of dresses unlike the men. But the most common dresses are the Saree or Sari and Salwar kurta. The Sari is a long unstitched piece of fabric. It is usually 4-9 meters long. It is wrapped around the waist in such a way that midriff is slightly exposed. The fabric of sari could be Silk, crepe silk, semi-cotton, cotton, etc

The Salwar Kurta is similar kurta pajama. It is usually colorful and has a lot of embroidery. It is also complimented with a long piece of cloth to cover the neck and bosom over the Kurta. It is called as the dupatta.

The women wear a lot of accessories. Some of the common accessories are Bangles in the hand, necklaces and earring. But a unique necklace is called Mangalsutra. A mangalsutra (also mangala sutra or mangalasutra) is an  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiIndia o India Indian symbol of  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiHindu o Hindu Hindu  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiMarriage o Marriage marriage, consisting of a  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiGold o Gold gold ornament strung from a yellow  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiYarn o Yarn thread, a string of black  HYPERLINK httpen.wikipedia.orgwikiBead o Bead beads or a gold chain. It unequivocally portrays that you are married. It is also complimented by Vermilion (called Sindoor) which is a red powder, is applied on the parting across the temple by their husbands. The black beads are used in the ornament to protect against the evil.

The Mangalsutra is an indispensable part of an Indian marriage. It is almost impossible to ask a woman to sacrifice this ornament. It is commensurate to a wedding ring. Since the Mangalsutra is an iconic ornament to signify that a woman is an Indian and is married. It distinguishes from other cultures and to some extent also showcases the modesty of a woman.

The Mangalsutra in any way cannot be disregarded by any society as it does not alienate a person from the society. Since its significance cannot be ignored thus to say the least it helps in promoting the Indian culture.  

Migration and immigration in Somalia an analysis

Somalia is one of the countries significant in Africa. Throughout the history of the country, an important characteristic of it is the fact that Somalia has always been involved in the practice of migration and immigration among its own people and non-Somalis settling in Somalia. As a result, Somalia has been impacted by the trends, practices and the presence of a consistent migration and immigration pattern among people who gets inside or goes out of the country. This is impacting several different aspects of the socio-cultural, socio-economic and socio-political life of Somalia.

Migration and Immigration and Somalia
Somalia is one of the countries located in Africa, situated in the Horn of Africa. The concept of globalization is not lost in Somalias history. In the past, Somalia was a busy place where trade and commerce flourished, the practice involving many different countries and exposing and introducing one culture with another in the process. Colonial powers managed to grab Somalia at the expense of a long, drawn out war and battle for resistance to which the Somali patriots fought well before they were conquered with the use of UK of more advanced weapons of war. There has been many routes involving Somalia and linking Somalia to many different countries. This is because of the role of Somalia in global trade in the past. Because of the many different routes, migration and immigration has become something that is very convenient for many people who came in or came out of the country for many different reasons besides trade (religious reasons, political reasons, etc). Today, the internet features websites of organizations like Amnesty International (2010) and the Global Fund for Women (2010) which address the social welfare-related problems of the people of many countries including Somalia. Armed conflict in the continent affecting Somalia and its people led to instances of displacement of people and problems with basic necessities like food and clothing as a result of the armed conflict which directly and indirectly affects the migration and immigration of people to and from Somalia. The ethnic makeup of Somalia is characterized by the presence of different groups of people with different racial, ethnic and tribal backgrounds who, over time, has settled inside Somalia.

Overview of migration and immigration in Somalia
 Migration and immigration towards and away from Somalia is a characteristic of the country that has been very active for many years. Those who have reasons to leave the country do leave, while those who have interests inside Somalia  economic, political, cultural, religious, practical  enter the country and is a significant factor in the migration and immigration trend in the country. The ethnic make-up of Somalia included traces of the old Puntite ethnicity, not to mention the mix of many different other ethnic groups who came inside Somalia during the era of antiquity for the purposes of trade and commerce to which Somalia was known for in the past. Some of these non-Somali traders settled in and contributed to the diversification of the ethnic background and genealogy of the people who is now known as Somalis. Similar to these traders, Muslims who brought Islam to Somalia and settled in Somalia after fleeing their respective Muslim countries in the Arab parts of the world also contributed to the ethnic mix of Somalia and contributed to the genealogy and ethnicity of the current races and ethnic groups in Somalia. Lastly, there are kingdoms and city-states inside Somalia that define the ethnic groups as they are known collectively. An example of this is the Dervish State (Fahlbusch, Lochman, Bromiley, Mbiti, 2008, p. 119).

Role of migration and immigration in ethic makeup of Somalia
Migration and immigration has contributed to the ethnic makeup of Somalia. People coming from outside Somalia and settling in the country adds to the growing ethnic make-up of Somalia. The individuals and groups of people leaving Somalia to settle in another country are also impacting the ethnic make-up of the country. Some of the early traders from Asia and Europe interacted with local Somali people and married native Somalis, influencing the ethnic makeup of Somalia because of migration and immigration. The same was the case for those who entered Somalia for other reasons. Basically, the presence of many routes going in and going out of Somalia, and the many reasons for doing so, contributed to the traffic of people in and out of the country. This influenced the ethnic make up of Somalia in the past and how the ethnic make up is characterized today in the modern era.

Effects of Migration and Immigration in Somalia
Migration and immigration trends, patterns and practices have affected Somalia in many different ways. The effects included impacting the religious sphere of the country and impacting the economics of the country as well.

One of the aspects of social life that migration and immigration trends in Somalia affected is the religious aspect of the social life of the people inside the country. For example, the entry of individuals coming from Arab and Muslim countries was the reason why Somalia is dominated by the Islamic faith (Fahlbusch, Lochman, Bromiley, Mbiti, 2008, p. 119). Because of the entry of other individuals and groups of people, other religions like Christianity were also introduced. The entry of religion because of migration and immigration trends and practices in Somalia was significant because the religion in practice here is affecting the culture of the Somalia. Religion dictates a significant aspect of the overall life inside Somalia. This is the significance of the impact of religion. This can be broken down in more particular detail for further analysis and discussion on the particular details of the religion and how specifically it impacts Somalia, its people and its society and culture. For example, the colonial masters introduced Christianity in Somalia. Those who were converted were affected by the change of lifestyle, perspective, behavior and attitude in tune with the rigors of the new faith. Its negative setback is that the presence of many different religions in the country can act as a cause of divisiveness in the country, especially when issues put Christians and Muslims in opposing sides. Today, there are more missions coming from particular religious sects geared at introducing new religion to the country. It can be seen as a positive development since it brings the opportunity for Somalis to find the religion that suits them the most. The creation of more and more religious groups creates socio-political blocs in the country. While diversity is ideal, it can also lead to more confusion among the Somalis in the end.

Besides religion, economics of Somalia was also affected by the migration and immigration trends inside the country. There are many different economic impacts resulting from migration and immigration trends inside Somalia. In the past, Somalia was benefited by having many different valuable items that they can use or trade for other items to other countries. From gold to frankincense, ivory, to other items like spices, Somalia was a bustling commercial hub that has a very stable economics because of the active trade. Today, immigration and migration also impacts Somalia. The entry of western entities in the country makes it possible for the economics to enjoy the benefits of the entry of the US dollar and the Euros.

Other significant societal issues
There are other significant issues resulting from the migration and immigration in and out of Somalia. For example, the migration and immigration resulted to the loss of men in the household that allowed women to discover a new role in the family and the society. Such development is being met with issues and resulting to increased social conflict owing to the patriarchal and paternalistic Somali culture and tradition (Global Fund for Women, 2010). This problem is one of the things being addressed by the Global Fund for Women (2010). The migration and immigration involving westerners and Caucasians inside the country also creates issues related to minorities, particularly of abuse of the minorities and the delegation of the minorities as second class citizens in their own country, to which some people find cause of indignation. This particular scenario is real because it is a result of the migration and immigration patterns and trends. People go out of Somalia in search for jobs and to start a new life and contribute to the brain drain (Hansen, 2005, p. 556) for Somalia, while British and other western countries put their presence their because of many different intentions (economic, practical, trade and commerce, military, political, etc).

Somalia has benefited from the entry and exit of people in and around its borders This is largely because of trade and because of the pursuit of spreading Islam and lately, because of military and political reasons and agenda geared at protecting economic and bigger political considerations. It is unfortunate that among the effects of the trend of migration and immigration in Somalia is the negative impact on Somalia and its people, culture and society, affecting its women, and its minorities among the many groups of people characterized in particular demographic groups. This is proof that movement of individuals can impact the society in many different ways. The resulting condition can be a catalyst for a change or can simply trigger problems and worsen already existing issues inside the society, like the dilemma Somalia has today in lieu of the trends and practices of migration and immigration involving the country.

Who is a Serial Killer

A serial killer is someone who murders a number of people in a timely span separated by a cooling off period (Douglass 4). The murder committed by a serial killer usually does not have any justification and the motivation for the murder is usually psychological gratification. In most cases, a sexual inclination is usually associated with the murders committed by the serial killers. The murders committed by them follow a similar pattern and the victims of these killers may have some things in common like gender, race, age group, occupation or color.

There are two types of serial killers. First, there are the non social offenders who are organized and usually have intelligence that is above average and a similar IQ (Douglas 4). The crimes are usually methodically planned and they usually murder their victims at one place, later disposing their bodies at another place. Their main way of operation is through abduction where they use wily ploys that evoke sympathy to lure their victims. They also maintain a high level of control over the scene where they have committed the crime and have wide mastery of forensic science that enables them to cover their trails and tracks, meaning that they cannot be easily discovered. These criminals can go to any length to ensure that their projects are not discovered and may do things such as falsifying suicide notes, framing innocent people, faking gun warfare or making the murder appear as if it was a natural death.

The second category of serial killers is called the asocial offenders who are usually disorganized and have low intelligence with an average IQ of less than 90 (Douglas 5). Their crimes are not methodically organised and they are very impulsive. In most cases, they do not bother to hide their trails, dispose the body or even try out faking mechanisms. However, the anonymous nature of their crimes makes it easy for them to avoid capture. These murderers are socially inadequate with very few friends and are introverts by nature.

Psychological Disorders of Serial Killers
There are various psychological disorders that are associated with serial killers. One of these disorders is the attention deficit hyperactive syndrome (ADHD) that is symbolised by patterns of inattention or impulsive hyperactivity. In serial killers, there is a lot of medical evidence that correlates the behavior with some cognitive dysfunctions of a human (Fox 3). This means that some people with this syndrome are prone to engagement in impulsive behaviours that are psychological in nature and one of this behavior is serial killing. Another disorder that has been associated with serial killing is psychopath that involves asocial behaviors and continued violations of the rights of other people. This disorder begins during childhood and it develops to be a very dangerous syndrome if the continued violation behavior is not arrested or nipped in the bud, it can degenerate into vicious crimes such as serial killing (Douglas 6).
Conduct disorder is another psychological disorder that is associated with serial killing. Someone does not become a serial killer overnight a serial killer is someone who has been having a series of criminal records or conduct problems that start earlier in life. These are people who have been having inappropriate social norms that include enjoying when dithers are suffering or are in distress and this enjoyment can be fulfilled by the sight of people dying and this is something that can motivate one to become a serial killer. Finally, there is the intermittent explosive disorder that is characterized by strong aggressive and violent behavior and most people with this kind of behavior are unable to resist impulses that make them to resort to deeds like assault and destruction of property (Fox 3). The extreme end of this conduct can be serial killing where aggressive behavior always leads to murder.

Possible Influences of Serial Killing
One of the possible influences of serial killing is an oriented mission where the killer may want to rid the world of a certain group of people e.g. the blacks, the homosexuals, prostitutes or some politicians. These killers are not psychotic and they act believing that they are reforming the society by getting rid of some types of people. These include the legendary Ku Klux Klan (Reseller 13). The other influence may be hedonism where this killer seeks or derives pleasure from seeing people die. Some enjoy or get gratification by torturing people to death. One of these types was one known as Kenneth Bianchi who would murder girls and women by torturing them after raping them violently. He would dismember all the body parts of his victims and he also had cannibalistic tendencies.

Other serial killers are driven by material gains meaning that they are usually hired to kill. These forms of serial killers are called hit men and they are the most common serial killers that are there in the society because they can kill anytime that they are paid to perform the job. They can also perform mass killings depending on the requirements of the monetary authority. The last influence of serial killing is power or control (Reseller 15). These kinds of serial killers are people that were abused in their childhood and they try to seek the power and control that they never got in their childhood by dominating others in various criminal ways including murder.

Examples of Current or Past Serial Killers
One of the most famous serial killers in history was Kenneth Bianchi who used his sexual urges to carry our different methods of stimulations that were violent and ended up murdering all his rape victims. The other one that was very notable was Jeffrey Dahmer who used to kill beautiful women whom he used to dupe and fall in love with (Douglas 10). He would ensure that all his victims were part of him by ensuring that he preserved the body parts of his victims which he used to eat. Jack the Ripper was another serial killer that used to murder prostitutes in the UK in the late 19th century. The number of his victims was very high and his crimes gained the most attention of the press because London was the most powerful city in the world at that time. He is the most lethal serial killer of all times with by far the highest numbers of victims though the number has not been established because the exact number could not be gotten.

Legal Perspective
The charges for serial killers with psychological disorders and those that do not have them differ in severity. This is because the law has the provisions that take a disorder as something that can affect ones ability to make sound decisions and to act logically, meaning that the charges and the sentences will be watered down by the psychological state (Reseller 23). However, a person without a disorder will be charged as a normal murder criminal based on the counts of murder and most of them are sentenced to death. There is no fundamental right that is violated by giving a person without a psychotic disorder a harsher sentence than a psychotic because the laws are clear that crimes motivated by malice usually attract harsher punishments that crimes that are caused by an incapacitated mind, like in the case of a psychotic

Most serial killers in history are not psychotics. They are criminals who want to achieve certain personal benefits by murdering others. There are may other serial killings that go unreported because of the way in which serial killers execute their murders in  a ways that look like normal acts of thuggery. All in all, the law is very fair in the way it treats the two levels of serial killers because of the varied influences, giving the one with an incapacitated mind a lesser punishment than the criminal serial killers. Many people may say that the two types of serial killers ought to get the same level of punishment but there is a medical-legal axis to every case and if it is proven that a crime was committed because of the suspects inability to reason logically because of a psychological disorder, then the law is always clear on the nature of sentences that should be given (Reseller 30).

Interest Groups Perception Towards Abortion

In todays era, the issue of abortion is still one of the most controversial debates between policymakers. A lot of interest groups wanted to be heard and get involved in the policymaking process that no clear concessions are done up until now as to whether or not we should uphold womens right to choose or to save a child from being murdered.

The main thrust of this essay is to diagnose the two prominent interest groups which deal on tackling abortion and its remedies. These two interest groups are the NARAL Pro-Choice America which believes on the right of choice, and the National Right to Life (NRLC) which upholds the importance of life preservation.

Definition and Concessions
As agreed by both groups, abortion is an untimely removal of a fetus in a mothers womb, may it be natural (as in miscarriage) or artificial, which utilizes chemicals and surgery to get rid of the fetus. Moreover, both groups conceded to the fact that abortion, especially artificially done, can be very dangerous to the mother physically and mentally (www.nrlc.org, 2010). Emotional setbacks can also very likely occur after the process which can definitely affect the health of the woman later on.

Remedies to the Problem
Despite the clear concessions of the two interest groups about the danger of abortion, the solutions that they propose to lessen the problem is likely different. NARAL Pro-Choice America strongly upholds the right of the women to choose whether or not they want to keep the baby. For them, the woman should be allowed this choice since they are the ones who mostly and greatly suffer during the whole duration of pregnancy. Hence, they advocate that a safe, legal way of abortion process should be made available to women at all times. NARAL Pro-Choice America likewise recognizes the fact that even at these modern times, women are still greatly discriminated within the society because they are not given the sole right of taking full control of their bodies and although they believe that abortion is dangerous, they do not condone unintended pregnancies and also wants to lessen abortion cases as much as much as possible. To prevent this, want they want is to remove the contraception ban and make birth controls (i.e. emergency contraception or morning-after pill) more accessible to women and improve the family planning services within the federal states (httpwww.prochoiceamerica.org, 2008).

On the other hand, NRLC advocates life preservation of the mother and of the child as well. The group believes that although still unborn, these children have definitely the right to live and be given a normal life. Generally, they view abortion as unnecessary since it would only inflict tremendous physical and emotional constraints among women who would undergo the process. What they propose is that they want to outlaw abortion in all its forms throughout the states and that contraception should be banned. They argue that women, who experience stress and the feeling of unpreparedness, should never worry since there are a lot of alternatives to certain unwanted and unintentional pregnancies. Accordingly, there are thousands of Crisis Pregnancy Centers who would readily extend help to women in the form of counseling, check-ups, pregnancy tests, pre-and-post natal services, legal assistance and financial support (www.nrlc.org, 2010). Hence, abortion should never be an option.

Policymakers Perspective
If I were a policymaker, the policy that I would make is to restrict abortion of all forms and improve and strengthen the services given by these Crisis Pregnancy Centers though allocating more fund to these kinds of organization. The reason why a lot of women choose to abort a child is because of hopelessness, desperation and social stigma. Sometimes, they view abortion as their only choice so as not to ruin their future. Through empowering these centers, at least, we can make sure that campaigns would be disseminated to let women know that there are people out there who are willing to help and that government is also ensuring that they can still live a normal and sustainable life despite having a baby. Furthermore, we make sure that the well-being of the women are being secured and looked after.

Texas State Constitution

The state of Texas is governed by the constitution that provides guidelines, structure and the function of the central government of United State. Texas State has had several constitutions as from 1836. The current Texas constitution that was adopted in 1876 is the longest constitution ever adopted in United States. Since its adoption, several amendments have been proposed of which some have been approved and others rejected by voters. Some articles of the constitution are very restrictive and this is one of the major reasons that have led to its amendment (Andrew, 20).

Events that led to adoption of the current Texas constitution can be dated back to 1945 when the first constitution was adopted in Texas State. First amendment was done in 1950. The amendment aimed at electing holders of executive offices and state judges rather than appointment. After loosing in the Civil War, there was need for Texas to amend its constitution so as to fit in the Union of troops. Once in the Union, Texas was required to write a new constitution in1869. This was a representation of  humiliation and defeat of Civil War.

The current Texas constitution was written in 1875 but ratified in 1876. Most of the delegates who participated in writing the constitution were Texas patrons known as Grange. The major event or objective of the patrons was to reduce scope and size of state government. Another reason was to control excess business in Texas. The current Texas constitution is a representation of political desires for people living in the rural areas in Texas (Andrew, 46). Current Texas constitution is considered to be longer than U.S constitution. It shares common features and also includes features that are not in U.S constitution.

Demographic and Economic Influences on Texas Politics

There are nine major regions in Texas. These are the Texas Panhandle, West Texas, North Texas, East Texas, Central Texas, Gulf Coast, South Texas, Southwest Texas, and German Hill Country. However, South Texas and South West Texas are part of the Rio Grande region, and German Hill Country a part of Central Texas (Texas Demographics). In the West and Rio Grande regions, the Hispanic population is highest at 60.5 percent and 87.5 percent respectively. In the Panhandle, North Texas, Central Texas, East Texas, and the Gulf Coast, the white population dominates in size from 50 percent in the Gulf region, to 74 percent in East Texas region. African Americans form the third largest group in North Texas, Central Texas, and the Gulf Coast regions.

However, in East Texas, African Americans are the second largest population (Texas Demographics). Income levels are lowest in regions with the highest numbers of Hispanics, to the highest in urbanized areas dominated by whites, for instance, Houston, Dallas-Fortworth, and Austin (Wealth, Regionalism, and Political Culture).

Regional variety is a distinct feature of Texas, and is characterized by differences in wealth, and economic activity. In the legislature, the regions are represented equally thirty one districts in the state senate, and one hundred and fifty in the House of Representatives. Thus, distinct geographical interests are the basis of representation (Wealth, Regionalism, and Political Culture). However, in the State Legislature, the numbers of African Americans and Hispanics is low compared to their numbers. They occupied 8.8 and 20.4 percent of all seats in 2001-2002 (Demographics and Inclusion). In Texas politics, voting patterns are highest among the Texan white population.

The Impact of Hybrid Government Organizations to County Human Resources Initiatives

The intent of this study is to show the impact of hybrid-type of government organizations to the specific human resources functions such as recruiting, hiring, retaining, and performance grading. The focal point of the study is to illustrate the effects of the dynamics and structure of hybrid organizations to county human resources initiatives. As there are many names formally inclined to hybrid governments including Special Purpose Districts, Quasi Governments, and governmental system of decentralization, this study does not regard the given inclinations but rather stresses the characteristics of hybrid government organizations to bring forth the essentiality of the research to human resource operations.

The characteristics of hybrid-type of government organizations can be  deciphered as not aligning with local county lines possessing characteristics of both government and private sectors performing a singular function such as hospice, fire or flood protection, or recreation and are funded by tax levies.

Though there are several literatures of scholarly works which argue on the benefits of this kind of organization, the study will be focused on the problems which may be instigated by such organizations in relation to human resources functions. The discussion then will shift further than the current and most popular topic of how to control hybrid organizations and address constituent satisfaction.Hypothesis

Hybrid-type governmental organizations decrease effectiveness of county human resources initiatives. Significance of the Study Hybrid governmental organizations are topics of great debate over what constitutes the organization let alone the effects on other organizations within the government. Census reports have shown an increase in special districts (from of hybrid government) ranging from 31-849 (Cigler  Ervin 1995). As these organizations tend to grow larger, it is the responsibility of the human resources manager to research and determine courses of action to mitigate impacts or take advantage of successes.

Subsequently, this study will provide an instrument for managers to garner knowledge in the topic of hybrid organizations and effects on human resources operations. As the topic is not well researched the significance of this study increases and may very well spark the interest of human resources offices.The Emergence of Hybrid Organizations

Koppell (2003) says that hybrid-type of organizations have become an interesting subject tackled by public administration scholars as this type of organization is an increasingly common feature of the governmental landscape (p.3).  Karre (2010) says that hybrid organizations are not a new phenomenon as it traces its roots back in the 1700s, the era in which the first hybrid organization existed, the Dutch West-Indian Company or the British East India Company (Hybridity and Hybrid Organizations, para. 2). The rise of hybrid firms can be explicated as the result of a direct endeavour to manage and comply with the requirements of environmental uncertainty and episodic motions.

There are many distinctions pertaining to hybridization as organizational arrangements which utilize, particularly non-market, non-bureaucratic arrangements including joint ventures, strategic alliances and other forms of collaborations. Although there is no basic consensus on how to signify organizational hybrids, their definitions converge on the conceptual ground stating that they are combinations of disparate elements- structural or institutional-that represent modes of more of less formal adaptation to environmental uncertainty (Hasenfeld, 2009). A distinct and potent chapter in the proliferation of hybrid-type of governments can be rooted from the aftermath of the terrorist attacks in the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. Koppell (2003) says, after the 911 tragedy, the attention was shifted on the failure of the private firms charged with securing Americas aviation system (p. 1). The incident then forced the Bush administration to assume the responsibility for screening passengers and their luggage, a function being mobilized low-paid employees of private security firms hired by individual airlines (Koppell, 2003, p.1).

Koppell (2003) adds that the development was quite striking inasmuch as President George W. Bush followed in the tradition of Ronald Reagan, calling for a smaller federal government and increased responsibility for the private sector (p. 1). Such incident then was followed by a proposal that a government corporation be established to preventing another devastating scenario which can cause the lives of millions of people (Koppell, 2003).

It is in this inefficiency issue that the government was able to formulate a contingency plan of engaging into a new class of hybrid organizational structure which has been existing since early 1990s and conceptualized in the late 1980s.  A hybrid organization is defined as a body that functions in both the public sector and the private sector, simultaneously accomplishing public duties and developing commercial market activities aiming at the common good (Edwards, 2008).

Majority of hybrids are considered to be privately-owned and profit-seeking businesses which generally charged fees for the services they render, allowing them to cover the cost of their operations and are exempted from many of the laws and regulations that apply to government agencies which give them the freedom and flexibility to pursue organizational goals and objectives (Koppell, 2003).
For Karre (2010), a hybrid organization is a distinctive kind of organization that operates in a multicultural environment. Both definitions pointing at hybridity of a certain body conjure with the concept of combining the interface of the public and private sector. At present, people rely on hybrid organizations for waste, housing and security purposes.

A particular kind of hybrid organizations is the government corporations. Government corporations are legal entities established by a government to carry out commercial activities on behalf of certain owners of government. They are usually deemed to be a relevant part of the state.  Koppell (2003) adds that hybrid-type of organizations are the institutions which appear like private firms when it comes to form and function, except that their funding , ownership and control structures are under public jurisdiction.

In this conception, the issue of bureaucratic control to government corporations appear in the picture and escalates the idea that this form of organizations are less likely to satisfy their principals preferences  and therefore are less efficient than government agencies. As such is said because basic connotation regarding quasi-government is that it is mixture of both a part of government and a commercial enterprise which posits ba significant synergy impacts and risks (Edwards, 2008).

Quasi-governments are controversial in nature for they are a complex entities which are divided into quasi-official agencies government-sponsored enterprises, federally-funded research and development corporations agency-related non-profit organizations venture capital funds congresssionally-chartered non-profit organizations, and instrumentalities of indeterminate character (Kosar, 2008).

A whole range of hybrid organizations usually operate in between three coordinating mechanisms which are the government, profit, and non-profit aspects and the organizations success among the three is difficult to decipher as  state or market, profit or non-profit, public or private, or as governmental or non-governmental (van Tulder  van der Zwart, 2006). The confusion in the organizational success is due to societal complexity and the complicated issues between commercial success and public good and the internal complexity of the hybrid-type of structure particularly the human resource.

Amid the vague confusion in the effectiveness of this type of organization, it is said that most relevant hybrid organizations perceived as businesses do not function in an environment entirely reliant on market principles. It has been recorded by the scholars in both the enterprise and public administration that though the mechanisms of the hybrid organizations are somewhat controversial, the organizations represent a large part-two-thirds or more-of the whole economy (van Tulder  van der Zwart, 2006).

Karre (2010) has rendered several reasons behind the increase in the number of hybrid organizations amid the concurrent conflicts on their structures and they are as follows
Erosion of authority
Re-introduction of market forces
Speed of change
Lack of funding

Karre (2010) adds that the given factors are representations of the weak and synergy effects sprouting from combining public and commercial duties which bring about the risk of unfair competition and the notion that market activities could oust public activities.

Politically speaking, the current popularity of the quasi-government option can be identified to at least four major elements in according to Kosar (2008) and these are

The current controls on the federal budget process that persuade agencies to establish new sources of revenues.

The desire of advocates coming from agencies and programs to be exempted from central management laws, particularly statutory ceilings on personnel and compensation.

The modern appeal of generic, economic-focused values as the main basis for the development of a new public management.

The belief or knowledge that flexibility necessitates entity-specific laws and regulations, even at the cost of fewer accountability to representative institutions.

The emergence of hybrid organizations can be explained with the core competency theory. It is noted that the increasing competitive pressure instigates an organizations management to optimize the synchronization between entrepreneurial actions, the services provided and the competitive management of the hybrids. Core competencies can be primarily an organizations technical, capitalistic, public service and organizational capabilities.

Hybrid arrangements tend to violate the balance between public aims and private goals due to influencing factors that impact the structure of such organizations. The influencing factors dissolve entrepreneurial boundaries of the organizations and Picot, Reichwald, and Wigand (2008) say that they are
-average specificity of tasks
-High degree of uncertainty in the environment
-changes in the transaction conditions and atmosphere
-capitalism elements

As hybrid organizations tends to shift more on public service which is its basic mission, government organizations may instigate imbalance as they try to dissolve entrepreneurial tasks with the human resource or the manpower being confused whether to follow the value systems of public service or the systems of private sector. This factor affects the efficiency of organizations as they are not directed towards a straight and concrete function.

It has been said that they are some scholars who believe that hybrids are grounded on the mismatch between noble public service aim and the structural goals and mission of private organizations. But given this reason, high-task uncertainty seemed to be a complete justification for the presence of hybrids. High uncertainty is reflected on the unpredictable and frequent changes in the delivery of services in the governmental realm. As the risk becomes higher, it entails a hybrid arrangement of in which alliances are created to make the organizations efficient internally and externally.

The Governance of Hybrid Organizations
Hybrid forms of organizations engage private, public, for-profit, and non-profit elements with entrepreneurial, administrative and managerial orientations and such fusion reflects the basic changes in the aspect of institutional infrastructure of modern communities and creates uncertainties in the boundaries of the roles of government, business enterprises, and the modern civil society.  The governance of hybrid organizations is directed on the search for the right balance between market principles and state regulation.

The increased presence of the hybrid-type of organizations are relative to the idea of reconciling profit optimization with social responsibility, generate commercial revenue to subsidize a certain public purpose, not holistically relying on tax revenue or an organization produced by businesses that aim to maximize the full potential of social benefit over than pecuniary returns.

The problems on the governance of hybrid organization arise from the presence of various rationales with underlying value dispositions which often result to vague objective functions different criteria or organizational performance leading to divergent evaluations  the instability on the entrepreneurial and administrative orientations and complex reporting of legal requirements (Kosar, 2008).

The issues related with the quasi-agencies tend to be connected with their legal status. As the definition of hybrid organizations is that they are the fusion of private and government sectors, the organizations may find conflict in their interest to assert public and private status. Their search for that distinct kind of status is paired with the presumption of permitting considerable autonomy from regular lines of accountability to managerial agencies such as the General Accounting Office.

Quasi or hybrid agencies may sometimes be highly political and subject to pressures not different from that encountered by regular executive agencies. As the constitutional paradigm model of management applied by hybrid agencies remains still at the basis of laws and accountability structures, the highest value in this public law model of management is the political accountability for the execution of governmental power. In this model, the President is the chief manager of the laws on general management and the budget operations.

The application of this type of unitary executive structure, combined with the authority and accountability hooked on hierarchical figure, was a theory upholding the President as the chief manager of the administrative system wherein governmental and private sectors cooperated with obedience but were held legally distinct in the interests of protecting the rights of the citizens against any arbitrations from the government or the administration.

The organizations which do not partake in the executive arm of the government, but having the attributes of governmental status were viewed with suspicion as aberrations violating the constitution lurking between the public and private sectors. These values of management applied by the hybrid agencies were challenged in the 1960s by the emergence of new management theory or the public choice theory which found its expression in the election of political leaders who are committed to market principles over public service aims (Kosar, 2008). The supporters of this new kind of entrepreneurial management paradigm pursued their values, concepts and perspectives of international management within the rubric of NPM and domestically as part of the National Performance Review (NPR).

The NPM critics argue that the centrality of public law is outplayed by the centrality of economic axioms the focus of management, once the citizen, is now the customer and departmental integration as the norm is displaced by agency dispersion and managerial autonomy (Kosar, 2008).

Many scholars believe that the governance of hybrid organizations is deeply impacted by applied paradigms which are in conflict due to varying principles and beliefs regarding the thin line between providing public service and providing services pointed at capitalistic aims and goals. Apart from the given reason, the confusion between commercial hierarchy and public common structure entails a more critical view of the human resource which constitutes a certain hybrid organization. It is recorded that the issues in the governance of hybrid forms of organizations are cemented on the conceptualization that such forms of organizations are dichotomous in nature.

Karre (2010) says that Dichotomy depicts the established fact that the cultural patterns of state and market are seen to oppose each other in terms of organizational structure, aims, and laws and there seems to be no room for any compromise (Governance Issues, para. 1). The uncertainty existing among hybrid organizations is supported by studies and research in the United States which reflected that quasi-public structures are commonly difficult for legislators to control because their governance is sidetracked by the confusion between the application of corporate and public authorities (Koppell, 2003).

According to Kosar (2010), the dichotomous approach to hybridity says that the problems connected with the hybrid-type of organizations include
Role conflicts
Centrifugal tendencies such as the notion that hybrid subcultures are ripping the organization apart.
Loyalty conflicts because of double binds.
Conflicts due to the negligence of hybrid organizations in doing tasks which do not generate more money.
Conflicts because of highly-complex conflicting responsibilities.

However, there are some characteristics which hybrid-type of organizations possess that sets them apart from the traditional organizations which have the same goals. Though there are uncertainty and decreased confidence in the efficiency of hybrid government organizations, they are directed on producing experimental investments in new business strategies without worrying on the potential economic return and they practice openness to both in their services and processes which make it easier for other organizations to venture on alternative strategies in various areas with potentially massive benefit for the public.

Management of the Hybrid Organizations
The set-up of hybrid organizations, in which several sovereign organizations are being fused together to pursue common interests, eventually lead to value pluralism (Karre, 2010). Public administration scholars have long viewed that there is a finite question regarding the management of hybrid organizations for they are long been surrounded by conflicting paradigms.

It is said that the structure and management of hybrid organizations are basically grounded on the innate desire of organizational leadership of the governmental and private sector to search for a maximum autonomy in matters of policy and operations (Kosar, 2008).

Hybrid organizations, though they possess some of the advantages such as tax support and other public and governmental characteristics, have indeed attracted critics in terms of their efficiency and the capacity to beneficially merge public service with private aims. Human resources questions arise through the disparities in the structure of hybrid organizations.

The legal characteristics of hybrid organizations conjure with their mission to implement public policy functions commonly assigned to executive departments and agencies. The preference for the hybrid organizations has been inclined with the designation of administrative responsibilities to newly established independent organizations or to the hybrid-type of organizations having the distinct characteristics of public and private sectors. There is a growing concern on the structure of this type of organizations also known as quasi-governments because there is an uncertainty with its democratic governance.

The relationship between the burgeoning quasi-governments to elected and appointed officials posit the question on to whom are the hybrid government organizations accountable and how is the public interest being protected over and against the interest of the private sector. This query is supported by the fact that there is a definitional irregularity in the discussion of quasi-governments.

It is already evident that the scholars are at one in declaring that the traditional tools for holding executive agencies accountable to any circumstances such as the budget and general management laws, are not that applicable in most of instances, often making hybrid organizations acquire their own freedom to continue institutional courses which may or may not conform to the public interest as defined by the nationss elected leadership (Kosar, 2008).

Koppell (2003) says, an expert of the General Accounting Office (GAO) testified before the Congress concerning the agencys survey of possible structures of the new security agency and said that the screening of performance and accountability would improve under the jurisdiction of a government corporation and that certain entity would be more flexible and less bureaucratic than a federal agency (p. 1).
Under the New Public Management (NPM) movement which gained its popularity in the 1980s that the fusion of governmental and private sectors is seriously critiqued based on the knowledge that the governmental and private sectors differ from each other essentially and are subject to the same, economic and behavioural norms and practices (Kosar 2008).

The structure and control of hybrids is based on the basic action of splitting the responsibility between two entities. Quasi-governments do not merely transfer policy responsibility from a traditional executive agency to a specific hybrid organization. The concept of implementer and a regulator are the two entities in which the implementer is deemed to be the deliverer of goods and services and utilize market-oriented mechanisms like loan guarantees or direct investments to be able to accomplish public policy goals and the regulator serves to maintain a specific hybrid organization as an effective substitute for a government agency (Koppell, 2003, p. 142).

In the concept of implementer and regulator, the regulation, structure, and control of hybrids are validated by a feature or deformation in which market goals overtake public interest and neglects pure public service for the sake of capitalistic gains. The deformation in the market entails the intervention of government to be able to make the services offered by organizations highly beneficial to the society. In the aspect of government regulation, it is already assumed that the government is the regulator of rules and regulations while the governed entity or body is a hybrid organization.

 It is written that in that in Wilson and Rachal argument, it was declared that  controlling hybrid institutions is more difficult than handling private organizations (Koppell, 2003). The presumption was basically because private organizations had their own set of concrete boundaries and operational limitations whereas with the public institutions, they had a vast and widening roles to play, internal and external interconnections, and their level of jurisdiction is far greater than private organizations.

Following the 1977 argument of Wilson and Rachal, the effectiveness of inta-governmental regulation has gained relevance in the field of public administration for two reasons and according to Koppell (2003) they are
-The increase in federal reliance on state and local government for program implementation.
-The utilization of hybrid organizations has put a premium on governments ability to ensure performance through regulation because otherwise, public policy goals may go unaccomplished.
According to Wilson and Rachal, they are inherent difficulties in the intra-government regulation and in applying the difficulties in the realm of hybrid organizations, Koppell
(2003) says that Wilson and Rachal have these crucial points

1. The mentioned scholars overstate that regulators of hybrid organizations do not have the power to cut off funds. In this scenario, both Wilson and Rachal overshadowed the fact that there are regulators which have been efficient in their undertakings even if they fall short of the ability to cut off funds. Also, some of the regulators have the necessary tools including the coherent set of operational instruments that show authority and power to enforce regulations or contractual agreements.

2. In the subject of the competing goals, the dilemma on competing goals is said to be more acute for hybrid organizations in which most of the vexing problems of competing aims are certainly grounded on profit or finance. Wilson and Rachal agreed that the mutual independence seems to be more problematic in the hybrids due to their potential political power. The political capacity of hybrids is what gives them the edge to undermine their regulators and stimulate the problem on the means of control.

It is noted that the two factors mentioned by Wilson and Rachal make hybrid-type of organizations appear to be more susceptible and vulnerable to difficulties of intragovernmental regulation (Koppell, 2003).

The onset of the New Public Management movement sidetracked by the actions towards the privatization or governmental agencies and programs is considered to be reigning orthodoxy in the field of public administration. It is in this movement that the search for the reinvention of some executive branch of the government in which they are combined with corporate style and entrepreneurial structures has been of high regard due to the noted strengths of the entrepreneurial management mixed with social or public service.

It is recorded that the strength of the entrepreneurial management evident in numerous hybrid organization can be found on the flexibility it renders to managers to be able to improve their performance and consequently, the performance of their agencies. The definition of performance in the concept of entrepreneurship is commonly measured in the output derived from the quality of their work or the results of their efficiency tests rather than in conformance to process regulations (Kosar, 2008). This thought translates to the need of risk-taking by managers to be able to reach improved performance.

Organizational Structure of Hybrids
It is said that the human resource management in the hybrid form of organizations may either be in the form of divisional or centralized pattern in which there is a greater concern on functional support and economies of scale. As it is noted that no structure is without difficulties, the human resource structure of hybrid organizations has become a critical landscape to be debated by scholars due to the era of knowledge explosion and the effects of rapid globalization to public administration and the field of human resource management.

It is in the era of globalization that the existence of hybrid form of organization is justified and made imperfect due to various kind of organizations structure which have sprouted to conjure with the massive and tight competition within the market and the governmental services. The hybrid concept applied by agencies is a vivid representation of how they confront todays needs with the merging of various concepts, structure, and components to be applied particularly in the aspect of human resource.

The current organizational designs applied by hybrid organizations in the human resource functions are by far considered to be functional or divisional and what is commonly noted as the hybrid collaboration of the two (Molander  Winterton, 1994). According to Molander and Winterton (1994), employees and activities are grouped together according to their function and the coordination efforts of different quasi-independent operations are at the top of the functional structure (p. 20).

With the functional organization structure, all human knowledge, information and skills are consolidated which render a valuable depth of knowledge for hybrid organizations. This organizational design is mostly effective when an in-depth expertise is crucial and when efficiency is strongly relevant in meeting organizational goals when a particular organization needs to be controlled and coordinated through vertical hierarchy.

In this structure, the control is exercised from the top commonly by a senior management group drawn from the operating functions and these people are not necessarily in a position to think corporately, but are destined to represent their own function and partake in the organizational matters such as budget allocation (Molander  Winterton, 1994, p. 21).

Figure I.  Functional Organization Structure (Molander and Winterton, 1994, p. 21)

The strength of the functional structure lies in its promotion of economy of scale within functions and this scale results when all employees are located in the same place and can share facilities. The main drawback of this organizational design is that it does not conjure with the dynamic environment of public administration and entreprise because innovation is slow and managers are commonly not adept to environmental changes due to poor coordination.

The second type of organizational design  is the divisional structure commonly tagged as constituting of strategic business units (Daft, 2009). It is in this divisionalized structure of organization that the form of grouping activities is larger and is according to productservices or output. Compared with the functional organization design, it is noteworthy enough that the coordination in this model takes place within divisions (Molander  Winterton, 1994).

It is said that the divisional structure offers many advantages for the traditional form. The divisional or product structure enables efficient production because major and crucial decisions are brought nearer to the point of action and this scenario relieves top management time for more strategic and crucial matters. In addition to this strategic movement, profit responsibility and  is assigned to divisions which lets the organizations  top activities to be evaluated separately and this kind of assessment is an important aid on how to allocate investments responsibly.

Figure II. Divisional Organization Structure (Molander  Winterton, 1994, p. 22)

The divisional structure has the capacity to be responsive to the needs of production units and create a more ready response to the recognition and satisfaction of the dynamic and changing needs of the customers a critical element in the organizations survival (Molander  Winterton, 1994). Adding to the strengths of this organizational design, it is viewed that the divisional design is much more appropriate in a severely changing environment that needs to adapt in the dynamic preferences of the society.

One main drawback of this organizational design is that there may not always be a vivid superior ground on which to establish divisions due to many consequences of divisionalization. For instance, divisionalization may entail poor coordination and even open competition among the separate divisions dealing with the same clients or consumers. In addition, the divisionalization in a certain organization may instigate conflicts concerning the allocation of new investment and other organizational matters such as the utilization and funding of shared central services.

Also, division-type of structure maybe subjected to poor coordination as divisions themselves may grow too large and highly diversified with the result that such divisions can n longer present an appropriate grouping of activities or services around a monotype business area.

The hybrid form of government agencies take into account the merger of different structures or designs as it is pointed towards the creation of public goods with tax revenue and the regulation of businesses to be able to prevent the profiteering from harming citizens. One type of mixed structure incorporates various types of logics of grouping activities side by side. The onset of hybrid organizational structures are mainly due to the fact that the many firms combine the advantages of both the functional and divisional to come up with hybridity as an answer to environmental uncertainties and challenges.

The mixed or hybrid structure combines the characteristics of both organizational designs in which there is a decentralization and centralization of functions.

As the hybrid structure of organizations uses both the divisional and functional paradigms alongside different models of structures, the human resource management scheme is quite challenged by the requirements of this type of structure.

Koppell (2003) says that the hybrid or mixed structure is a complicated structure and one that is more vexing than traditional agencies. This notion supports the fact that hybrid organizations are more difficult to manage in terms of accountability and control. In comparing hybrid organizations to traditional government agencies in the domains of export promotion, housing and international development, it has been argued that hybrid-type of government agencies are harder to control due to the fact that they are existing like independent organizations and not as extensions of administrative agencies (Koppell, 2003).

Figure III. The Mixed Organization Structure (Molander and Winterton, 1994, p. 23)

In addition to the assessment of hybrid institutions, Koppell (2003) argues that hybrids are intrinsically less reactive on political preferences of those in authority. Hybrids also continue to explicate that as policy tools, may seem unfit for some tasks and risks. The hybrid or mixed structure poses a lot of uncertainties especially for the employees who would have to live through the complexity of the management and the doubtful logic behind the establishment of hybrid organization.

Another term for the hybrid structure is the matrix structure.  In this distinct form of of hybrid structure, multiple command system is exercised accompanied by characteristics of both the functional and divisional organizational designs.  In this design, functional specialization and product or divisional structures are combined (Hitt, Ireland,  Hoskisson, 2008). An organization which utilizes a matrix structure faces drawbacks arising from the having two types of structures existing simultaneously which render staff and employees two bosses and make them work under the jurisdiction of two chains of commands.

One of these two chains of command can either be functional or divisional and while the other chain of command is a horizontal overlay that mixes staff from different divisions or functional arena into a business project or endeavour to be led by a project of group manager who has an expertise in the teams preferred area of specialization. There is also the delegation of authority at the matrix level which can help in motivating and developing managers in below the senior level and may in fact offer the additional motivation which sources out from working in teams (Child, 1984).

The concept of the matrix structure is to avoid the risks and weaknesses of both the functional and divisional forms by means of improved information processing that eases the task of providing essential and technical information among the members of the hybrid organizations. One of the consequences of the matrix management is that it is costly due to complicated chains of command as well as time consuming.  With this kind of structure , it said that fixing responsibility is often more difficult than  in the conventionalized agencies and the personnels involved often experienced issues concerning conflicting loyalties.
                                                               Direct of line reporting relationships
                                                                 Staff or dotted-line relationship

Figure IV. Line and Staff Reporting Relationships in Hybrid Organizations( Molander   Winterton, 1994, p.24)

The Impact of Hybridization to Human Resource
Investing in the future and continuing to recruit or retain strong personnel is a major role of the human resources strategic plan. The economy will eventually turn around and organizations must have competent and competitive employees on staff in order to insure financial success. Losey, Meisinger,  Ulrich (2005) titled Section Five of their book Rethink Organizations as Capabilities not Structures (p. 195) and identified that HR functions have become more of a holistic approach to the effectiveness and efficiency of an organization.

With the downturn of the economy and the slow progression upward, we must rethink how we operate and bring innovative thinking into every aspect of our organization. Brazeel and Well state, There has never been a more pressing time for HR professionals and leaders to develop a long term workforce strategy for their organizations (2009, p. 2). The question is evident then, how can human resources managers invest in an employee that is providing a county service, yet is not under the control of the county or aligned with the county strategic plan

Hybrid governmental organizations have the inherent structure that does not allow the ability to specifically define boundaries of service as they often cover multiple counties and portions of those surrounding larger more built up counties. Under this structure tracking tax dollar execution is almost void and many believe the creation of these organizations is to operate below the surface and provide a smoke screen for government activities that otherwise would come under greater public scrutiny (Janiskee, 2004, p. 92).

Others, however, believe that these hybrid organizations are a tool that helps meet the needs of the citizen located in the complex local bureaucracy. Daniel Elazar states that these organizations are attempting to maintain local autonomy vis a vis the machinations of state and federal governments (1987, p. 119).

Lorch adds to this discussion by stating, Government by special district is government by bits and pieces-fragmented government. (2001, p. 258). Even at the national level these organizations have sprung up, as the President has utilized organizations like Fannie Mae and the National Park Foundation to implement public policy (Moe, 2001).

Regardless of the reason and purpose of the hybrid government, the phenomenon or assumption exists that they are government organizations. Furthermore, as these organizations provide a service to the community they have the potential to impact the strategic plan of the county human resources offices or divisions. As such, this provides the perfect opportunity to conduct research in order to ascertain the extent of this impact.

Challenges in the Hybrid Organizations
Critics are at one in proposing that hybrid organizations in existing with various orgainzational designs or structure basically breached the wall that divides the governmental and private sectors. This action is not just being done for the sake of managerial convenience , but as a matter of policy making government entrepreneurs forge a web of public and private partnerships.  

It has been an already accepted fact that the debate between the competing management paradigms is over relevant issues such as the legitimacy and usage of the quasi government or hybrid government agencies and is likely to become a finite issue within the subject of entrepreneurship and public administration (Kosar, 2008). Given this conception, human resource managers are continually being confronted with issues concerning the application of corporate law, legal paradigms, workforce performance, and the blurred image of public service as it ventures with capitalism.

As the issue on hybridity of government agencies tend to cross the boundaries between public and private sectors, traditional public law and entrepreneurial paradigms tend to express attitudes that send quasi-government at odds.

With the conflicting issues regarding the hybrid-type of organizations, human resource are at risk when it comes to work efficiency. It is said that apart from the issue aggravating the complicated environment of organizations, employees in the hybrid landscape suffer from the vagueness of role and objectives in the workplace. Child (1984) affirms this grueling fact by stating that it is not clear how roles can be further specified without threatening the flexibility that is one of the main advantages of the hybrid system.

Aside from stress and threat, employees succumb themselves to the tight and rigid atmosphere that comes with the presence of bureaucracy (Child, 1984).  Bureaucratism and the multiplication of hierarchies entail massive paperwork and employees are often left with no choice but to themselves with the demands of industrial conflict and suffers the consequences of being under the jurisdiction of the merger of public and private agencies.

The hybridity of government agencies are at odds due to conflicting parties which continue to divulge on the consequences sprouting from the fusion of governmental and private sectors. Kosar (2008) imparts his view on this oddity by saying that those advocating entrepreneurial management tend to put high value on managerial flexibility and the setting of numerical performance standards. In addition, Kosar (2008) declares that many critics and scholars do not believe in principle to hierarchical leadership structures and focus on the desirability of change and managerial risk-taking.

Contrasting this scenario, supporters of the public law approach to the management validates the fact that the main goal of government management is to implement the laws passed by Congress and not necessarily to maximize performance or to satisfy clients or customers (Kosar, 2008).

The conflicting issues on hybrid agencies makes the workplace complicated for the employees who happen to be under the authority of public and private sectors.  Child (1984) says that employees in the hybrid or mixed structures often suffer from the threat of occupational identity and are getting stressed out from the critical requirements of hybrid organizations. According to Child (1984), other sources of anxiety derive from the conflict that reporting to more than one superior can engender, and from the ambiguity about what is expected and predicted which the fluidity of the matrix form tends to advocate.

Human Resource Initiatives in Hybrid Organizations
The human resource management is grounded on its main purpose to manage the constituents or the people who run an organization just as organizations must efficiently and effectively manage their capital, physical and information resources (York, 2009). As organizations must recruit, select, and retain qualified people to do relevant tasks, the human resource department establishes initiatives that may indirectly or directly contribute to the ongoing challenges being met by the hybrid-type of organizations.

Within the rubric of the conflicting relationship between public agencies and private sector under the modern public administration structure, came the idea of the compromise between the two separate entities affecting the human resource initiatives such as recruiting, hiring, retaining, and performance grading.

Armstrong (2000) provides distinct barriers to the implementation of human resource strategies and initiatives (p. 97) and these are
Employees tend to be hostile to initiatives if they are perceived to be in conflict with the organizations identity
2. Employees view an initiative as a threat to career growth and flourishment.
3. There are inconsistencies in the achievement of public service goals done through corporate mechanisms.
4. Bureaucratic culture that leads to inertia
5. Employees perceived fairness of a certain initiatives

Other major barriers which according to Armstrong (2000) should be confronted and by human resource strategist in a certain hybrid environment (p. 98) include
failure to understand the strategic necessities of the organization with the result that human resource strategic initiatives are viewed as irrelevant or even counterproductive
inadequate evaluation of the governmental and corporate environmental factors that affect the organization as a whole
the establishment of ill-predicted and unimportant initiatives, possibly because they are current fads or because there has been an ill-digested analysis of best measures or mechanisms that are not suited for the requirements of the hybrid organization
the selection of certain initiative in isolation without considering its public and corporate implications and their impact to the other areas of human resource practice and without trying to ensure that a coherent and holistic approach is adopted
failure to acknowledge practical dilemmas of getting the initiative accepted by all concerned and of embedding it as normal routines of hybrid agency
inability to convince top management to support the initiatives
inability to reach ownership among line managers
inability to acquire the understanding and acceptance of employees
failure to understand the necessity to create supporting procedures for the initiative such as performance management to support performance pay
failure to identify that the initiative will create new demands on the commitment and skills of the line managers who may have to play a crucial part in implementing it such as the skills in setting objectives, rendering feedback and helping to prepare and implement personal development plans in performance management procedures
failure to ensure that the resources such as people, finance and time which are required for the implementation of the initiative will be available
failure to monitor and assess the implementation of the initiative and to take adept remedial measure if things are going against what have been planned.

The factors mentioned above are in line with the pursuit of human resource managers for efficiency in hybrid county government organizations as they struggle to comply with the ongoing stiff and tight competition in both the corporate and public administration landscape. The challenges are what come along with the massive changes in the employment practices of county hybrid organizations.

The chief among the recent changes in the employment scheme of the organizations include increased use of temporary, part-time, and seasonal employment and the increased hiring of exempt employees also known as the nonstandard work arrangements (NSWAs) that have incurred criticisms from a variety of groups including labor economists, lawyers and advocates of workers rights (Condrey  Perry, 2005).

The NSWAs are a set of arrangements which have their own positive and negative impact to direct costs, flexibility, productivity, recruitment, ease of discharge and legal risks and measures. Some of the benefits of the use of NSWAs include the flexibility to balance work with other commitments such as responsibility to family, school and to other employments.

Even though it is already noted that the NSWAs are able to impact the hybrid government agencies through the flexible work hours, promotion of family-friendly workplaces, preservation of institutional knowledge and information and the sharing of expertise, the utilization of the nonstandard work arrangements are not without glitches that challenge the workforce of the hybrid organizations.

It is recorded that government institutions which utilize nonstandard work arrangements are confronted with legal issues and criticisms by the worker rights community. It is noted that there is a growing apprehension among many within the community that a dual labor market sources out from the use of the NSWAs.  Condrey and Perry (2005) say that in some instances, worker rights may become secondary to workforce flexibility from an employers view.

As the hybrid government agencies pursue their mission to promote changes in the organizations culture, professional development and business practices, necessary plans must be developed in order to address the challenges and provide possible solutions for every organizational glitch. Planned actions for recruitment, hiring, and retention as well as for internal resources management, quality of life, workforce and professional development should be given equal focus (Pynes, 2004).

It is recommended that hybrid agencies will be able to become successful in their endeavour amid the ongoing conflict behind the presence of hybrid organizations by making their training and career development programs completely integrated with the organizations strategic focus and human resource system.

The pursuit for the right kind of KSAOC or the knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics should be accompanied by a strategic human resource management that goes beyond the confides of proper administrative functions and is directed towards  increasing  organizational revenues or profits, achieving business outcomes, improving the overall image of the hybrid organization as well as improving the holistic performance of individuals, teams or organizational units.

As it is written that the emergence and growth of hybrid government organizations are viewed as either a symptom of a decline in the democratic system of governance or as a harbinger of a new and creative management period in which the principles and knowledge of market behaviour are harnessed for the overall well being of the state, it is then suggested that a strategic human resource plan that tries to put into compromise both the corporate and public administration landscape should be executed and supported by the constituents of the two to be able to benefit the workforce.

The emergence of the hybrid-type of government agencies are not without glitches and issues that impact their workforce. Taking cues from the scholars perspectives on hybrid organizations, it can be said that such type of organization is the direct outcome of the pursuit to find an ideology or pattern that is aiming at public service productivity through the utilization of public administration and corporate paradigms.

Overall, two basic conflicts arise from the fusion of both paradigms one is focusing on the utilization of public law in which hybridity of organizations is an act of violation and the second views corporate and entrepreneurial law as taking advantage of the nobility of public service and as having a negative impact to the efficiency of the labor force in the hybrid organizations. In addition, some scholars view both paradigms as not having the capacity to compromise and reach a point of balance that creates a picture of the workforce working smoothly under one distinct system.

Hybrid organizations serve to incorporate all the advantages of other organizational designs to make the organization function efficiently and effectively while fulfilling the needs of the public and reaching their organizational goals. Even with this noble aim, it can be said that the workforce and the human resource initiatives are being sacrificed in the hybrid structure for they should are being affected with diversity of the workplace and challenges imposed by being run by two paradigms and landscapes.

Based from what has been observed of the hybrid type of government organizations, the following recommendations are provided in line with the pursuit to lessen or even eradicate the extent of impact of hybrid systems to the workforce.
The human resource management must adhere to a unilateral system flow wherein employees can operate smoothly under a unified jurisdiction.
The human resource management must render the employees clear and vivid roles and objectives so that they will not be confused with the fusion of government and private sectors.
The human resource management should pursue those in the higher positions concerning the effective implementation of the human resource initiatives.
A fair and just employment scheme must be established. There is a need for an employment scheme that does not sacrifice workers rights over corporate advantages.
The human resource management should be equipped with all the necessary information regarding the scope, limits and boundaries of hybridization so that employees will be properly oriented concerning the kind of environment they will be working on.
A friendly working environment should be given to employees so that they will not be that affected with bureaucratic elements in all of its forms.