Marxism theory of ideas

Although in the very first beginning, the pamphlet had very little impact on the widespread revolutionary movements in Europe in the mid- 19th century, the communist manifesto was indeed to become the very most popular and widely discussed documents of the 20th century. Marx fought to discuss, present and differentiate his  brand of socialism  ideas distinctively  from a class of others  insisting  that his  ideas were scientifically  rooted in the objective study of the history of society in which he perceived  as a prolonged continuous  process of change resulting to transformation.

Marx claimed that just like in the same way feudalism emerged naturally and evolved relatively into mercantilism and then capitalism. Therefore, in the same way feudalism emerged, capitalism would therefore raise and unfold itself creating and giving way for its logical successor which he referred to as socialism. A term which Marx used in his ideology as a representative of the of the most advanced form of communism which would be the most necessary product of class struggle.

 Marx strongly advocated that the tough minded realism should wake up and raise over the utopian idealism which existed earlier among the socialist and it had various profound effects consequences. This ideology further enhanced various revolutionaries such as Lenin to be incorporated into action while at the same time, it also discouraged majority of its followers from accepting ruthless means in order to be able to justify what was believed to be the most significant historically necessary ends.

Radical politics were much more discussed widely rather than the number of radicals justified. But Marx did not totally adapt this ideologies but he strongly used them intensively for his own advantage by strongly proclaiming that any kind of ideology so well feared should and must be significantly explained clearly to show its worth.

In his prologue, Marx claimed that Europe was experiencing a haunting specter and this was the communism specter. In this statement, Marx claimed that all the old powers of have evolved, raised and entered into yet a new form of holy alliance in order to exorcise this luring specter, which had influenced all the people including the pope of the great Catholic church, and Czar, the German police spies and the French radicals. From this debate two significant facts became evident. That is,

Communism became highly acknowledged among all European powers as being in itself a power of some kind.

It also became one the high time when communists broadly came into open and in face to face with the entire world publishing their tendencies, views and aims to meet the most nursery tale of the communist specter by establishing and creating a manifesto of its own party.

For Marx the rich history of the hitherto existing society is basically the real history of class struggle. Marx characterized the society as structured into social classes which are maintained loosely by the existence of class struggle between the various opposing structures. In this structures Marx categorized the classes in the society as 1) the patrician and plebeian, 2) guildmaster and journeyman 3) the lord and the serf and 4) Freeman and slave. Marx further categorized all these clusters to be encompassed in a word as oppressor and the oppressed.

These clusters stand in constant confrontation facing each other opposing one another and carrying on uninterrupted hidden fight which ultimately ends either in as a common ruin of the contending classes or rather through a revolutionary reconstruction of society. Marx asserts that in almost all the earlier epochs of history, the epoch of each category of bourgeoisie there exist a very complicated form and arrangements of society in distinctively various orders characterized by a manifold gradation of social orders or ranks.

For instance,  in the ancient Rome there were, knights, patricians, plebeians, feudal lords, guild-masters, apprentices, journeymen, serfs  and  slaves in the Middle Age. All these classes subordinate and gain through gradations. The modern bourgeoisie in the present societies sprouted and emerged as a result of ruins of the feudal society, and they have yet not done away with the luring class antagonisms which continue to characterize the modern societies.

However, these classes continue advance through the creation new classes characterized by new forms of struggle which emerge to replace the old ones and new conditions of expression. Our epoch which forms the epoch of our bourgeoisies, possesses distinctively various features of power, control and oppression. Thus, this form of an epoch has further simplified the forms of class antagonisms which continue to manifest themselves in the society today.

The society by far continues to advance in complexity splitting more and more into two great hostile classes or camps directly facing and opposing each other. That is, the bourgeoisies and the proletariats. The establishment of the modern industries has led to the creation of world markets, and the discovery of America which has paved way for more class antagonism. As a result, the creation of this market has translated to the growth of immense developments in navigation, commerce and land communication.

This kind of development has In turn reacted towards the creation, expansion and extension of industry and in the same proportion of industry navigation, commerce and railways have extensively expanded in promotion of world trade while in the same proportion of growth, they have promoted the development of bourgeoisies increasing their capital and pushing into the background all forms of classes from the Middle Ages.

From this trend in development we clearly observe the emergence and development of modern bourgeoisies as in itself a product of the prolonged course of development, through a series of revolutions occurring within the various forms of production and exchange.

According to Marx, every single step in the development and advancement of the bourgeoisies is usually accompanied by a set of corresponding political advancements in that class. An oppressed class exists under the sway of a certain form of feudal nobility which results into a form of an armed self regulating and governing association in a certain kind of a medieval commune.

According to Karl Marx, bourgeoisie play a very significant role especially the revolutionary role of history. Whenever they existed, the bourgeoisie possessed an upper hand which has put to an end all forms of feudal, idyllic, patriarchal relations. Nevertheless, the bourgeoisie have pitilessly torn apart the motley of the feudal ties which binds man with his natural superiors leaving man with no significant bonds between man and man and to the latter only the naked self interest of man.

This kind of a class has drawn away the most heavenly ecstasies deeply inculcated into religious fervor, characterized by chivalrous enthusiasm and sentimentalism of the egoistic calculations of icy waters. Additionally, it has translated personal growth into certain forms of exchange value replacing them with numberless indefeasible freedoms, thus setting up a single unconceivable freedom in the name of free trade. In one word, Marx, refers this kind of situation as exploitation, veiled by political and religious illusions substituted by shameless, naked, brutal and direct forms of exploitation.

In what other significant ways does the history of ideas generate proves that intellectual production significantly changes in its form and character in the same proportion as the production of materials advances. Marx asserts that the ruling class has been forever the ideas of the ruling class for each age in development. When we speak in our day to day conversations, of the ideas that revolutionize our societies, we do but unconscious express that the within the parameters of the old society very new elements of rather a new society have been created and this kind of dissolution of old ideas constantly maintains and keeps an even pace which characterizes a dissolution of the old conditions of societal existence.

History has it that when the old world had reached its last throes, the historical religions were overcome by the modern Christianity. In the eighteenth century, as the Christian ideas succumbed into rationalists ideas,   the existing forms of feudal societies rose and fought a death battle with the ruling bourgeoisie class of the day. The great ideas of freedom of conscience and religious liberty merely gave permission for expression resulting to a sway of significant competition within the diverse domain of knowledge. Thus, with no doubt it can be strongly argued that religion, judicial ideas, moral and philosophical ideas have greatly been modified along the course of historical advancement and growth. However, religion, philosophy, morality, laws and political science have constantly survived this kind of a change.

There is in addition other forms of external truths such as justice and religion that are significantly common in all forms of societies and states, but in the existence of communism, it sweeps and abolishes away all forms of morality and all region and instead of constituting them, in relatively a new base it acts in contradictions opposing the past historical experiences. This therefore, explains that the history of the past historical perception of society consistently influences emergence of class antagonism, a certain kind of antagonism which assume different forms at different epochs.

Communist revolution explains one of the most radical rupture which also promotes an understanding which explains about the traditional relations property by applying most radical raptures of the ancient traditional ideas. Like in every other revolution, communists strongly support revolutionary movements which rise against the existing political and social order of events and things. All these kind of revolutionary movements bring at hand the most intriguing question and the question of property despite its level of development at that particular time.

The theory sounds impressive and it draws my attention to the present day categorization and structuralization of the society and the kind of relationships which characterizes the modern human existence. Reflecting at the theory it is evident that the history of the modern societies can be traced back to the long gone days of social classes and structures which characterized the feudal societies. Communist holds that clear ends can only be achieved through forceful overthrow of the existing forms of social conditions. Which would therefore makes the ruling class to tremble at the face of communist revolution while the proletarians will have nothing to lose despite their chains and they will have a world to win and cherish if all workingmen in all the nations unite.

Lenins path as a political radical was highly influenced by his childhood experiences especially involving the death of one of his sister and the arrest of another who was banished and send away from home due to the existing dictatorship kind of leadership during this period. Such events transformed Lenin and challenged him to become a political radical which is actually presented in the Soviet biographies as one his very first tracks of his revolutionary political life.

His dream was to work towards complementing those personal, political, emotional upheavals which existed with the society by then. During his University life in 1887, Lenin studied law and greatly read the writings of Karl Marx intensively and extensively, which also moved his political aspirations and thought .During this period the Marxism derived political ideas challenged him and he got himself into a messy riot while at university which saw his expulsion and the authorities barred him from joining any other university. He later completed his law degree privately.

Between the years 1907 to 1916, Lenin established a program which specifically targeted the capitalism development in Russian countryside and it was highly intended to prepare the Russian community materials for social foundation socialism, and it would also provide an alternative function for the tsarists regime through a pro led capitalist efforts. During this period Lenin greatly hopped for a Marxist revolution by the bourgeoisie. It was during this period when Lenin declared that the people of Russia were already tired of being under the control of the leadership of one ruler (czar) and the great ideas of communism, socialism and Marxism inspired them and especially Lenin to think of other possible ways of governance.

As a result of this feeling, majority of them rebelled and turned to Lenin who was promising them a relatively better future. This move begun with great the ideas of Karl Marx which stated that in the end communist would not be the best path for Russia to take. It is this political ideology that gave him this popular Marxism reputation and his ideas became widely acknowledged. The Marxism 20th century ideas communicated by Lenin had had great profound moral ideas even bordering religious significance.

Leninism further developed as a practice and a theory on the practice of dictatorship of the proletariats vaguely led by revolutionary party. Theoretical Leninism formed a combination of socialist economic and political theories derived from Marxism and Lenins interpretation of the Marxist theory in order to fit well in the agrarian Russian empire of the day. In his ideologies Lenin reversed the Marxist order of economic infiltration of the society over politics, thus allowing for the creation of a political revolutionary in the year 1917, and Lenin formed the ideological base for the soviet socialism and more specifically the Russian realization of its new soviet union.

In his interpretation of Marxist ideas he did not only focus of the class struggles that characterize the society, but he looked at the society at a broader perspective and saw the world being structured into these classes that Marx had talked about, with countries exploiting and oppressing others and from this ideology, wrote his second  pamphlet , Imperialism the Highest Stage of Capitalism, in the year 1916, where he described a certain kind of development in which Marx had predicted that capitalism would ones become a global system especially in the most advanced industrial nations and states exporting financial capital to different colonial countries with an aim to exploit their resources and their cheap labor.

Lenin saw this superexploitaion of poor countries would promote and allow the capitalist countries maintain some kind of homeland worker at a relatively higher standard of living at the same time subjudicating and oppressing the poor in order to maintain and ensure some forms of peaceful coexistence of labor capital relations characterized by aspects such as globalization and labor aristocracy.

In this state Lenin claimed that a proletariat revolution would never occur in developed capitalist countries in an imperialist global system which was tightly intact and organized into systems and structures. In this case the under developed countries would thus feature the very first proletariat revolution and imperialism Russia was by them the poorest and weakest country in the capitalist global system.

In the year 1915, Lenin wrote urging the world workers to unite and fight the uneven economic and political developments which were absolutely capitalist. Thus Lenin saw the victory of socialism as possible and all what one was supposed to think about was how to institute a socialist democracy and a revolutionary strategy. Lenin unlike Marx talked about the organizational categorization of institutions which had diverse social practices as those observed in Marxs social classes.

Lenin saw the creation of a socialist country in organized social production would raise and organize it own socialist production and it would stand against the rest of the world. Lenis ideas and political thoughts highly differed from Marx in different substantial ways because in his work he focused on what had to be done simply because he recognized that the proletariats had no efforts which would rather result to a revolutionary. So for Lenin, he believed that the proletariats cannot by any means attain a revolutionary consciousness and if it had to, it could only be attained through forming and establishing trade unions. Just like Marx Lenin held that the proletariats ultimate end is vested on its own material wellbeing and not the end result of alienation. Unlike Marx, Lenin recognized that the aims of the proletariats can be attained eve without a revolutionary transformation occurring within capitalism. While Marx believed that the ultimate end of capitalism is a radical revolutionary which would occur at the highest state of capitalism in industrialized countries such as France, Russian and the like. Thus, these goals could be achieved through organizing labor unions and through government initiative activities which spurred by political organizations within the proletariats.

Therefore, to achieve change Lenin proposes that the communist party formed must be precisely vanguard of proletariats. This party must be able to take political power and rule over the whole society even including the proletariats. Thus, the main goal should be focused towards creating a communism in which in a give point the proletariats would recognize its very true and real goals while the class would be destined towards establishing and creating a communist revolution. This is the only point where democratic forms of government can be achieved and come into being.

Theory of Marxism has been greatly being influential spurring the reasoning of the many even in the modern democratic countries. To the best of my knowledge, the theory is equally practical by reflecting on the manner in which the world to day is structured into systems. From Marxist ideas of class struggle we can deduce the present categorization of the world in more advanced forms and structures which are highly capitalist. Lenin observed a shift in and changes in the of societal organizations from simple structures to more complex structures in the modern age of industrialization where countries raise over to dominance exploiting and subjudicating others for materialist advantages.

This trend explains the modern kind of relationship which define the existence of the modern societies where the world is perceived as a whole global system structured into systems and structure which define the forms of interaction more so based materialist interest and self gain. For instance, in the modern societies Lenin argued that capitalism has raised to its highest t stage with increasingly growing world super powers dominating the international system, by drawing wealth towards one pole and leaving agony, brutality and toil on the other end. Toady, we have the developed and underdeveloped countries. Where under developed countries serve as the proletariats providing raw materials and cheap labor for the industrial growth for the developed. The structures are hierarchically organized and material and economic power is used as a tool for oppression.

Creation of regional and  international organization as a forum for drawing and making policies on economic issues have been established as organizations for fighting and promoting justice and equality. However, in the short run these institutions become increasingly influenced by the super powers to act in their interest promoting growth at the core and subjudicating the lower end by taking economic advantages on them.

Welfare Reforms

The circle of life can not run smoothly if there is no change in the environment. For the stability of the structure we need change, as our structured is design in a way that modifications become a need. The pyramid structure of our society with social classes is inevitable. The poor remains poor for years over years and for the betterment of their lifestyle so that they get the basic needs of life the government bring welfare reforms. With time change is necessary in the shape of reforms.

Welfare reforms include a wide range of benefits and incentives given to the poor people such as education, health and even unemployment benefits. Welfare reforms are part of government public policy. These reforms are there to effect the life of masses as they give relieve to the people in pain and suffering. Welfare reformation in a wider sense can include political reforms in which the public should be aware and strict actions are needed against the corrupt politician who could be termed as political reforms. Others can be based on ethnicity and racial issue that all the segment of society should be treated equally and granted similar right as that of any other dominant ethnic group. welfare can also be in term of a change in approach of the system for example moving from the military approach to the humanitarian approach can symbolizes welfare for the public as it will give them ease and satisfaction. welfare reforms is also about identifying the major groups and giving them the responsibility of the betterment of the structure such as the dominating trade unions who are working for big organization should consider the importance for their fellow worker and should stand for their right as well emerging as a big force for the worker would be considered as a powerful welfare reform. welfare reforms does no only mean financial help but it also covers the benefits so its like taking care of the citizens just like family. Its a relationship of trust and loyalty from the government to its people.

One of the major agendas of the government in the election time period is the welfare reforms as they define how they will benefit the common man. The political parties are coming up with better and better welfare policy in order to get support. As it is directly related to the masses people decide on to their vote on these bases. Welfare reforms are the integral part of the system which is immensely imported for the political parties at the time of elections.

The political parties manifesto is mainly based on the welfare reforms agenda. All the political parties which come into existence they have the motive of change in their minds. A change can become the first step towards the betterment to the people in uplifting their standard of living. Its these welfare agenda which attracts the masses to the political parties and keep them motivated in the political system. So its show that the institution has strong bases and these foundations are laid on the goodwill gesture of welfare reforms.

Media plays a vital role in shaping up the minds of people it manipulates, exploits the people as well the government to make its voice heard. when media initially came in it was in the form of print media as at that time there were only news paper and those news paper were influencing but with the modernization media spread out to raised and from their to v and then to internet. Now TV is dependent on the media for our fate as they are the real people in power of creating a wave of opinions. So that is why a big responsibility lies with the kingship that controls the most important thing that is public. So with big power comes big responsibility. The media acts mature in portraying the public demand to the higher authority so they can implement the right policy as their welfare reforms. By doing polls on show through documentaries media can make the government realize the misery of the common man as media works as a connecting source in between. Media focuses on issues such as the law regarding rape, regarding discrimination on the basis of race and ethnicity. These topics need to be understood by the masses and the ruling forces. Racism is a common practice from all round the globe so its media who promote equality among us and adopts a leading role in directing the government to give equal rights to the people. The perception created by media becomes the welfare police of the government. So the power of media as a separate entity can never be under estimated as it is there present in the system and has a large scale market in creating the people aware of what needs to be changed.

Welfare reforms do not come into existence on the recommendation of one institution in the system. Institutions play a major role according to its function and jurisdiction. The technicality of welfare reforms are designed by the tools functioning in the system such as the justice system. Justice system of a country is one of the most important pillar f the state. Strong justice system will eventually lead to a better nation as they guardian the fact that everyone is treated on equal grounds. Even the dominant ruling political party who are in power has to give high regard to the justice system in order to get the welfare reforms implemented. The role of judiciary is to analyze the welfare policies and how they are being distributed in the society. Financial assistance provide in terms of unemployment benefits, pensions, financial aid to families who are in extreme condition. This all requires accountability and a strict check that this money of the state treasury is been allocated in the right hands. The justice system keeps the wheel spinning because if a country does not have a strong justice system then it can never prosperous as the check and balance is required. judiciary gives significant importance in protecting individuals in welfare reforms for example the rights to homosexual which have been allotted recently in six states of USA and in Canada came as a welfare reforms for the community by giving them the social rights. The government directly intervenes the law making agencies of the system as the changes come in the reforming of laws to make it more appealing and acceptable to the masses. So every reform has a strong backing of justice system behind it as a backing which will make the reforms a legal document for every one in the society to follow.

Apart from the political parties and justice system there are other dominant forces which play a strong role. The forces which influence the ruling party to surrender to its will can be termed as the pressure groups and interest groups. The interest groups are entirely different from political parties as they dont have the authority to actually bring a change in the system but they are the silent actors who influences the government to get there job done. The elitist in the system who have connection which can make a difference can play the role of pressure groups or else people with strong market share can also be termed as interest groups. Interest groups as the main suggest have some interest in the system, there motive is predefined and its their end goals which bring them together in the larger circle. These groups are very important when it comes to the welfare reforms in a country as there large influences helps in shaping up the policy as they are invisible hands which are pushing the government for works in their interest. The transportation network in certain country can be termed as a pressure group. Transportation group will only effect if majority of the people uses public transport. If the transporters go on strike the system will collapse. the tools adopted by the interest group to make their voice heard is through strikes, lobbying, protest etc. through this they do get their message across in a big way. So this way transporter can demand for a subsidy from the government on fuel prices this way it will be welfare for the people that now they have to pay less. The subsidies which all these interest grouped get such as on food items mainly agriculture later help the masses and becomes their welfare for a better society. Other interest groups can also be in terms of NGOs non governmental organization as there part is mainly focusing on the welfare of the people. NGOs in developing country can impact strongly as there are many women rights organization which raise their voice against the domestic violence and physical abuse of women so they promote it in such a way through rallies with the help of media that their voice doesnt go unnoticed in the society so the government can initiate welfare reforms o the demands of the interest group such as NGOs. The process of social reforms starts with the ray of hope and when organization and interest groups come forward the ray of open when it is on the medium of any survival and are of the chances that things will come to real. A dream of a better society will become reality if all the groups play their parts effectively.

Even after years of hardships and reforms done for the betterment of the system why do we still feel the need of these reforms again and again. Why the system is is no evolving this is because of the poor management of the system. Granting resources is not the only way of getting things done and that is not the only job of the government as its job is to stay there till the end result and make sure that the laws are being implemented in the right direction. The failure to fully implement reforms on the frontlines has implications for the achievement of policy objectives and for equity in service provision. Implementation issues will have even greater urgency as welfare is devolved from federal to state governments. This shows that the hierarchical structure present in the government is not in good contact as bit is because of the communication gap and difference of opinion. In the state or provincial government at federal level as this has the strong impact on the general population who are hoping for welfare. Welfare for the deserving people is like oxygen because they are totally dependent on it. This kind of mistake in implementing social policy is a challenge and the barriers need to be broken in order to achieve the harmony in the society. Not delivering to the highest standard will cost the political party in terms of voters. So a strong relationship needs to be build with the political structure so that policies passed one house should have the credibility of being implemented.

Reforms the ray of hope and change in the system is necessary for all as to some extend problems are present in all the parts of the world. The case of perfect scenery does not exist in reality. So with ever society with problems why the case that few have a lagre number of is reforms where as the other is very limited is just the difference in the resources of a particular country or it the difference in the approach to system. Some possible explanations found to be incomplete are institutional differences in welfare programs, the uniqueness of circumstances (for example, German unification), and the balance of political power in governing institutions. An important part of the puzzle is an increasing perception of the need to reform that was more widespread in Denmark and the Netherlands. The social construction of an imperative to reform in these countries generated a political consensus that was elusive in Germany but that may be developing under Gerhard Schrders government.This show that the reform formulation of a country depend on it structure. The institutions and public perception plays the vital role in the formulation of welfare reforms. In 1945, at the time of  the World War, Germany was lead by Nazis, Hitler was a strong dictator. At that time Hitler made the people used to of the authoritative type of rule. The opinion and views of the general public were suppressed so they never had the courage to raise their voice against the problem and ask for welfare reforms. the society needs to be a free and open society with a politically cultured so that the common man takes part in the political and institutional system to make his own life better through welfare reforms. So its the awareness among the people which matters as in the case of Denmark that its perception of the people that changes the world around them.

Welfare policies are for the betterment of the masses. As they provide assistance and relieve to them but that is not always the case. When the government is trying to improve the quality of the life of people it overshadows important aspects as well. Welfare reforms are for the under privilege class of the society so it should mainly focusing them and the policies formulated and implemented should be in a way that brings prosperity. Although the 1996 welfare reforms have spurred many welfare-to-work transitions, their time limits and, especially, sanctions are likely to deepen poverty among some families. We suggest ways policies might be aimed at preventing either economic deprivation itself or its effects.Welfare reforms have many dimensional effects that is why things need to be focus in a way that the end result doesnt bother the real beneficiaries. Further deterioration of their economic conditions can make life difficult for the people. The formulation and flexibility of the welfare reforms is a matter of high sensitivity as it required the allocation of resources on a large scale and the government who is responsible for the betterment of the people should not forget its mail goal in the way of power and authority over looking a reform is not the escape for any government.

The welfare policies are distributed in a wide range and some way or the other it does cater everyone in the society. Welfare is for everyone as we see the demographic table. The levels of welfare is on every levels as for a child there are welfare policies such as health and protection as the child grows he faces the welfare policies of education by the government, then in the middle ages the financial assistance and the unemployment benefits are there and finally as we up in the order in terms of age the older people get pensions and old age benefits with the security for health. So it shows that how these welfare policies are supporting system for all of us. As it is there on every step of the ladder to motivate and make us feel courageous. The demographic also represent the gender differences. Men and women get different type of welfare benefit such as women gets protection from domestic and physical abuse and are also granted leaves at the time of pregnancy. The intensity and role of welfare can vary from the social classes and the organizations in the system but in general the government makes an effort in implementing these reforms for each one of us to satisfy us and to provide the citizens with a way of life which is dignified.

Welfare does not come free from problems everything which has a positive aspect dose have adverse social consequences as well. This is because so many people are involve in formulating and implementing these welfare policies that the lack of specialize skills from any department can damage the whole process of policy formation. Over the past twenty years, welfare reforms have challenged the salience of this conceptualization. This article argues that changes such as pension reform, administrative decentralization and efforts to revive the obligation of citizenship have fostered a more discursive conception of social rights. When rights are discursive, the relative power of various clientele interests plays a greater role in the distribution of benefits than objective conditions of need. Also, such notions as universality and solidarity are giving way to selectivity and individual responsibility as the paramount principles of the welfare state.

This shows that just focusing on the terminologies and not doing anything wont make a difference in the system. These social reforms goals should only be involving the government benefits and not aiming for other hidden motive. To understand the process of welfare reforms is very importance as these politicians can use this measure for their advantage fooling the public by just giving sentimental speeches and using terms such as universality. The culture of welfare is prime objective of any political party o when they come in power they should abide for what is right them misleading the people.

The terms and conditions of the welfare reforms are for very few people. as the overview picture suggest that welfare reforms are for everyone but this is not he case in real the technicalities of the reforms holders are complex for example in USA the financial assistance which is temporary in nature given to people who are jobless have a stick check on their requirement such as pregnant woman and families with children overlooking many people who are in need of this welfare desperately but cannot get through just because the dont match the requirement scale. So the limitation in the welfare policies is very much brutal. The welfare reforms are limiting with every day as the world is facing a recession the poor are the worst victims of. As the system is changing the policies are getting striker making it difficult for the ordinary people to take advantage of these welfare reforms. Since TANF (Temporary Assistance for Needy Families) is enacted, the number of people on welfare has declined dramatically. By 1999, there were only 7.2 million recipients, including 2.6 million families and 5.1 million children, roughly half the caseload of the 1994 peak. Analysts believe several factors have contributed to this decline, including an improved economy, tougher work requirements, and diversion strategies that have moved applicants directly to work programs. Not only have recipients left the program in higher numbers, but fewer have joined to replace them.

Welfare reforms should not only be limited to providing assistance and support but should focus on the larger consequences. This ray of hope will only effect if the government is trying to change things on a lager scale for a longer period that the effectiveness of these reforms is guaranteed and the resources of the country does not in to drain. The educational reforms in which free education is provided to a certain level as the welfare so there should be further checks on how this education is helping the student are they deserving enough to give them the privilege of free education. As the new trend suggest that now the number of school drop outs are increasing student showing in competence in their academia is adversely affecting the system of the country. Even the teaching staff and curriculum should be the major agenda in a way that it is implemented. So the potentials of the student can increase in the real sense making the effort of reforms as a useful medium to bring changes in the life of every student. The government job is not only to initiate but to make sure that what is initiated should have definite prosperous end.

The leadership has a big impact on all the policies of the country as he sees the country with a vision which does not have any other parallel. So the significance of welfare polices lies in the hand of leadership of the date. with all the good will form the leader why is that the problems of the poor people keeps on increasing the more they put effort in eliminating poverty the stronger t emerges. This show there is a problem with a system the problem could be the missing of good intention or the wrong policies because the loop holes are there in the system. In developing countries nothing seems to help in bring welfare to the people despite the efforts of the local government and with the help of the international world. This is due to a complex process of money system. That the more money comes into the economy is drained out by larger developed countries in the name of multi National Corporation this shows that the leaders in these countries are pretty much helpless and are not able to fight the system which has enslaved them. So the welfare of the common people is on stake from the big fish in the market. As in these cases the leadership is just not have the power to do anything and is being manipulated by the external forces. The welfare state or a state in which citizen are the first priority is more of a dream than anything real.

The civil society comprises of the common man the people who are educated and have a special forum in society. The doctors, engineers, lawyers and other professional combines together to formulate a civil society. civil society is one of the key players in bringing reforms in a country rather it be revolutionary change or change in the welfare system of the country its there say which counts the most. The welfare is the social right of every individual so its them who make the government realize of their responsibility about their citizens. As the betterment comes from within the system the whole of civil society need to join hand to make a difference as their efforts will not go waste if they become the voice of the unheard welfare reforms can be formulated and implemented in the right way. As welfare reforms is not the responsibility of the government but the responsibility is shared among the people of the nation.

The collaboration between all the entities is very important as one institution single handed cannot take all responsibility of the system. For the smooth process of the structure stability is needed. Welfare reforms are a ray of hope to bring changes in the life of those who desperately need them. So the ray of hope can only transform into a beam of light when all the institutions join hands for a better tomorrow. Welfare reforms is a process which is being on going from years as it was first introduce at the time of world economic depression in 1930s and from then onwards it became the central agenda for every one. The stages of growth of welfare reforms can be understood by the number and different directions of reforms that how the government and civil society is acting in a way that they are looking at all the matters from a micro level putting themselves in the shoes of the suffers and them formulating the welfare policies. So their efforts as a team should be respected to keep their spirits motivated towards the change in system.

On the flip of the coin there are times that the welfare policies cannot function properly because of miss communication among the entities in the system all the pillars does not show the same levels of enthusiasm in order to bring the change. Even the hierarchal structure with in one entity acts a barriers in either formulating or implementing a social welfare policies as many interest groups are involve whose prime motive it their personal benefit over everything. When doing well for the people the welfare work require pure intentions and determination which is missing in todays time. As the complexity of the world has made people very self centered and the problem of managing time has become a greater problem. The competitor and brutal world is not teaching any one about the importance of welfare in a society as the technological world has converted us into to robot making us numb so that we dont feel the pain ad misery of other individual at this hour of need our government should give extra attention so that all the entities can work together irrespective of their differences. So to achieve a new beginning, a new dawn for every one is required.

Against all the odd, the welfare system with the entire complexities is trying to make a difference and the researches have shown the success of these reforms. A growing body of evidence suggests that recent policy changes have influenced economic behavior and well-being. One particular set of new-style welfare programs seems to show especially promising results, with significantly increased work and earnings and reduced poverty.
Welfare reforms has shown in result but more is required from the government to make sure that these reforms becomes the part of each system in the country so poverty can be alleviated not from one country but the whole world. As the global village is more and more dependent o each other countries should help other countries in making sure that the welfare policies implemented are of highest credibility and the revenues of the government and the people are not going in drain.

This research paper can be further studied and can discuss specific reforms of countries in order to further highlight the role of welfare reforms. the primary data can also add o the authenticity of the paper as the local people of classes and sections of the society gives their view on welfare that how the upper classes are formulating then and hoe it is been implemented in the grass root level. Other suggestion for paper world that it should focus on comparison between two countries welfare polices so that the overview would more highlights that what are the institution and structure within a country that affects the trends of welfare reforms and development.

Welfare reform are the foundations for the basis of change for a country and hold keep performance In building up the countries roles in the international market. It is important to have practical reform policies but its of greater significance that those policies are being implemented in the right direction by the masses. The welfare policies deals with education facilities for student so they can get the primary education free of cost which is their fundamental social right. Other important aspect of welfare would be free health benefit provided to the under privilege people. The access to financial help on temporary bases is a relief that all countries provide to its people. Welfare reforms can also be in terms of subsidies that will make things easier and affordable to people.

The welfare reforms are a matter of concern for all, the key players holding the position to make a difference such as the politicians, interest groups, media, civil society are all the pieces of puzzle of welfare reforms which when joins together it the appropriate way with considering the timing can only result in the picture of glory and success for the country.

International Trade Relations

Fast-Track Authority was undemocratic under the U.S constitution. Congress writes laws and sets our trade policies. However, through the introduction of Fast Track, the president grabbed that power. This mechanism facilitated controversial commercial pacts like NAFTA and the World Trade Organizations (WTO), which restricts nations trade and non trade policies.

Americans were for anti-fast track authority system and they tried all their means to ensure that Bush Administration is not granted with the authority to determine the direction, policies and terms regarding the state engagement in the global economy. Fast track authority was to transfer Congress constitutional mandated control over U.S trade agreements to the White House. Fast Track grants the president power to pick or select countries to negotiate with. He sets the agreements terms and even may sign the agreement himself before the Congress votes or the public that does not have public say. This system bans all amendments and forces out votes even if the democratic leader does not want the agreements on the floor.

Fast Track is undemocratic in the sense that it would undermine and prevent Congress from negotiating or participating in debates on any trade agreements involving the president. This will automatically reduce the role of Congress in the trade negotiations. The president has only power to manage foreign sovereigns relations while Congress is mandated with the power to regulate and control commerce with foreign countries. Fast track would destroy and remove checks and balances of governance stipulated in the constitution and this was to take the government into undemocratic direction.

Therefore, Fast Track was an impediment and an obstacle to free trade, limitation of public opinion on trade, environmental and socio-economic issues. Hence, the need for democratic process coupled with accountable trade negotiators was paramount important to ensure public opinion are taken into account as well as Congress legislative roles, labor  and environmental standards are protected.


This paper focuses on the recruitment of the armed forces in New Zealand. The New Zealand army is made up of the navy, the army and the air force. During recruitment, each unit conducts its own recruitment and training at their own different bases. They also conduct it during different times of the year and three different budgets are made for the three different units of the armed forces. There are also different administrative units that spearhead the recruitment, each with its own hierarchy of administrators. This method is very costly and inconveniencing and the paper will introduce the concept of joint recruitment where it will analyze its pros and cons.

The New Zealand army set up closely follows that of the British. It is made up of three organs The army, the navy and the air force. Each of the organs has the unique task within the general mission of defending the country (Rolfe, 1999). The army is the land power that is supposed to instill order and values in the land as it guards the installations and the property of the government in the land. The air force is the aerial wing of the armed forces and its task within the general mission of the armed forces is the provision of flexible aerial power when needed. The navy is based in the ocean and protects the country from the marines.

During recruitment, each unit conducts its own recruitment and training at their own different bases. They also conduct it during different times of the year and three different budgets are made for the three different units of the armed forces. There are also different administrative units that spearhead the recruitment, each with its own hierarchy of administrator recruiters and trainers who have to be paid. Different bases are also expensively set up for the activity with each of the three units building its own recruitment base (Rolfe, 1999).

This should not be the case, because the value system of the three units of the armed forces is the same and most of the activities done during the process of training and recruitment is the same. This duplicated method of recruitment and training is sheer waste of money, physical and human resources bearing in mind that a lot of benefits can be accrued by having a joint recruitment of the officers of the three units of the armed forces, though there are also some limitations that would impede this kind of operation. There are very many grounds that can be covered by a single recruitment exercise. Apart from the coverage, there are also many other benefits that can be accrued from the single recruitment exercise though there will still be some limitations that would impede this kind of operation.

Commonalities and Benefits
There are various commonalities between the army, the navy and the armed forces that cam be covered if the New Zealand armed forces conducted a joint training program (Rolfe, 1999). One of the commonalities is the recruitment procedure and the qualities that the three forces look for when they are recruiting. The minimum age for the three forces is 18 and the maximum is 32. The normal terms of engagement for the three is 22 years and one is not allowed to resign before serving for 3 years. The three armies recruit from within the country and they do not accept foreigners. The organs of the armed forces also accept women though the women are not allowed in the combat units of the forces (Rolfe, 1999).

When it comes to the training, the training system for the three organs is the same though each branch conducts its own training independently. The training of the armed forces is value oriented and there are various values like integrity, strength, leadership, commitment and service that are instilled during the training period. All these values are central to the three units and can be covered in a common way during the recruitment. In the three organs, discipline is very important and this is why the armed forces are referred to as the disciplined forces because of the value that is instilled is discipline. This discipline, self management and leadership skills are necessary in day to day operations of the armed forces (Rolfe, 1999).

There are very many benefits that can be accrued by conducting a single recruitment exercise for the navy, the army and the armed forces of New Zealand (Rolfe, 1999). One of the benefits is based on economics where a lot of money will be saved. Independent recruitments consume a lot of taxpayers money. To start with, independent recruitments will require three different advertisements calling interested and qualified individuals to apply for the armed forces posts which are very costly as compared to a single advertisement for a joint recruitment activity. Secondly, independent recruitment will mean that the procedures of recruitment will be carried out on different days or even different months which lead to waste of time. A lot of time can be saved if the recruitment was to be conducted on a single day at a central place. The other reason why independent recruitments are costly is that each organ has to set its own recruitment and training base meaning that there will be three facilities that are serving the same role and they are not even used throughout the year. If the armed forces were to conduct a joint recruitment, one centre would be set up for the process where the individual supposed to join any of the three wings of the armed forces will be selected. Setting up a training base costs the taxpayers a lot of money and a lot of money would be saved if one very big training base was set up to accommodate recruits from the whole force. It will also be cost effective because in the independent recruitment procedures, the cost of hiring the personnel for the three training bases is very prohibitively high. Administrative costs will also be kept down if the recruitment is done jointly.

The other reason why joint recruitment is beneficial is because a single human resource department for the armed forces would be set up and not three human resource departments for each of the organs of the armed forces. This, apart from saving costs also ensures that there is uniformity and cohesion in the process of recruitment. It ensures that all the qualities that are considered before recruitment are uniform for the three. Independent recruitment with three departments of human resources can compromise the quality of the recruitments process especially if one department is more lenient that the other or one department uses underhand method in the process of recruitment (Rolfe, 1999). The use of a common human resource department will also ensure that the working standards will be controlled form a certain central point and the welfare of the workers of the armed forces will be addressed by the same human resource management. Furthermore, a joint recruitment will enhance unity of the forces.

The armed force is a single body that performs the same role although on different platforms. Independent recruitment of the officers of the armed forces by each of the organ makes the force to look as a body of three independent and unrelated forces. Joint recruitment and training would help in addressing this anomaly. From the onset, a joint recruitment will create a homogenous team of officers who will be trained together as they interact and know each other. They will be taught the values of the force, the missions, the discipline and the approaches of the force meaning that there will acquire standard procedures used for the entire force. Independent training can disadvantage one group of the force especially if the processes in the camp are wanting or one training camp has better personnel than the other (Rolfe, 1999). Joint training will expose the recruits to similar conditions meaning that no group will have a competitive disadvantage.

There comes a time when the members of the forces are supposed to work together in a joint operation. The operation will be a success if the members of the three forces had been exposed to the same type of training under the same base. However, the officers trained under different conditions in different camps may find it hard to coordinate is such an exercise because of the differences in approach. Officers who have been trained jointly already know each other and have worked together on a number of projects during training meaning that this will be transferred to the joint operation at hand.

On the other hand there are some limitations that would make it hard for the combination of the three military services in the recruitment unit. Though they have one general mission, there are sub missions of each unit that are specific to it. For example for the air force, there must be a mission statement that is specific to the force and values that may be specific to that force also. This means that they would require specialized recruitment procedures that are in line with the mission and vision that is specific to the air force. The same applies to the navy. There are some ethics and values that are specific to the navy. There is code of behavior that is expected of them when working in the water that may not be relevant to the army or the armed forces. This has to be disseminated to the navy officers alone meaning that conducting a joint recruitment process may hamper delivery of some elements that are specific to each of the three forces. There are also ways in which the army is supposed to carry out its operations that may not be of benefit to the rest of the units (Rolfe, 1999). This must be delivered in a way that is specific to the army and this means that they need a specialized training that encompasses the jurisdictions of the armed forces.

The other limitation is the fitness training of the three units that may differ in style. For example the training of the air force officers has to encompass aerial fitness and safety measures. These include things like jumping from planes using parachutes into the battle field and techniques of aerial combat. The navies have to be trained on marine fitness and safety techniques while serving in the water. The army also have specialized land fitness training schedules that may not be of much relevance to the other two units (Wagner, 2000). This diversity in the fitness training of the three different arms of the armed forces will create a lot of limitations that will not allow joint training to take place unless they are trained on all the aspects of three forces in a generalized way. Furthermore, this form of integrated training could have erosive effects. Each of the forces has a formal and informal culture that is specific to the unit. For example, there is a special way in which the armies live and operate and is different from that of the air force and the navy. The army officers are used to bush expeditions and remote operations and they are sometimes involved in land based community projects where they act as supervisors or  workers while the navy officers are usually given extra work in the sea like saving lives in case of marine accidents (Rolfe, 1999). These extra jobs that the officers perform on the side of their jobs form part of their culture. Other parts of culture of the armed forces include their uniforms, their interpersonal relationships and their working environments. This means that if the recruitment is conducted in an integrated way, there will be gradual erosion of the cultures in each of the wing of the armed forces something that has been there for decades.

In addition, this move will create cracks within the force because not every one will support such a move. For instance, the officers in the three forces feel that their force is unique. They may resent any move that will create interference in their specific code of operations. This means that they may even boycott the process of recruitment meaning that there would be no enough manpower to carry out the process. The biggest demerit of this kind of recruitment is that it is a big security threat especially to the government. A joint recruitment and training will create unity in the armed forces which may not be healthy from a political Machiavellian point of view. This is because, they can easily hatch a plot to take over the government and establish a pure military rule (Rolfe, 1999). However, if the forces remain distant as they are now, it may take time before the units reach each other for such a plan and if one wing of the armed forces decides to go alone to overthrow the government it can be easily countered by the others.

The last demerit concerns weapons and the equipment used in the activities of each of the three forces. There are some weapons like guns that are central to the three forces meaning that the weapon training can be done in a common way but there are other weapons and war equipment that are specific to each force. The army may have its tanks the air force has the fighter jets and other aerial weapons while the navy has their navy ships and aquatic weapons meaning that this form of joint recruitment and training may not suffice. Each force needs special training on how to use and handle its special weapons.

Proposed Model
The model that I would propose is an amalgam of the two methods of integrated and independent training and recruitment.  This means that the process is tackled in two phase. The first phase is the integrated recruitment and training that will ensure that all the commonalities are tackled in a common way and the second phase is where the units are separated and are trained the specifics of each force separately. This does not call for the setting of independent recruitment and training bases (Rolfe, 1999). It can still be carried in one base, under the same administration the only thing that can be done is the setting of different faculties to deal with the training of the values and the processes that are specific to each unit. This will enhance mutual relationship between the three forces while taking care of the differences between the diverse units.

In conclusion, the process of recruitment of the armed forces can be made cost effective if it is carried out in an integrated way. However, the limitations of the integrated process seem to outweigh the benefits meaning that though the method is cost effective and convenient, it may not be very feasible given the many demerits it has. The few benefits seem too attractive to be thrown away and revert to the old method and the best ways of creating a solution in this case is taking the best of each model and use them to create an amalgamated model that will ensure that the benefits of the integrated model are incorporated and its limitations taken into consideration (Wagner, 2000). For example, a joint recruitment will create a homogenous team of officers who will be trained together as they interact and know each other. They will be taught the values of the force, the missions, the discipline and the approaches of the force meaning that there will be standard procedures used for the entire force. Independent training can disadvantage one group of the force especially if the processes in the camp are wanting or one training camp has better personnel than the other. Joint training will expose the recruits to similar conditions meaning that no group will have a competitive disadvantage.

If there is no way the two methods can be married to create an alternative hybrid model, then I would propose that the old method of recruitment be maintained because the integrated method if adopted, would actually bring more problems than it would solve. Though it is cost effective and convenient, it has stark limitations that would make it highly unfeasible in a highly sensitive area of operation like the military. However, some of the cost effective benefits of the integrated model should be evaluated and be incorporated in the old model.


The Tipping Point by Malcolm Gladwell is a book that analyses the fascinating social dynamics that cause rapid change.  Using anecdotes and stories about Hush Puppies, Sesame Street and Airwalk sneakers, Gladwell illustrates principles and theories that help to explain how a particular phenomenon reaches the tipping point - that magic moment when an idea, trend, or social behavior crosses a threshold, tips and spreads like wildfire. The book was first published in 2000, when it became a national bestseller, sparking shifts in thinking in diverse fields from marketing to public health to legal policy.

Gladwells book traces the biography of social phenomena, explaining how a particular idea or trend starts out, what happens to it and why it suddenly seems to reach a critical mass, and becomes accepted into society. Understanding how this happens can help to create and implement public policy, so as to ensure that policies written by bureaucrats in ivory towers can actually make an impact in the street and in the lives of those they purport to benefit.

The Three Rules of Epidemics
The Tipping Point uses the analogy of an epidemic caused by a virus, and argues that social phenomena spreads the same way a virus does, progressing geometrically, until it seems as if the effect is quite out of proportion to the original cause (Gladwell, 2000, p11). This happens because sometimes quite a small event can lead to a big change, a fact that is often difficult for people to accept. Gladwell states that epidemics are a function of the people who transmit infectious agents, the infectious agent itself and the environment in which the infectious agent is operating (Gladwell, 2000, p18). These functions thus form the rules of epidemics, which are further explained below.

The Law of the Few
Gladwells first rule for spreading epidemics focuses on the carriers, the individuals who carry the disease in the case of those spreading HIV or the ones who started to wear Hush Puppies when it was not popular. They are exceptional people, and what makes them especially suited to the role of carrier are their special characteristics  how sociable they are, or how energetic or knowledgeable or influential (Gladwell, 2000, p21). Gladwell calls them connectors - special individuals who know many people, operate in many different spheres and possess unique characteristics that make them qualified to help spread social epidemics. There are also people Gladwell calls mavens, individuals who help consumers to make good choices, those who keep the marketplace honest, with their vast stores of specialized information (Gladwell, 2000, p61). The usefulness of connectors and mavens in helping to implement public policy is thus immense they can help to change social behavior and bring in new norms that otherwise would not be as easily or effectively implemented.

The Stickiness Factor
The second factor that Gladwell discusses is what he terms the stickiness factor, the component that makes a particular message memorable. Whilst the first rule focuses on the carriers of the message, the second rule focuses on the message itself. Gladwell uses examples like the popular childrens television show Sesame Street and the Gold Box campaign for Columbia Records to illustrate that a message can be sticky without either repeating it ad nauseam, or spending a fortune in promoting the message. Often, the messages that stick to the public consciousness are those that are contrary to the norm, that run counter to expectations. This is useful in implementing public policy, because effective campaigns to spread information need not be expensive, as long as they follow Gladwells exhortations on stickiness.

Power of Context
The third factor affecting social epidemics is the context or the environment in which the infectious agent is operating. A powerful message spread by the right connectors will fail to take root if the context is unsuitable. Gladwell uses the example of the drop in the crime rate in New York City in the 1990s to illustrate this point further. He describes the Broken Windows theory, where a broken window signals disrepair and disorder, leading to more broken windows, and then to bigger and bigger crimes (Gladwell, 2000, p141). One of the authors of this theory, George Kelling, was hired as a consultant to help stop the crime epidemic sweeping New York City, and he advocated using the broken window theory to clean up the subway system. By tackling the problem of graffiti and fare-beaters, bigger problems like carrying weapons on the subway ceased to be a problem. The police sent a message to the city that even small offences would not be tolerated, and gradually crime rates for the larger offences began to fall. Gladwell argues that context matters, and that making even small changes to the environment can have a big impact. This principle applies directly to the making of public policy. By making small changes to the environment, social changes can be achieved in society.

Gladwell ends the book with an apt illustration of the real value of the notion of a tipping point  there are times when we need a convenient shortcut, a way to make a lot out of a little (Gladwell, 2000, p257). In the sphere of public policy, social changes are needed in society within the context of resource constraints. The Tipping Point illustrates that powerful changes can be brought about simply by harnessing the knowledge of how epidemics work.
For a segment that contributes so heavily to the American cause, life should be very comfortable for international students. Unfortunately, this isnt the case. International students are one of the most stressed lot in our society. The selection of a college or university is one of the most important decisions of our lives and is thus quite stressful as it is. For someone who is leaving behind hisher family and country, it is much more stressful. In the post 911 scenario, these problems have increased considerably. With the terrorist attacks, the once easy process of getting an American education has turned into an unending maze for international students. From visa and travel restrictions to work and social security, at every step, achieving the American dream has become hostile. Already stretched financially, these international students are exposed to several other risks such as currency devaluation. This significantly impacts their financial situation and just to meet their basic needs they are forced to work and even in that case, only for 20hrs per week because of the work restrictions which is not enough to meet their special requirements. This forces many of these international students to find illegal work. What a pity that the best minds in the world are forced to find illegal work in a country which was once considered the immigrants dream. While it is understandable that the State Department felt compelled to enhance national security in the face of new threats, it hardly makes sense to make life completely miserable for international students. As a matter of fact,
It is time, as a nation, to be purposeful about international education---to employ it consciously, in a coordinated manner, as one of the tools in the national toolkit for engaging with the world in pursuit of the objectives that we share with the worlds people (NAFSA 2009)

This paper attempts to find solutions to this problem including analysis of public policy options because
Public policyand the laws that policy produces---are the principal tools in securing the democratic promise for all people. Public policy is able to ensure that all people---not just the select few---are considered deserving and entitled.(Ingram, Schneider pg 2)

The financial problems faced by international students are amongst their gravest problem, thus any reform must target the alleviation of these financial woes. Current off-campus work restrictions dont allow hardworking international students to find a way to earn enough money to ease their financial burdens. Thus it is necessary that the 20 hours per week work restriction be at least increased if not completely removed. Access to social security should also be ensured.

It should be kept in mind that the prime motivation of the international students to come to America is to attain a world class higher education. Thus these students would only work to fulfill their basic requirements. Working beyond that would affect their education and they would definitely not compromise their prime objective.

Credit is another area where potential reform can greatly reduce the financial burdens on international students. While generous state and federal grants are available for American citizens, there are very few opportunities for international students to get access to credit. To understand this problem, we need to analyze the tuition fee structure differences between international and local citizens. International students who are already financially stressed are made to pay around 3-5 times the fee that in-state students pay in public institutions. There is no logic that supports charging this exorbitant amount from international students.

Thus it is proposed that international students should be allowed to pay in-state tuition fee at public universities after they have completed 50 percent of their credits. Once they have completed 50 percent of their credits, they would already have paid at least the amount that other students are going to pay for the entire course. This would greatly reduce their financial burdens as well as help in eliminating the negative perceptions forming amongst international students that they are being unduly charged.

Presently, there is almost no way of accessing low-interest credit for international students. Due to certain regulations, there are restrictions on even opening basic bank accounts, let alone allowing access to credit. This has to change and access to low interest student loans should be given. International students being financially stretched would not abuse this access to cheap credit, rather they would utilize it to ease of their educational payments. Certain positive restriction on the use of such funds should be encouraged. For example, once a loan is approved, it should be directly transferred to the account of the institution rather than handing over cash to individuals. This would be in the benefit of international students as it would eliminate the possibility of loss of funds.

Economic crises are afflicting the entire world and such a scenario places enormous pressure on the meager resources of international students. Thus under such economic down turns, there should be some degree of flexibility in the tuition payments of international students and deferments should be allowed. This would reduce the financial burden on international students and at the same time, the payments of institutions would be ensured at a future date. If this is not allowed, a lot of international students would be forced to withdraw from their respective institutions which would be a huge financial blow to their institutions. Thus rather than losing huge payments by forcing international students to pay on time, these institutions can ensure a steady stream of income by deferring their payments. Apart from this, attention must also be paid to the medical and housing needs of international students. For young people who are away from their families, there has to be some arrangement for providing housing and medical care at affordable rates. Cheap housing should be ensured on or near campus because it would reduce the transportation costs of international students. The health of an individual is very important and therefore affordable healthcare is a must.

Such ambitious proposals require meticulous planning and vigor and a proper campaign is required to muster enough support to force a change in legislation.  The power of such campaigns can be summed up in the following words

Social movements have become a powerful force for social change. History has shown repeatedly that even the powerless have power when they are able to come together and resist dominant constructions, oppose oppressive policies, mobilize and associate themselves with widespread fundamental values of fairness and justice.. All of the great social movements of the twentieth century produced fundamental, long-lasting policy changes.(Ingram, Schneider pg 10)

As a first step, the entire academic community would have to be mobilized University Presidents, Deans, student bodies etc would first of all have to be apprised of the issue and then asked to actively work for the campaign. As the campaign is about ensuring a truly American experience for international students, the campaign should be named Preserving the American Dream.  It is very important to have a very clear idea of what factors would contribute to an environment that allows change in legislation. As argued by Kingdon
He argues that the key to understanding policy change is not where an idea came from, but what made it take hold and grow. It is therefore less important to identify the origins of a particular policy idea than to understand the complex combination of factors which bring an issue to agenda prominence and make governments receptive to agenda change(Kingdon qtd. in Tiernan, Burke pg 87)

To figure out the factors that would help in making the government receptive to change, advocacy groups forof international students would have to be formed. By nature of being advocacy groups, these groups would strictly address the issues faced by international students and actively exert their energies in alleviating their issues. A series of well integrated advocacy groups is required all over the country so that action can begin simultaneously all across the country. For maximum results, these advocacy groups would have to set an integrated agenda. They can decide to address one specific issue e.g housing at one particular time. When there would be a demand of cheap housing for international students from all over the country, the government would have to listen to the demands of the advocacy groups. Once their demands start gaining attention, they can diversify their issues.

For advocacy groups to gain importance, they would have to start campaigning at the grass roots. This can be done by appointing student leaders in as many colleges as possible. Rather than approaching each student individually (which would take a lot of time), heads of student bodies should be targeted. Once these student leaders are onboard with the idea, it would be very easy for them to spread the message within their respective student bodies. These students should be given information on the issues facing international students so that they can hold information sessions for their student bodies. It must be kept in mind that in such a campaign, international students are going to be the most potent force. Student leaders should be asked to link up with the international students within their student bodies as these international students would have firsthand experience of the issues and would also have a more receptive audience in their social circle.

Student bodies regularly campaign to appraise the administration of their demands and on many occasions, they are able to gain an audience. Thus the student bodies should campaign to get their administrations to lobby for legislation change in favor of international students. When addressing the issues of international students becomes a major demand of schools all over the country, there would be a lot of pressure on the government to take action. Thus this campaign has to be run in a step-by-step manner starting from student leaders and student bodies, to administrations, local legislators etc. Preferably this model should be replicated in all states at the same time. Apart from this, the international students should ask their native governments to make a concerted foreign policy effort to ensure that the American government realizes this is a major issue and it needs to be addressed. Advocacy groups can also collectively ask the native governments of their members to finance their activities. This is very important because financially stretched international students wouldnt be able to come up with the finances for such an elaborate national campaign. Apart from this, these advocacy groups should coordinate with other very powerful organizations of non-native Americans. Many of these organizations are politically active and are already in touch with legislators for addressing their issues. These organizations can help in making this a more politically relevant issue.

As is important with any new undertaking, we must analyze the potential problems associated with the campaign. The cost of this campaign can be prohibitive as it takes a lot of resources to organize a country wide campaign. However there are solutions to this problem. Advocacy groups can partner with other stronger non-native American organizations for financial support. Usually these organizations are composed of well off individuals who can easily spare funds for a cause they believe in. Then there can be some opposition to certain recommendations of this campaign. Some might argue the merits of increasing the amount of hours that international students should be allowed to work at a time when jobless rates have risen to a record high. It is true that during economic downturns, the debate over distribution of resources gets a little nasty. Such interest groups would ask why the American government should introduce a legislation that might make it harder for a native American to get a job Those who project these views portray that they are trying to preserve the resources of this nation for its natives. According to this view, the issues of native Americans take precedence over those of international students who are in a minority.  At times the government also supports such simplistic interpretations of issues which is a serious problem as government then tries to incorporate such ideas in policy making. Such distorted beliefs about group deservedness are summed up by Schneider  Ingram in the following words

Thus governments have exploited peoples tendency toward group categorization, positive group identification, and willingness to accept negative perceptions of undeserving groups. Entitlements provided to those whose support is most needed and are most easy to justify as deserving, need not be equitably distributed to serve the state-building function(Schneider, Ingram pg 3)

This simplistic view of the issue misses the problems that we as a nation would have to face if the problems of international students arent addressed. If international students arent allowed to work, then with ever-increasing costs of education, these international students would start targeting other countries. Thus with the passage of time, the billions of dollars that these international students contribute annually to our economy in the form of tuition fee, housing rents, and purchase of other commodities would shift to other countries. This would result in decreased demand in the future and would thus have a very negative impact on our economy in the long run.  There exists a long term relationship between international students and America and the present features of this relationship are

Long-term relationships may also be coercive because they are often between parties with unequal power. Think of exchanges between landlords and tenants, insurance companies and policy holders, universities and students, doctors and patients, .Long term relationships offer greater possibility for the more powerful side to take advantage of the weaker side(Stone pg 76)

The rich cultural heritage of America would also start eroding with the decrease in the number of international students. The unique perspectives that international students bring with them also go away with them. Thus the decrease in diversity of class rooms and the unique thought process of our diverse academics would result in a decrease in innovation. All this would also have grave foreign policy implications as we would lose our edge of having firsthand information about the issues and perspectives of other nations.  At a time when our country is looking at years of diplomatic warfare to ensure our security and the security of the world, this would significantly hamper our efforts. Thus by not addressing the concerns of international students, we would start losing our dominant global position. These far reaching implications of this issue might not be fully known to the public and it would be the responsibility of the advocacy groups to ensure that people fully understand the issue.

As the implications of not addressing the issues concerning international students have an impact on the public as well as the private sectors, both would have to be taken onboard. It is the public sectors responsibility to ensure our security, develop a foreign policy that helps us in achieving our goals as a nation and to provide an atmosphere that enhances our innovative capabilities. The private sector is concerned with the well being of the economy if the economy flourishes so does the private sector. The private sector has to be told about the major economic impact of a decrease in annual international students.
The major players in this issue are
International student advocacy groups
Foreign policy think tanks
Public sector interest groups
Private sector interest groups

All these players have their own objectives however the one over-riding objective is the betterment of this country. Thus these players need to sit together and chalk out a solution acceptable to all stakeholders. The role of media and think tanks would be instrumental in projecting this issue to the national level. By doing prime-time shows on the issues facing international students, the media can spark a healthy debate over the issue. By inviting experts on international student affairs, education, economy, cultural studies, foreign policy and security, the media can help develop a consensus amongst all the major stakeholders concerned with this issue. By debating the issue from all angles on a public platform, the media would be able to appraise the general population about the merits and demerits of various arguments. In this way, people wont be misled into taking a simplistic understanding of this complex issue.  The think-tanks would have the responsibility to objectively analyze the issue to figure out the short-long term costs and benefits of addressing the issues of international students and once this costbenefit analysis is done they would have to actively lobby for whats best for America in the legislative bodies. These think-tanks are powerful bodies and are in the business of shaping government policy. They should also invite international student advocacy groups to get their unique perspective on the issue.

I believe that the campaign envisioned in this paper is possible however its success depends upon how passionate its leaders are. Replicating the student-leader driven campaign all across the country and completely integrating the efforts of the various advocacy groups is a monumental task.  Projecting this issue as a major concern of the people to legislators can be done if the powerful non-native organizations emphasize their growing representation in the American population by exercising their voting rights in favor of candidates who make addressing the issues of international students one of their primary objectives.

Furthermore, the campaign is perfectly timed because official government policy is looking to mend the estrangement between America and the rest of the world because of the past several years of unilateralism.  Inviting more and more international students to America would help project a soft image of America at a time when it is engaged in military stand offs.  Thus it can be concluded that although this campaign faces significant challenges, it is definitely achievable and now is the best time to launch it. Those claiming that security concerns justify the current regulations are facing criticism such as

All prudent steps must be taken to prevent another act of mass terrorism on American soil. But a policy based in fear, that causes us to turn away from the world, is profoundly inimical to American securitybecause openness is part of security. The United States needs international students, professors, researchers, scientists, and future leaders coming to this country to further our universities educational mission, teach our students, increase mutual understanding between the United States and the rest of the world, enhance our economic and scientific competitiveness, and support U.S. international leadership. There is no escape from the responsibility of achieving the necessary balance (Johnson 2009, pg 4)

Easing visa restrictions is a must as according to a current senator of the US Congress,
Current visa processes, according to Coleman, are the equivalent of a police roadblock. We are stopping so many innocent people that it calls into question if this is a good use of Government resources and power. Again, it is in the interest of the United States of America to bring in the best and brightest foreign students to study in America. These are people who will lead their nations one day. The experience they gain with our democratic system and our values gives them a better understanding of what America is and who Americans are.

First Article

In state where war and chaos continue to exist even to this modern world, one cannot help but also to continue hoping to eventually find themselves in peace and stand again as one country delivering economic, political and most importantly social growth for all its citizens. This has been the vision of Palestinian Prime Minister Salam Fayyad in his interview conducted by Lally Weymouth, in her article in Newsweek Magazines entitled SALAM FAYYAD MY PREOCCUPATION NOW IS THIS PLAN The Palestinian prime minister on building the institutions of self government, regarding his serious dedication to build his nation and its people. In spite of problems the Palestinian are currently facing, he still, believe that, together with his fellow Palestinians, he will be able to achieve their goal in just a matter of two years.

Prime Minister Salam Fayyad Speaking
In order to materialize Prime Minister Salam Fayyads goals, he accordingly presented his plan for his homeland country which is basically to established necessary institutions providing essential services to the country and its people.  He will do this by means of Palestinians current monetary competence together with other foreign moral and financial support. He also disregarded at the moment his political ambitions given the sense of urgency in the founding of institutions. With regards to handling Palestinian to its warring stateIsrael, he first and foremost recognized the non-existent of mutual and peaceful relationship, however, in terms of their plan, there are some Israelis who find it plausible. He also recognizes the previous mistakes made by his countrymen in dealing international agreement and that the Palestinian is now ready and sincere enough to achieve peace and prosperity not only within the state but also to the entire region and the world.

Personal Reaction
Indeed, Prime Minister Salam Fayyad may have a good intention for the Palestine however, still other people across the world continue to believe the impossibility of his plan considering both local and international factors involved not to mention his idealistic time frame. In addition, the international support particularly coming from the United State may have different intentions given that fact that the US has its long historical political internal policy intervention to various developing countries. Hence, my own perspective on this matter would be different from Prime Minister Salam Fayyad, but the point of disproving me however is at his own hand.

Second Article

In the course of world history, one can easily discern the existence of Marxs theory of thesis and anti-thesis. This can be exemplified in the contemporary film production wherein the powerful and popular Hollywood is being challenged by alternative media provider like the Cinemaville or better known as Hugowood as founded by Venezuelan President Hugo Chvez according to the article in Nov 2, 2009 issue of Newsweek Magazine written by Mac Margolis entitled Lights Camera Revolucin

Lights Camera Revolucin
In the article, although the author gave few positive impacts particularly in terms so economic gains, the main focus, however, is more on the negative aspects of the institution. At the very beginning of the article, Chvez was compared to other fascist leaders Mussolini and Stalin providing its reader a sense of fear. In relation to the Cinemaville, the author also pointed out that it is a mechanization of Chvez government in the promotion of the Latin Americas movement toward socialism rooting in the struggle of Simn Bolivar who fought to free Venezuela from neoliberalism. Margolis, upon capturing the imperfect Cinemavile also raised the fear of some directors given the militaristic style of government Chvez. The latter allegedly has been threatening other press by means of nationalizing various companies under his authoritative power granted by the amended Venezuelans constitution. In doing so, the author believed the catchphrase Lights Camera Revolucin would only entail the manipulation of consciousness of Venezuelans.

Personal Reflection
Evidently enough, the other existing form of government challenging the predominantly democratic states will always be resisted by some conventional thinkers. The concept of Cinemaville is very much contrasting media to the existing one thereby, a threat to the status quo of movie productionsspearheaded by Hollywood. However, the preferential taste of people is inevitably varies from time to time. The patronage Venezuelans to Cinemaville is a clear manifestation of existing shift of consumers perception to movies. These were not expounded in the article which make me believes that the article is a form of black propaganda against those countries heading to socialism and that offer alternative media of portraying the other perspective of the real world rather than teen flick and feel good movies mostly produced by Hollywood.
Hollywood may be the current thesis in terms of movie production, however, the alternative Hugowood certainly serves as the anti-thesis and the synthesis of these two will then be very much welcomed to my discernment and hopefully to other conventional people as well.
Many countries claim to have democratic space in the way people are elected in government positions as they compete with one another for the highly esteemed offices. Indeed countries hold free and fair elections to have these people take up their positions as leaders but we fail to see is the way in which leadership positions are always tried to be passed on to favorable candidates who have been selected by the people in power so that he or she can continue safeguarding their interests or for them to continue holding on to power. For those who try and do it differently by competing democratically for those positions are seen as political enemies and they are therefore their efforts are inferred with in any way possible with a view to presenting them as not suitable leaders. In this paper I will look at the way in which Russias rule is authoritarian and how candidates are selectively picked to be the leaders of tomorrow. I will also show how politics is played to those who go against the centers of power in that country.
In countries like Russia, there are many intrigues in politics and the way government offices are run. Most if not all positions of government are dictated by the president and his cronies and in cases you will find out that people are groomed to take over those positions. This move it is said has made the country to be termed as nominally democratic whereby it still holds democratic elections but in the real sense decisions are made by the president. Under president Putin, he has formed what people term as the Kremlin Inc a situation which expresses the fact that government business is run like a business. According to Myers, Putin has created capitalism with an authoritarian face. The search for his replacement has started to look like less of a political campaign and more like a boardroom struggle to select a new C.E.O. (2007).  This happens in all corporations where a manager will be discussed and the one chosen will have characters of the predecessor. Law is therefore imposed in this kind of authoritarian rule.
Even as Russia has had a long history of transferring of power either by hereditary and most recently through non hereditary means, the president has shown that by choosing a few people to be the preferred candidates to replace him after his constitutional term is over, authoritarian rule is practiced in the country. It is known that even Putin himself was handpicked to become the next candidate and president of Russia by the then president Boris N. Yelsin. He was selected from secret service and was untested. Due to the powers vested on him, he became the president in the year 2000. Sergei B. Ivanov and Dmitri Medvedev are those who were touted as the most likely of candidates to replace Putin because they were his hardliners and also it was evident based on the how they were promoted to higher government roles. It is also documented that the bid to replace the presidency that was also known as operation successor, started in earnest in November 2005, when the Kremlin announced that Putin had given promotions to two of his closest aides, Sergei Ivanov and Dmitri Medvedev (Myer, 2007). Medvedev was promoted to deputy prime minister and it was widely seen as a way to prepare him to the position of the highest office in the land.
Prominent businessmen that seemed influential and political challengers were sent into exile or to jail altogether, the governors offices from the provinces were also interfered with by Putin with a view to consolidate his powers. His hard-liners, who were called the siviloki or in other words people of power, had to establish their close and personal relationship with Putin himself who was the ultimate in power. Their loyalty must have to be seen as unwavering. A case in point is the unwavering support the governor of St. Petersburg, Valentina I. Matviyenko had for Putin by publicly denouncing the electoral politics and also by saying Russians were not ready for experiments with electoral democracy. The mentality of the Russian demands a lord, a czar, a president (Myer, 2007).  Putin and his cronies were enabled to be that powerful through the media.
From the article we read the way president Putin was able to control many centers of power including the bringing back the television networks under state control. He was therefore able to effectively communicate with the people and at the same time spreading insightful messages about his detractors.  There is nothing that his successors did and went unnoticed as they would appear in all the state media even though it was inconsequential. Ivanov was present at the armys holiday concert and in as much as it seemed not some important news they were broadcasted on state television all the same. National projects in the country were expressed highly by the media and especially when Dmitri Medvedev made a tour to inspect how the government projects were carrying on. They were highly praised as being successful. The state media too was used as a tool for tainting a bad image to those people who were opposing Putins plans especially the ones to do with democracy and the right to vie for office.
Announcing ones candidacy is, in fact, tantamount to declaring ones open opposition to the Kremlin, to the smooth transition of power, to Putin himself (Myer, 2007). For Mikhail M. Kasyanov, it was such propaganda as arranging the privatization of a house along the Moscow River while in the case for Alexandr V. Donskoi, he was suggested to have faked diploma papers while vying for office as mayor. The media did a lot of scrutiny for the candidates who were opposing transition of power to selected candidates and so did the prosecutors who opened cases for them. Little information about the opposing candidates was allowed to be broadcasted as journalists would be discouraged to attending their conferences. They were threatened all the time and even physical threats took place too. Putin on the other hand received a lot of praise from the media fraternity, and so did his cronies too. They were not criticized and more often both Ivanov and Medvedev appeared on television. Any criticism such as the pardon of Ivanovs son who killed a pedestrian was avoided in the strongest way possible.
In conclusion, Russia is a country that is ruled using authoritarian rule because as I have indicated, most if not all of the government positions are given to people already selected and not in the democratic way of electing leaders. It is true that this happened to Putin and to his predecessor as well, Medvedev. The same happens to other powerful wielding offices in companies where interests by the powerful few are safeguarded by electing their partners. I have also written on the way state resources are used to fight the people who oppose the system of government and what consequences they face when they announce their candidacy.