Main Idea Supporting Facts

The main idea of the book is that the suppliers of multinational companies which operate globally are facing a serious and new challenge and opportunity to be able to serve its customers on global basis.
There are three main facts which support the main idea above. The first one is that customers increasingly want to deal with suppliers on a global basisglobal contracts, prices, products, and so oninstead of on a country-by-country basis.

The second fact is that historically, most multinational companies have allowed their national subsidiaries extensive independence in their purchasing behavior, but the problems found with this approach (e.g., incompatibility of equipment and standards, and diseconomies in purchasing) have increasingly led them to buy on a more centralized or coordinated basis.

The third fact is that as multinational companies themselves develop more globally integrated strategies, they expect the same from their suppliers.

Discussion in the article and the textbook
The information discussed in this article which is also discussed in our textbook and other readings are the concepts of multinational corporation and globalization. The concept of multinational corporations can be found in the textbook in Chapter 15, page 447. The concept of globalization can be found in Chapter 1, page 14. Multi national corporations refer to company operated stockholders, Board of Directors or Senior Management members who are of different nationalities or countries of origin.

Globalization refers to the economic or corporate scenario which requires most companies to be able to market their products or services worldwide. Globalization has emerged because of the need for companies to comply to the standards and requirements in different parts of the world. This is in contrast to the concept of a companys goal to be recognized nationwide. To be more competitive, companies are now striving to be globally-marketable and recognized.

Biased or Faulty Reasoning
I did not see any faulty or biased reasoning.

New Concept of Business
The new concept of business which is found in this article is Global Account Management (GAM). Global Account Management is a business framework wherein deliverables to customers are provided and complied with on the basis of global transactions, in global terms, conditions, price and mode. These customers are managed in a globally-consistent manner with a system which operates globally as well.

The concept of Global Account Management has emerged because of the need for most corporate customers to producer resources from different parts of the world. This is because of many factors, such as cheaper products or services, better quality, the nature of the product or service required.
The Global Account Management has also emerged because many companies are operating in different parts of the globe where the customers demand the same consistency and system for delivering services or products. For example, global banks such as Citibank and HSBC have implemented GAM in order to provide the same services and products to different customers from around the world.

The Constitution, Checks and Balances, and the Development of Law

According to Streich (2009), the government of the United States demonstrates a system of government characterized by separation of power as influenced by a French academic Montesquieu. The first three articles of the US constitution highlights in detail the balance of power between the three organs of the government. Neither of the three branches of the government that is the legislature, the judiciary and the executive, has the power to over rule the other. The safe guard provided by the constitution ensures that none of the three branches shares the responsibilities of the government.

Streich (2009), states that the constitution as indicated in article one clearly indicate that the congress constitutes of two chambers. The constitution also clarifies the powers of each chamber.
In the seventh section of the constitution, the process of passing bills and resolutions is outlined. In the executive branch of the constitution, the president is the commander in chief of the armed forces. He makes treaties, nominates cabinet and federal judiciary personnel. He appoints ambassadors with advice and approval of the senate (Streich, 2009).

Streich (2009), states that the congress has the power to remove a president by way of impeachment as indicated in section 4 of the constitution. The congress is given the power to establish federal judiciary, but the mandate of appointing judges is left with the president.

 Article three of the constitution outlines the function of the judiciary. The courts of appeal as well as the supreme courts have the power to give regulations regarding the compliancy of the federal and states laws to the constitution. The Supreme Court is the ultimate court of petitions (Streich, 2009).
There are various stages a bill passes before it becomes law in the United States. According to Feagin (1990), a new law or an idea may be sponsored by any member of the general assembly or a senator.

These ideas may emanate from diverse sources starting from members of the public, interest groups, to government officials. The bill is taken to the correct committee to be reviewed. The committee may consider the bill as unwise and refuse to table it thereby nullifying it. The committee, if it considers the bill wise, listens to views and facts provided by all interest groups. The revised bill is then brought back to the house for debate and approval (Feagin, 1990). A bill is voted for in the congress and approved with a simple majority. In case the bill is passed by the senate, it goes to the president for signature. If a bill is not passed by the congress, that becomes the end of it. After the president has signed the bill, it automatically becomes law. The bill, in case of a rejection by the president can still be passed by the congress with two-thirds votes. This is known as a veto to override the veto. If the bill is not returned to the congress by the president within a period of ten days, it automatically becomes law (Feagin, 1990). In case the congress postpones its proceedings before the ten days period, the bill is vetoed.

This is indirect rejection known as pocket veto. A party that feels offended after a bill has been passed can seek redress by way of federal court system which can then consider the bill unconstitutional. The president and the congress can amend the constitution making the ruling of the federal courts null.  Laws that have been signed by the president are given to the public in print form (Feagin, 1990).

Effectiveness of George W. Bushs Speech

Presidents make speeches to address different audiences and a plethora of issues, and some of these speeches linger in the minds of the listeners and mark the legacy of their presidency. It is a must for a speech delivered by a person with authority such as the United States President to be effective, as the issues explicated and dealt with in most of the Presidents speeches are of vital importance. One of the most important speeches delivered in the recent years is the speech made by Former President George W. Bush last September 20, 2001, wherein he addressed a joint session of the congress after the devastating 911 attack. President Bush made the formal address to answer the questions hovering United States at that time and to make a formal announcement of the United States declaring war and man-hunt against terrorism and the terrorist organization responsible for the attack.
Bush was a very effective speaker for this particular speech as the content of his speech is very important for the Americans during that time. The speech was timely and relevant for the audience. Thus, the audience feels the need to listen to the speech. The speech also explores the different aspects of rhetoric, making the speech more effective. These aspects are ethos, pathos and logos. Ethos pertains to the character of the speaker (Crewell, Draper,  Mitchell, 1996). In the case of President Bush, he is a credible speaker as he is the President and should be addressing the issue. Pathos appeals on the emotion (Crewell et al., 1996). This aspect can very well be observed in President Bushs speech as it is full of emotions such as sympathy, anger, and grief following the attack. Lastly, logos appeals to the intellect (Crewell et al., 1996), which is also very apparent in President Bushs speech for it is very intelligent and full of reason. Another factor that affects the effectiveness of the speech is the manner of delivering by the speaker. In the case of President Bush, his speech was effective in such a way that he delivered it with empathy and conviction, appealing to the audiences emotion as well as drawing the full attention of the audience to himself and to the content of his speech.
After listening to this persuasive speech, I found myself believing that engaging in war against the terrorist organization is the right course of action in response of the attack. I found myself supporting Bush as well as having a nationalistic feeling. The speech marked President Bushs legacy as it was good speech that was able to unite America at a time when unity was needed the most in the pursuit of one goal.

Is poverty a cause of international Conflicts

Underdeveloped economies have their effects on conflicts, not only on the global scale but also on an international scale. Military expenditure on a global scale is divided into many forms of projects that consume a lot of human capital for construction of infrastructures. Conflicts can damage institutions as well as infrastructures within countries and on a global scale. Conflicts can be the cause of greater financial instabilities accelerating underdevelopment and stagnation on a global scale. Studies have suggested that there is a strong relationship between poverty and international conflicts.

Chapter 1
Socioeconomic instability is a global issue these days and this is a vicious circle responsible for much unrest in the world. This causes more unrest on the civil level as well as on an international level. Risks of facing greater financial instability increases thus creating chances of more conflicts in the future. In this paper, the relationship between conflict, finances and poverty shall be analyzed. The hypothesis that is to be explored in this paper is that the conflicts and poverty are increased because of financial factors. That fact that needs emphasis here is that war is a form of an international conflict thereby the risks of war are increased and are positively associated with the financial factors as financial instability and poverty. Financial resources are utilized during war and these can exacerbate poverty leading to increased conflicts in the future (Ohlsson, 2000, p. 67).

A range of queries need emphasis when the effect of poverty on international conflict is taken into consideration. There is an effect of military expenses on financial developments within countries and on a global scale, as it needs to be explored. Do military expansions and military expenses have any roles in increasing in poverty and does this poverty cause an increase in the conflicts on national and an international level by creating incentives to ensure stronger military presence in the region. Previous studies have suggested that in the 1990s, the least developed nations faced many conflicts, as domestic, socioeconomic issues were critical (Adnan, 2004, p. 56).

The problems of conflicts are faced by the poorest countries the most and it is observed that the military expansion plays a key role in poorest countries. There is a need to distinguish between the effects of military expansions during peace and war times internationally. It is studied that powerful countries having well developed and organized institutions can have positive impacts on the countries having less developed institutions (Spoor, 2004, p. 67).

Chapter 2
Literature review
There is a strong interrelationship between poverty and conflicts. It is argued by many international scholars and politicians that there can be no security if there is no development. On the other hand, there is no development without any security. In this paper the main emphasis is that the poverty can cause many conflicts and being specific, the kind of conflict that is taken into consideration is war. Nevertheless there are two sides of every argument. There are many political arguments that also believe that conflicts, especially war can be the cause of poverty as well. In this case, thereby both sides shall be discussed.

Poverty causes Conflicts
It can be argued here that if severe financial instabilities are a cause of international conflicts including wars and mass atrocities, than there are a billion people living around the world on one dollar a day and they can be more violent than can be imagined (Do, , Ton, Iyer, and World Bank Development Research Group Poverty Team, 2007, p. 23).

On the other hand, it is suggested that there is no connection between poverty and the international conflicts. This cannot be considered as a plausible suggestion. It is discussed that there is every reason to believe that economic and financial instabilities in countries with higher unemployment rates and lower incomes contribute in conditions that increase grievances within the disadvantaged and disenfranchised groups by decreasing opportunity costs for a violent rebellion.

War is a kind of conflict that is known to have its roots lying in poverty. Within the countries and globally, political, social and economic inequalities cause wars. Militant groups and individuals are drawn to fight against these inequalities thereby casing civil and later on, international wars and many other related conflicts (Crocker, Hampson, Osler, and Aall, 2007, p. 67).

It is argued that poverty is discussed in relation to the losses of livelihood and these may be the causes of the current patterns of conflicts on an international scale. In certain societies, poverty is rather an endemic condition thereby higher poverty or a loss of livelihood can mark the previously stable condition of a welfare society into an unstable one thus heightening the condition of poverty or destitution. Rapid changes in the societies are involved that cause poverty that cause serious forms of conflicts (Banerjee, Bnabou, and Mookherjee, 2006, p. 58).

Poverty causes a loss in the livelihood s of the people making them homeless in certain cases.  One of the greatest examples is the militias around the world that hire younger men who were destitute and have lost their livelihoods. These young men as a result of the poverty are forced to accept the much low situations in which they are not allowed by their previous cultures.

Afghanistan case study in poverty as a cause of conflicts
 It is evident that Afghanistan is one of those countries that are engaged in war, both on an international and a civil level. It is mentioned in the report released by international aid agency Oxfam that around 70 Afghani citizens believe that the current situation of the country is because of poverty. Rest of the Afghanis blames the weaknesses and higher corruption levels in the governments as a cause of the civil and international conflicts (Spoor, 2004, p. 28).

A joint report is released by Oxfam that has mentioned thirty years of continuous conflict in the country in the light of unemployment, rising poverty, increasing corruption at government level as well as the activities of Taliban. A survey was conducted by the Oxfam team in Afghanistan in which 704 Afghanis participated and the facts revealed that there are around 16th of the Afghanis willing to leave the country since the year of 1979, one in five afghan citizens has faced tortures and around 30 of the Afghan citizens are forced to leave there homes since the war began in the country.

It is argued that the situation in Afghanistan is devastating and the solutions are needed that can heal the current situation in country. Higher authorities in USA say that the country needs stability in its economic, educational and political terms so that the destitution and the war comes to an end.

From Afghanistan to international countries
Military solutions that are imposed on Afghanistan from the international countries are not the end, but they are just the start of more conflicts. It is argued that the poverty has caused the formation of many militant groups in Afghanistan and these militant groups are now spread globally. It is a fact that the weaponry and there distribution is a common factor in this poverty struck country and almost every citizen is involved in war in an indirect manner (Ohlsson, 2000, p. 67).

HDI of Afghanistan is the lowest as compared to the other countries showing that the country is going through destitute periods now. Education levels in the country is extremely low with no schools as they are bombed down by international militia groups or civil war or the extremist religious groups that do not allow education to be a part of the lives of poor citizens. Agricultural sector is ignored and this faces ruins in the country. In the past, only export that used to earn Afghanistan some money were the poppy fields but they are illegal in many ways and now Afghani citizens are only engaged in international and civil conflicts (Adnan, 2004, p. 50).

Figure 1 Internally displaced person statistics in Afghanistan
Because of poverty, the conflicts that are caused have caused many people to lose their homes and people have fled their countries.

War is the main issue in Afghanistan as there is no infrastructure in the country and there is no hold of the governments. Militia groups are now spread around the world playing the roles of terrorists thereby causing more unrest in the world. International communities have military based solutions for these militias that are thought to arise from Afghanistan thus there is a continuous war going on between Afghanistan and international countries for peace and security.

Conflicts cause poverty
The other side of argument is that the conflicts cause poverty and these conflicts include war.  It is argued that the profits may be generated from wars but there are many disadvantages that are faced after wars. Wars are related to the functions that are played by the military institutions. Military institutions are involved in two kinds of activities, peacetime activities and wartime activities.

Developmental roles that are played by military institutions include an increase in the government revenues by working on infrastructure of the country as education and health (Banerjee, Bnabou, and Mookherjee, 2006, p. 67).  During wars, it is seen that ratio of military expenditures to GDP rises in a sharper manner. There is a need to maintain the military expenditures in a higher manner thereby the natural and financial resources are utilized as compared to social development that causes stagnation in the development of many countries. It is estimated that the civil wars are a cause of reduction continued for a period of seven years than it takes a country 15 years back, in relation to the development in financial and educational sectors and rebuilding of an infrastructure. A report published by the World Bank mentions that the country undergoing war needs an additional 12 years to regain the pre war period per capita income (Adnan, 2004, p. 78).

A feedback loop occurs here that can be referred to as the conflict trap. This conflict trap is discussed in relation to the countries that face lower per capita incomes and lower GPDPs. These are the countries in which the prolonged violence can aggravate the conditions with lower incomes and unstable financial institutions creating more chances of increased violence in the future thereby a dramatic action is needed by these countries in order to break the vicious cycle of prolonged violence (Spoor, 2004, p. 67). Wars are the instruments that can damage critical infrastructure of a country and can be damage to the trust and visions that the foreign investors have in a country. Money that is saved for the development of the capital and infrastructure of the country is driven to define the needs of the military expenditures thereby the needs of citizens are ignored. Individual are driven away from their homes. Diseases thrive in the vulnerable populations along with the military personnel.  Thereby the countries that suffer from the marginally developed economies are the ones that face setbacks when they undergo the conflicts as wars and civil wars. Thereby in this case there are two main arguments that are presented, one is that poverty has a role to play in the creation of conflicts on a global scale and conflicts can also cause increased poverty specifically in the case of wars (Crocker, Hampson, and Aall, 2007, p. 90).

Africa an example of conflicts causing poverty
Religious diversity and the ethnicities are not the reasons of the civil wars in Africa since many years. The research shows that the civil war in Africa is because of the increased levels of poverty. In addition, political instituions in Africa have failed disastrously having no authorities on the militia groups in Africa as well as there is no economic development in the country because of these wars. It is seen that the country is divided based on the ethno linguistic fragmentation but it is concluded that the civil wars are a result of the conflict that are in turn consuming the resources of the country casing  more poverty (Gberie, 2005, p. 23).

African countries are also the examples of the case in which the poverty is causing conflicts. The natural resources in the country is misused by the political leaders of the country and this has causes a detachement of the political leaders from the ordinary people leading to more corruption. Africa is a low-income country and there is higher competition among the politicians to achieve a control over the resources. This caused an imbalance in the functioning carried out by the state and by the African citizen in order to keep the country united (Spoor, 2004, p. 56).

Chapter 3
In this case, various theories shall be taken into account that relate to the poverty and its effects on international conflicts. Liberalism, neo liberalism have played many roles in considering the relationship between poverty and the international conflicts. In this chapter roles that are played by the liberalism and realism in understanding the relationship shall be outlined.

Liberalism is a belief in the freedom of an individual. Many historians have considered the ideology and now this belief is one of the most valued ones in the world.  Liberalism by many historians is defined as the toleration of the ideologies and beliefs that the other people might have thereby giving the people there rights of free speech and freedom to live according to the beliefs that a person or a society has. Democracy is another fact that is counted in liberalism.  Democracy and peace are the two main facts that are emphasized in the liberalism by the historians (Rawls, 2005, p. 56).

It is argued that peace and democracy are the opposite sides of the same coin. In this case the argument that is presented relates the foreign policies of the governments and the way in which the government rule the countries. Once it was said by Ronald Reagan that the government that believe in an individual respect believe in peace of their own country and the other countries. The foreign policies that are designed by these governments keep in mind the freedom level of individuals in the other countries as well.

Poverty is the main issue between the states these days as Afghanistan because of which there are many violent conflicts that are arising frequently. In accordance to the liberalism, the conflicts are no solution to these issues. Instead, the liberal states should be looking at the issues from the grass root level rather than violently fighting off the militant groups that are a cause of poverty in these countries. Here the main fact that has to be emphasized is the difference in the ideologies that are held by the liberal states and the non-liberal states. Liberal states believe in peace and democracy whereas the non-liberal states are engaged in wars in order to resolve the conflicts.

Realism on the other hand is the most influential theory among the political scientists. The ideology that is followed by the practitioners of realism believe in justice that has to be done in all costs in the case of all international affairs. An implication of the moral concepts is emphasized.  Power and security issues are emphasized in realism.

In relation to the conflicts it is highlighted by the theories of realism that the conflicts should arise only when there is a self interest involved for a country involved in a conflicts including war. Moral implications and the theory of just war has to be taken into account by the non liberal states in this case. An argument in this case is that the conflicts can consume the resources of a country thereby by no way the war is in the countrys self interest. War and conflicts by no way represent the scenario in which moral implications and justice is being preached. National interests for any state is building its economical infrastructure and we have seen that the conflicts consumes the savings of the nation (Morris, 2003, p. 90).

Chapter 4
Suggestions and future work
Two main cases are examined in the paper. One is case where poverty can be the cause of international conflicts and the country of Afghanistan is one example. The second example is where the conflicts can be the cause of poverty as civil wars in Africa and Sudan.

Conflicts in these countries are linked to poverty. In the first case the solutions to the poverty are to be found rather than fighting the consequences of poverty as the militia groups that themselves include men who have lost their homes due to poverty. Economical infrastructure has to be taken into consideration and policy implications are needed in these countries thereby eliminating poverty that can help in eliminating the militias spread on a civil and an international scale.

In the second case where conflicts cause poverty, as in Africa, the solution is in solving the conflicts that are causing more violence in the country thereby the resources that are used in war are utilized in building up the infrastructure of the country. The government and the political authorities in Africa are in need of a realization that the resources are about to end and there is a need to have a control on the civil bloodshed in the country. Recently it is reported that the global warming is tp increase the poverty in the country thereby fueling conflicts. Focus is needed to reduce poverty, building the infrastructure and help reduce the conflicts.

Poverty in any case is the cause of the fueled conflict in the world today. There is a need to address and review the policies including economic policies and the foreign policies that can help reduce conflicts on a civil and an international level. Initiating wars are no solutions to reduce the violence consequences of the poverty. Economic infrastructure is in a need to be stabilized thereby reducing poverty thus the conflicts.

Fascism in America An Assessment

The arrest of Republican couple Jeffery and Nicole Rank during the 2004 Presidential Fourth of July State Visit of former President George W. Bush in Charleston, West Virginia for simply wearing anti-Bush shirts was indeed unjustifiable and irrelevant.

In a country that puts prime importance on civil liberty and greatly upholds freedom of speech, the act was basically inexcusable which made citizens wonder that their basic constitutional rights were breached by the government itself.  The arrest was likely deemed as governments way of putting a halt to civil protests and rallies which is an important aspect of every democratic country.

Furthermore, the negative response from the government suggested a fascistic approach wherein government used suppression through terror, violence and censorship in putting a stop to any opposition (Payne, 1983). It suggested an idea that even in a democratic country like America, civil liberty is still not established and freedom of speech is still in jeopardy since government can easily exercise extra constitutional practices and methods of fascism to gag civilians and civil unions from their silent protests, that is, in the Ranks case, their wearing of anti-Bush shirts which government viewed as an act of civil disobedience.

GOVERNMENT Changes in societal thinking

The two main characteristics of the Greek world view in the 15th century were thinking in resistance and yearning for differentiations. Democracy in Athens evolved as a result of resistance against tyranny in the 6th century. The tyrants were striped of all political powers after their defeat. All aspects of politics became a matter primarily played only by full citizens of Athens. Democracy was first demonstrated in history, whereby the full citizens of Athens held all political powers and developed a fine tuned mechanism which controlled how powers were exercised in courts and other assemblies.

The Greek constitution, the Hellenic parliament, the Hellenic government, the prime ministers office and the ministry of justice in Greece have been the greatest factors that contribute to the change on the way the society perceive the government. Greek was composed of several city states which were run independent of each other. The principle obtained from the ancient Greek which considered its people as one nation, one people, one religion, one language and culture is another factor that the society borrows from ancient Greek. Tribal differences seemed to play no significant role in Greek politics.

The defense mechanism that was employed to protect the independence of the city states have also contributed to the way people perceive the role of the government. The Greece government had a lot of interest with its cities whether from conquering or original city states. This makes the society to stress the importance of any city to the government requiring the government to show interest in these cities. The society wants the government to be established in a similar manner to that of ancient Greece.

The Greek laws are employed in various aspects of the government in one way or the other. These laws are used by contemporary legislation in many amendments. The court systems of the ancient Greece have been reserved by the modern judicial system in several aspects. The other aspect that has been preserved by the society from the ancient Greece is the education system.

Individual Ideology

It is true that there must be some ideological believe that is behind our existed and what we now call democracy in our country. The United States may be termed as one of the most powerful nation in the whole world. This is attributed to the development in technology, and the advancement in economic development. This may be termed as the main belief system that is behind the ideologies that are engendered by our government. (McGoun, 2002)

Due to economic development that our nations have been experiencing for some time, it has resulted in to changing the way of life of the people in the country. Due to the same reasons, the government is always focused on ensuring that there is peace and that every person is living a happy life. To ensure this, the government tries to practice what can be termed as real democracy. This is the only way that it will be able to act as a good example to all the other nations in the whole world and at the same time act as a super power. (McGoun, 2002)

It is out of lack of democracy that the previous governments had failed. A good example is the recession and poor trade and economic development that were experienced in the United States in the 1930. This was attributed to the First World War that had taken place earlier. The government therefore resolves that it would be a great idea to practice democracy so that there can be peace and in the process ensure that there is economic growth. It is out of being purely democratic and ensuring that there social-cultural practices are internationally expanded that we will be able to come out of the current global economic recession. (McGoun, 2002)

This is the only way that we will be able to fight this problem that seems to affect the whole world in both democratic and non democratic governments. In addition, it is the only way that we will be to have peace and avoid violence which is known to cause a lot of destruction to our property, our lives and our economy. (McGoun, 2002)

Political Power

The most interesting aspect of The American Political Science Association (APSA) ( HYPERLINK is the emphasis placed on becoming a network of scholars and how important education is to the advancement of political understanding. Additionally, the website places a great deal of emphasis on teaching and learning. In other words, to completely understand that exercising political power is a constant teaching and learning process that focuses on continually enhancing knowledge and understanding. Further, the website discusses the importance of civil education that so that Americans are able to understand the political process as well as understand why exercising political power is an essential component of advancing American society. The only way that this type of understanding is possible is through political education. This website does not stop there, however. The APSA also provides numerous resources that seek to provide this type of education. These publications include several scholarly journals that highlight important research being conducted. The website also provides information regarding grants so that this type of education can be provided to as many people as possible.

The overall goal of this website is to arm people with an understanding of the political process so they are well equipped to exercise their own political power. One voice can often make a difference in social change and this website provides the education necessary to become that one voice. However, this website also emphasizes that exercising political power is not effective if one does not understand politics. Therefore, the APSA is a collection of political experts and political scientists from all around the globe that each contributes some area of expertise to the overall educational goal of the APSA. The most memorable bit of information gathered from researching this site is the power that education has with regards to exercising political power and the responsibility that each citizen has to understand the process.

Bushs War

This paper explores the methods in which George W. Bush used his power as the president of the United States of America. Particularly, it sheds light on his decision to attack Iraq, and why that decision could be considered a tyrannical act, as opposed to a democratic decision. Furthermore, it also discusses the implications of the war on terror for American citizens in particular and global politics in general.

There are certain factors that make the Iraq war, or Operation Iraqi Freedom, an act that cannot be called a truly democratic act. One major problem that was evident even before the war started was that people of the United States of America were not given a choice. They were shown a fallacious argument that we either go to the war or do not go to war. No third option was given to the American public. Being the President of the nation entails that public, specifically the congress, is given complete information before making decisions, however this was not done so.

It was in the power of the President to take all stakeholders in confidence prior to the war, but now we have evidences that he did not take this into consideration and willfully kept them in the dark about certain aspects of the war. For example, the stated goal of the war in Iraq was to destroy or secure the Weapons of Mass Destruction that Iraqi regime allegedly had. However, today we see that the WMD theory was based upon either false intelligence, or shoddy information gathering.

At the start of the war, the president failed to mention that this theory of WMD cannot be 100 relied upon and may not be entirely true. Instead of telling the American public about this, he claimed that this theory is definitely true to such an extent that we can go to a full scale war based upon this. Thus, the President used his power to misguide the citizens of the nation to go to war under false pretenses, which is a purely tyrannical act under the guise of democracy.

Furthermore, the decision to go to war was never discussed in a way that would open the doors to any other method of solving the problems of Iraq (Allawi, 2007). What this means is that the President never discussed the possibility that Iraqs problems can be solved by bilateral or trilateral talks with the help of the United Nations or any other nation. It is a fact that Iraqi regime was willing to talk and discuss the issues till the end and France had even offered to mediate the talks, but this option was never shown to be feasible to the American public, and the only possibility was that U.S goes to war or Iraqi regime would attack the U.S soil with WMDs, which has proved to be false in hindsight. Hence we can say that it was a tyrannical decision for the president to go to war under such circumstances.

Political Thinking

When a person or a group of people reflect upon the society, times and the social events of an era, they give rise to political thinking. Society has existed since the beginning of civilization and the actions of people within a society give rise to social events. Men have always had opinions and thoughts about these social events, with the invention of language, they began to articulate these opinions resulting I political thought. Political thinking has existed since antiquity. Every age has had its problems and men who have thought about these problems and tried to find solutions. This men have come to represent that age the political thought of their times. Political thoughts, while they try to find solutions social problems, are also an expression of the hidden motives of these people. Thus political thinking constitutes articulate thoughts which try to find a solution to a social problem while at the same time expressing some hidden agenda of the thinker.

While political thinking is essentially a thought process and an attempt to articulate these thoughts, not all articulated thoughts constitute political thinking. For example thoughts about self improvement do not constitute political thinking. Similarly, just recording the history exactly as it happened without giving any thoughts to the problems and their solutions is not political thinking. In order for a thought to be classified as political thought, it must articulate a social problem and attempt to find solutions to it. A political thought must also in some way forward a thinkers hidden unarticulated thoughts.

Hypothesis Exercise

Curbing the disastrous effects of global warming has been one of the loudest calls of the Obama administration as well as the United Nations. The United States has been one of the most visible advocates of climate change policies in the international community, but it is also the most criticized. After its refusal to sign the Kyoto Protocol which would require it to drastically cut its greenhouse gas emissions, many countries - particularly those in the developing world - cried hypocrisy. Climate talks on December 2009 took place in Copenhagen, Denmark, but so far, the same misgivings and criticisms have been lodged against the agreements made. Without a doubt, global warming has very disastrous effects that could cause great instability to the global community. In 2008, the CNA Corporation, a think tank funded by the Pentagon, concluded the global warming is a dangerous threat multiplier for the United States (Walsh, 2008). In other words, global warming is considered a threat to national security.

Research Question
This paper aims to explore, using three theoretical approaches  Realist, Pluralist, and Marxist  this research problem Why does global warming threaten the national security of the United States

Realist theory in international relations posits that states are essentially in constant competition over one another (Burchill, 2005). To ensure its survival and sovereignty, the state will pursue its own self-interest. This means that the relations of nations are determined by the military and economic power. The disastrous effects of global warming  tidal waves, massive floods, and droughts  imperil a states resources and could affect how nations interrelate with one another.

The pluralist view in international relations holds that instead of unilateral actions of the state, cooperation and interdependence must be explored in order to achieve peace among nations.  It also holds that a states internal political doctrine must be reflected in its foreign policy (Burchill, 2005). For instance, its stance on global warming must be coupled with tackling the issue of climate change abroad. This view supports current efforts to come up with treaties that will impose sanctions upon nations who do not abide by international agreements.

Marxist theory regarding international relations suggests that the globalized capitalist order has merely created a world wherein a group of industrialized countries exploit the resources of Third World countries for their own profit. When critiquing environmental treaties such as the Kyoto Protocol, Marxists argue that rich industrialized countries, which are the worlds major polluters as well, are required to cut only 5.2 of their greenhouse gas emissions, below 1990 levels. Rich countries could not be forced to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions and can even purchase so-called right to pollute credits from countries (Beams, 2009). In other words, climate change policies that have been drafted are clearly corporate-friendly and prejudiced against poor nations.

Based on these perspectives, it is posited that

Hypothesis 1 (Realist approach)
Refusal to accommodate the influx of refugees fleeing poverty and hunger in developing countries will cause security threats to the United States.

Hypothesis 2 (Pluralist approach)
Economic sanctions and military actions imposed upon non-cooperating states with regard to global climate change policy will cause security threats to the United States.

Hypothesis 3 (Marxist approach)
Perceived unequal and exploitative climate change policies fueling the revolutionary and anti-imperialist movements in Third World countries will cause security threats to the United States.

A Century of Spies

In his book,  A Century of Spies,  Jeffrey Richelson gives the reader a comprehensive history of the espionage or intelligence business in the 20th century which is not far from the James Bond persona most people tend to associate spies with.  Parts I and II depict how intelligence services began to develop into specialized agencies that were not only limited to military purposes but for political or state matters as well.  The great powers began to create dedicated intelligence agencies to enable them to gain the advantage over the other as well as dealing with spies within their borders.  Their worth would be realized during the two world wars where they would serve as the  eyes and ears  of their governments to know what the enemy was up to and to plan accordingly.  In addition, they also performed acts of sabotage to disrupt the war efforts of the enemy to further give their country enough leverage in the battlefield (Richelson, 1995).  Parts I and II emphasize the key role played by spies in the wars though their efforts and sacrifices were unrecognized owing to the nature of their work.

The third part shows how intelligence agencies became larger in terms of their institutional structure and the scope and range of their missions as the smaller intelligence agencies and units were reorganized and consolidated to form one large agency such as the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA),  the British Security Intelligence Service (SIS) and the Soviet State Security Bureau (KGB).  Their missions are no longer limited to gathering information of military capabilities but have extended to economic and technological espionage we well as these also play a key role in determining the strength of the states they can regard as an ally or adversary (Richelson, 1995).

All in all, intelligence services have become key components in a nations foreign and national security policy and will continue to do so even if their work will never be known.

Party Identification

Many countries have conducted Michigan style national elections for about five decades now. Yet, the time spent on the study together with an increasing program of comparative research implies that the possibility of addressing the key questions concerning the effect of context on voting behavior is now beginning to emerge. In order to take advantage of this emerging opportunity, what is needed is a shift in the way national election studies are being analyzed rather than how they are designed.

There is one important distinguishing feature of Michigan election studies. They attempt to understand electoral behavior and elections by conducting interviews on a nationally representative sample of individuals eligible to vote as close to the polling day as possible. Basically, elections are assessed through voters. Whatever influences or does not influence voters is found out by making a comparison on the attitudes and behavior of one particular group of voters with another group at the same election. The assumption is that, if what accounts for the disparities between voters at an election can be understood, the outcome and the major features of an entire election can be understood.

Practically, there are several actors in an election apart from the voters. The attitudes and behavior of actors is a product of these influences. If these other considerations are put aide, it is still important to question the strength of the Michigan approach. Central to any research enterprise is the desire to have something to say about causation. For instance, one may adopt a socio-psychological approach and ask the value of party identification in vote switching. Again, the rationality of the voters may be of interest especially with regard to whether individuals vote for the party the feel closest to or on the issues that they feel are important. This paper is an attempt to address these questions especially with regard to party identification. In Michigan style survey research, there are important issues regarding whether the relationship between party identification and volatility indicate the influence of party identification on the vote or whether it suggests that vote influences party identification. In this regard, party identification will be central to this assessment. The concept will be defined and its value in determining individual vote aggregate election outcome will be examined.

Party Identification Definition
Humans have a general tendency to attempt to understand where they are placed in the world, look for connections with other people and value individuals who are like them. It is a natural phenomenon for people to attribute labels to themselves and to establish group attachments. What they believe in, their attitudes, how they behave and their opinions are influenced by other people. Parties and politics are on the other hand far much removed from daily experiences. People hold their families, neighborhood, good opinions and social relations to be of great value to them. In this regard, it is easier for the majority of individuals to modify political preferences so as to correspond to these groups than selected memberships founded on the basis of political preferences.  In this regard, identification comes before the establishment of political beliefs.

Party identification in this regard can be defined as persistent emotional attachment to a particular party (Bartle and Bellucci, 20084). A more direct definition is provided by Campbell et al who define the concept as the sense of personal attachment which one feels towards the party of his choice (Campbell et al., 1960321). As stated, the identity is assumed to be a consequence of passive socialization that is seldom changed once established. It was widely believed that the identification is ingrained in the political experiences of the forefathers that established loyalty to a party that was transmitted from one generation to another. In this regard, the tendency of people to view themselves as members belonging to a particular group while creating an emotional attachment to their membership, adjusting their behavior to correspond with the norms of the group and establish a general sense of identification can be termed as party identification. This sense of belonging to a particular group is fundamentally focused on basic social groups.

The concept of party identification may also be used to refer to an individuals psychological attachment to the party. This attachment is to some extent stable over time and is held to be independent of the actual vote. The persistent stability of party identification is its essential property.

Importance of party identity in explaining individual vote decision
Party identification is assumed to directly influence the choice of vote because there is likelihood of voters to express their identity with a particular party of with other party supporters (Sanders et al., 2002194). When all other factors are equal in weight, identity serves as a tie breaker. Identity also has the potential of exerting indirect influence on the opinions and attitudes of people. The view that ones sense of being either Democrat or Republican develops at an early age before the establishment of political preferences indirectly supports this proposition. According to Campbell et al., party identification has the potential of raising the perceptual screen through which a person seems to conceive what is favorable to his partisan inclination (Campbell et al., 1960195). However, the disparities in opinions and attitudes cannot be accounted for by identities even though the amount of influence that party identification has on perception and interpretation of political entities is so enormous that a person seldom establish a given attitude force that does not correspond with this allegiance (Campbell et al., 1960141).

The value of party identification is clearly seen when it is made central to comprehending the influence to all conceivable causes of the vote. Party identification is ingrained in the gradually changing group membership and is therefore a prime mover of variables situated later in the sequence. However, one may argue that if prior identities biases learning then conceiving how preferences can be formed by identifiers which do not correspond with their identities may be difficult. According to Bartel, there is an important role played by partisan bias in the way an individual perceives politics and in the perpetuation and reinforcement of sharp differences in opinion in major political parties (Bartel, 2002118). Party identity also has a major influence on the core values. As such, it plays a major role in explaining individual vote decisions.

Individuals often use their votes in expressing their party affiliation. As such, party identification is an important aspect in voting decisions. There is often a strong link between voting behavior and party identification. This is because ones evaluation of leaders and parties is affected by party identification and this in turn influences the choice of vote. Correspondence between voter preference and the activities of government lies in the critical response of the voters to the activities of those that they elect to represent them. There is a general tendency of individuals to be influenced by groups as much as it may be argued that a group is nothing more than the individuals who comprise it. Partisanship in this regard is a consequence of an enduring identity.

Importance of party identification in explaining aggregate electoral outcome in Britain and United States
The duration in which a country has experienced a stable political system is closely related to level of party identification. One way of explaining this aspect is that it is a function of the kind of experiences that individuals have with the party system and the transmission processes between generations. The degree of party identification or partisanship in a given country is suggestive of its political system.

There is often a danger of political instability in system in which party identification has been weakly established since there is high likelihood of flash parties garnering the majority of votes. Likewise, when an enduring attachment to a political party has been developed by the majority of individuals, there is less likelihood that flash parties will emerge since party identification serves as a barrier against such kind of unprecedented changes in the party system.

United States is an example of a country that has a strong party identification. American voters are usually defined by their strong and stable affective relationships with political parties, relatively low levels of interest and involvement, and a bigger strength of long term over short term forces (Sacchetti, 20098). In this regard, United States provides a stable party identification context which is critical in shaping the preferences of voters. The concept of party identification is also applicable to Britain even though the circumstances vary.

For the concept of party identification to be meaningful, it must be equally applicable in different countries. In other words, it must have the same properties and meaning across different systems. Attempts to validate the concept outside the United States have been minimal. It is only in the then Federal Republic of Germany that a serious attempt to validate the concept took place. However, the main question that I wish to address in this section concerns the value of party identification in explaining aggregate election outcome. Various studies carried out on party identification often suggest an almost perfect match between party identification and vote preference (Kaase, 1976123). Within the setting of the United States, party identification corresponds with a model in which it precedes vote preference. Since it has a two party system, the two parties are compelled to be at the center of the political spectrum in order to increase their vote. The consequence is that the political differences that exist between them reduce. Political platforms, therefore, fail to offer the voters sufficient clues for making a decision on which party to vote for as time goes.

Under such circumstances, voters learn to identify themselves with a specific party so as to avoid the daunting task of collecting enough political information to deliberate. Party identification is particularly valuable in the United States as an analytical concept since it provides the opportunity to differentiate short term factors from long term influences (Thomassen, 1996416). It especially introduces the possibility of determining the role of each candidate and the main issues in an election.

A differentiation between short term forces is only possible when vote preference and party identification are held to be different concepts. A perfect match between vote preference and party identification may imply that in a given election, short term factors are not in operation and hence voting occurs according to party identification. In a system like that of the United States, the way vote preference and party identification relate varies with how strong party identification is. A large majority of individuals vote for the parties that they identify with. This is an indication that party identification may predict the outcomes of an election.

Since party identification is an enduring psychological attachment to a particular party, it follows that a change in party identification should not immediately precede changes in vote preference. However, a change of party identification is unlikely to take place unless there is a change in vote preference. This level of independence between vote preference and party identification is prominent in the United States. According to Butler and Stokes, Britain has more dynamic party identification that he United States (Butler  Stokes, 1969234). There are always a small number of voters who normally change their party identification. However, the rate in Britain is double that of the United States. There is a higher percentage of individuals changing their vote preference and retaining their party identification than those who change their party identity and keep their vote preference (Thomassen, 1996427). The difference is more defined in Britain than in the United States.

The value of party identification in these countries is reflected by these finding which suggest that party identity is a reflection of the vote. It may suggest the outcome of an election since there is a high likelihood of a party that many people identify with garnering votes in an election.  As much as party identification varies between United States and Britain, it is a major factor in explaining the vote. This does not imply that the role of short term influences is overlooked but rather, party identification is a powerful indicator of electoral behavior.

Measuring party identification
The importance of party identification in studying electoral behavior cannot be denied.  However, there is no universally accepted measurement of party identification. Party identification being the persistence attachment that an individual feels towards a given political party, the attachment has been translated in various ways. The attachment is seen to be of an effective or emotional kind derived from past social experiences by the proponents of social-psychological approach while the rational choice theorists see it as a kind of cognitive shortcut representing a running tally of retrospective analysis of party performance (Fiorina, 1981123).

 In both instances, the most important point is that an individual is disposed by partisan identity to vote for a particular party in various elections and to assess emerging political information is ways that are likely to be sympathetic to the interests of the party and policy stands. The phenomenon of close disparity between major parties during general elections can be explained by the relative stability of partisanship over time. The majority of voters seem to vote for the same party in the various elections. Most frequently, it is the independents that often change their position thereby resulting in one party winning the election rather than another.

It has often been suggested that the view that one votes for a given party because heshe identifies with it does not contribute much in explaining vote (Bartle  Ballucci, 200895). The criticism would be fair is there is not much disparity between party identity and voting for that particular party. For those who advocate for party identification theory, there exists an important difference. Partisanship is lasting predisposition.  Voting on the other hand is a particular act in which the prevailing circumstances may override partisanship resulting in the partisans voting for parties other than the ones they identify with. From this, it then follows that the measurement for party identification must be independent of the prevailing voting preference. If this is not so then any model that claims to explain the prevailing preference by making reference to partisanship would be a mere rhetoric.

However, this does not mean that partisanship is essentially a rhetorical phenomenon. The current voting preference for many voters can be comprehended as emanating from their persistent party identification. A major question that is left to be asked is whether a given way of party identification measurement differentiates partisanship from the prevailing voting preference. Skepticism concerning the validity of BES question sequence has risen among many analysts concerning its validity as a measuring instrument based on this context (Sanders et al., 2002345). The perspective that there is significant overestimation of the number of voters classified as identifiers has been expressed by these analysts.

Party identification of respondents have been assessed by BES based on whether one sees himselfherself as Conservative, Liberal-Democrat, Labor or any other party. Respondents who single out a particular party are further asked how strong they their party affiliation based on three categories very strong, fairly strong, and not very strong. Those who answer none or dont know to the first question are asked if they feel closer to any party and if they do, they are which party it is.

The responses got from successive BES survey with regard to these questions are indicative of three major conclusions. First, it suggests a progressive fall in the proportion of very strong identifiers. Secondly, the percentage of voters identifying themselves with one of the major parties has generally maintained an average of 85 percent of the voters. Finally, the overall stable proportion of identifiers is indicative of the fact that the drop in very strong identifiers has been to some extent matched by the increase in not very strong identifiers (Sanders et al., 2002347). However, it may be asked if the identifiers that have been measured can be correctly seen as the genuine partisans. There are numerous arguments that indicate that they cannot.

According to Brynin and Sanders (1997), there is close correspondence in the way that partisanship is measured by aggregate Gallup time-series. Their argument is that the correlation between the times series suggest that the standard BES partisanship questions do not measure voters but instead measures the current party preference. In order to test this hypothesis, they used the data from the 1991-1992 British Household Panel Study which indicate that party identification and voting choice measures correlate in an identical manner with numerous other theoretical variables. They attribute this to the fact that both the measures are a reflection of the current political preferences and not a distinct phenomenon.

Respondents may also not possess partisan identification even though the standard partisanship battery has the potential of making respondents to give in to partisan identification. The initial question fails to make provision for respondents to say that they have no party affiliation. If this were to be included, then the estimates are likely to increase for non-partisans.

BHPS data has also been used to show the level of instability in responses among individuals with regard to party identification questions. Johnston and Pattie discovered that when the same people are asked at varying times if they support a given party, a small percentage of respondents name the same party consistently than would have been expected by convention al measurements (Johnston et al., 1996295-305). They arrived at a conclusion that partisanship only persists for a small percentage of electorate. The BHPS result pattern is in sharp contrast with traditional BES pattern.  The BES partisanship question measures hardly arrest the persistence of voters attachment to the main political parties. In fact, data from BHPS clearly demonstrate that partisan attachments expressed by the majority of British voters are not persistent.

What these BHPS findings indicate is that the only way that actual partisanship can be effectively measured is through panel data. The cost of carrying out such panels implies that electoral research based on surveys will continue to require approximating partisanship founded on single shot cross section surveys (Sanders et al., 2002348). Under such conditions, there is still need to devise single time-point approximations of the status of partisanship. The approach that this paper seeks to advance is derived from Blais et al., (2001) in their use of split-sample design and a filter to find out the resonance of the notion of usually supporting a given party with the respondents.

Within this approach, the control half of the sample is asked the initial traditional question about their affiliation. The test half on the other hand asks about party politics within the particular country of origin with emphasis being laid on what other people think with regard to their support for a particular political party rather than another. It further asks the respondents to set aside hisher current biases concerning the government and the opposition whether hehe think  of himselfherself as supporter of one specific party or not. If answered in the affirmative, the respondent is further asked which party it is. If on the negative, heshe is further asked why this is so. Within this question, there are four options for the respondent heshe may answer on the negative because heshe does not think that heshe supports one party rather than another heshe does not take part in politics heshe does not know or heshe has simply refused to say.

The test question and the control question differ in two important ways. First, it makes provision for respondents to say that they normally do not support a party. Secondly, the respondents are not artificially cued to suggest their identification with one of the main parties because it excludes mentioning any particular party labels. It is highly improbable that a respondent genuinely identifies with a party unless heshe is specific about that particular party without prompting.

The questions have been applied to a random sample of British voters and the results indicate relative accuracy of the measurement. In this regard, party identification can be best measured by making clear provisions for the respondents that allow them to indicate their lack of long term partisan attachment. In this regard, it can be best measured using Split Sample Survey.

Party identification has been an important and contentious variable in the contribution to the explanation of voting and voting behavior. It is important because there are many electorates who consider themselves long-term party supporters and hence vote for the same party in different elections. At the same time, it is contentious in the sense that there exists a general skepticism concerning how it should be measured. In this paper, the conceptualization of party identification, its value in explaining individual vote and aggregate election outcome has been assessed.

Multinational Company Coca Cola

The company that I will be discussing is The Coca-Cola Company. It is the worlds largest beverage company with operations in more than 200 countries. The portfolio of products that the company offers contains more than 3000 beverages which range from sparkling drinks and water such as juices, soft drinks, water, energy drinks, sports drinks, teas and coffees.

The formula for Coke was devised in 1886 and sampled by people who walked into Jacobs pharmacy. The drink was sold from the soda fountain for 5 cents a glass. Currently the market share of the company is 59 per cent, which the largest market share held by a beverage company in the world.

The mission of the company revolves around three aspects to refresh people to inspire moments of optimism and happiness and to make a difference while at the same time creating value.

The vision of the company can be summarized as the 6 Ps People, Portfolio, Partners, Planet, Profit and Productivity.

International Activities
The Coca-Cola Company has been the longest standing partners of the FIFA. The company became a world wide sponsor of the Special Olympics held in Shanghai in 2007. in 2009 the Coca-Cola Company has received the World Environment Center Gold Medal for International Corporate Achievement in Sustainable Development. (The Coca-Cola Company)

These are not the only activities that the company is involved, there are numerous other activities which the company is a part of.

The company has also partnered with bottling companies which help enhance its operations around the world as well as expanding the business. There are more than 300 bottling partners worldwide.

Market Entry Strategies
The market entry strategies that is usually adopted by The Coca-Cola Company is Licensing. This allows local companies to use the manufacturing process and the trademark of the company. Some skills are provided by the licensor, in this case, the coke formula, the manufacturing process and other help such as advertising.

This method is an easy way of entering new markets and is relatively cheaper. There is no capital tied up in the foreign operations, the company gets to expand its operations into a new market, where the territory is unknown but by the help of a local company many cultural and political barriers can be overcome.

On the other hand, there are disadvantages of using this method the company has limited participation in the operations, the company may loose out on potential profits and returns. (FAO)

The Coca-Cola Company does not necessarily have to stick to any one strategy or mode of entry. They can make use of different types of entry strategies such as joint ventures, franchising and joint ventures with limited local partners. For example the company adopted a mixture of a joint venture and a franchising strategy when they decided to enter into the Chinese beverage market. (Mok, V. Dai, X. and Yeung, G. 2002)

Why does E-Bay have problems in its Asian Markets

E-Bay faces problems in its Asian markets and these problems have started to ring bells for the e-bay management. There are a number of problems faced by e-bay currently in its Asian markets such as
Decreasing profits.

Falling customer base.
In some parts of Asia losses are also seen, leading to closure of e-bay activities in Japan.
Traditional competitors such as yahoo are making profits and also expanding their services to other parts of Asia successfully.

The reasons for these problems are firstly it is largely believed that e-bay didnt study the cultural dynamics of the Asian markets before entering the market and because of this they are loosing its customer base to new local entrants, who understand the people and culture better and provide services accordingly. Secondly the lack of creativity of the e-bay selling tactics is minimizing their market share in comparison to competitors such as Emarket who have introduced new interactive techniques of selling.

E-bay would never have faced these problems if they had kept the global marketing strategies in mind and would have expanded with those strategies. The most important thing that you keep in mind when you are expanding globally is the culture of the specific region you are moving into. You try understanding the behavior of the people of that region, there specific reactions to your actions and what kind of services will appeal them. Keeping the cultural aspect in mind you move forward to the marketing basics such as the 4Ps that are product, price, position and promotion. E-bay made a few mistakes in applying these marketing basics. Whenever you market any product globally you try to keep the products originality while adding some native flavor to the product which e-bay didnt do while the local competitors understood that and they designed their website which had the Asian appeal to it and thus their product was an instant hit with the consumer, these services included the fixed prices that were set and the customer didnt had to wait till the end of the auction to know if the product was his or someone elses. E-bay also lost a lot on the pricing it was doing for e.g. in China where it was charging money for the listings Ali Babas subsidiary  TaoBaos was providing free listings. They didnt keep in mind the product and what price they should charge for it and hence valuable customers were lost. Promotion was neglected to a certain extent when the Korean competitors Gmarket were promoting there product with creative strategies such as lucky auction or providing the retailers with links to their own mini pages, e-bay was promoting with its old tactics forgetting that they didnt enjoy the same amount of customer base as in the US or some countries of Europe. They completely forgot that they were competing in a region where the service was in its initial stages and still growing.

E-bay was one of the very first online stores in each of these Asian countries and they were the very first to see the potential in the Asian markets. But if we carefully follow the entry trends we see that mostly e-bay had started its operations in a certain company and than Yahoo bought some shares in a local online store such as Emarket and than suddenly e-bay starts loosing its customers and consequently its profits. This trend could also be seen in Japan, in China and now in Korea. All of this happened due to the fact that the entry and the time of entry of e-bay has been a little to early compare to their preparedness for the task.

Thus, if E-bay had employed the right global marketing practices and had entered the market with good preparation they would have been extremely successful given the fact they were the market leaders in many other countries and they saw the potential in Asian Markets very early.

Discussion Board Questions

Many people complain about the rights of the accused. Why are these rights important Is there any way to balance between the rights of victims and the rights of the accused
Due process ensures that the law is applied equally to all but also justly by punishing those who deserve to be punished provided that the accused can be proven to be guilty.  Chances are, without proving the guilt of the accused, we may as well end up punishing the wrong person, and it would be impossible to undo the wrong brought upon that person.  While it is understandable the victims deserve to get justice, we would be committing a greater injustice by punishing the wrong person, hence the need to follow due process to determine innocence or guilt.  This by far is the only way to balance the rights of the accused to that of the victims justice is different from revenge.

Should affirmative action exist If you favor affirmative action, how should society address the economic gap between men and women and whites and African Americans

In my opinion, affirmative action should exist.  However, it would be a mistake to take it in absolute terms in the sense that affirmative action can only go far with regards to providing equal opportunity for people of diverse backgrounds to move up in the world whether to get quality education or ascend the career ladder.  The only limitation to affirmative action is if the individual would have the necessary talents and skills.  Playing the race, gender and religion card should not be used to move ahead of others in this regard for that would be abusive and thereby unfair to those who have what it takes to succeed.

What kind of incentives would motivate you to participate in an interest group Among people you know who are active, what are their incentives

One particular incentive would be political mileage and media exposure.  Even though interest groups are essentially nonprofit by nature, they still get to gain something in pursuing a cause and lobbying and pressuring the government to act.  If the government does act on it, it is a sign you are very influential.  Media exposure also helps in furthering the cause and can help give recognition to the group.
What types of factors influence ones party identification If you consider yourself to be a party identifier, why do you identify with your party

One particular factor would be ones beliefs.  If the political partys ideology corresponds to your beliefs, you are very likely to join that party which would help bolster your faith in the ideology (Heineman, 1996).  In my case this how I identify with my party.  I support and advocate the issues they bring up from abortion to foreign policy.

What are the three forms of government by which Texas cities operate Of the three which one do you feel is the most efficient Why

There are three forms of government practiced in Texas cities.  One is the Mayor-Council form, the Council-Manager form and the City Commission (Dye, 2010). Of the three forms of government, I believe the mayor-council form of local government is the most efficient.  It is more stable and less bureaucratic among the three.  The mayor wields true executive powers befitting his position.

What If

If citizens are required to vote, the liberals among us would raise a howl of protest because the spirit in the rights and freedoms enshrined in the Bill of Rights comes with the choice to exercise those.  Without such choice left to the citizen who desires or does not desire to vote, we can no longer call this country a democracy.  Voting is a duty and a right, because it is a duty we are bound to do it for the sake of our country, but its being a right gives the individual a choice to vote or not to vote.  If voting will be really required, then as with all impositions there will be corresponding penalties for non-compliance. They can be anything between light to harsh, if failure to vote has been habitual.  Light penalties can be fines to community service.  Harsher penalties could be enrollment in a government class to none issuance of permit to travel in or out of the country.  Penalties are not meant only as disciplinary measures but as education on the importance of obeying laws and discharging duties.

If same-sex marriages were to be recognized in the entire country, same-sex couples would be happy.  What is there for others to stand in the way of their happiness  There may be religions that may oppose this unconventional practice.  However strong the ground they stand on they must realize that religious tolerance fought its way into the embrace of society and government.  Same-sex couples are similarly situated and they want their relationship accepted according to the rules of society.  Their cases are no different from the Blacks, the Women, and the Indians who wanted a part of the ground we are walking on and the sky above us all.  Same-sex couples have the same rights as the traditional couples in wanting to love one person, live with that one, share lifes joys and pains with, and pursue happiness together as one.  If same-sex marriages will ultimately be legalized, it will certainly prove that democracy prevails in this country.  Freedom of choice and the pursuit of happiness are guaranteed by the State for as long as enjoyment of such is not destructive of others.

If the Constitution had banned slavery outright, history would have been written differently.  America would have remained a wilderness and the plantations would not have fed a nation.  Martin Luther King, Jr., would have been an ordinary pastor and Rosa Parks would have been a simple seamstress.  The nation would not have read the moving A Letter from a Birmingham Jail and it would not have learned from the Montgomery Bus Boycott.  There would be nothing significant on having a Barack Obama in the White House.  If slavery did not flourish, the music scene of America would not have known legends like Michael Jackson.  If slavery was banned outright, Americas equality and justice for all would not have been tested and it may never have proven to the world that America is indeed the Land of the Free.

The framers of the Texas Constitution protected those who file for bankruptcy with more than adequate cover from creditors even if they were creditors themselves.  Originally, the idea was to seek protection for families who lived under the harsh conditions of the frontiers.  Bankruptcy of homesteads destabilized these families and added up to their woes, which led them to flee to other nearby states.  A moratorium on the collection of debts was proposed by Stephen Austin and which was carried on from the original decree to the Constitution in the form of exemption from claims by creditors on lands.

After the war, the returning soldiers found their homesteads and plantations destroyed and their families desperate.  They were not much economic opportunities for them.  Texas was basically an agricultural state.  Except for the few with lands, the rest who stuck it out worked as farm laborers.  A bankruptcy during 1875, could have meant losing cattle as payment to creditors or fleeing to other states in search of better economic opportunities.

American Public Opinion

The right of the American people to know, is the crux of its valued democracy. For a democracy truly representative of the will and aspirations of its people, the people themselves must be informed and educated of the issues that the country faces. In this manner, they are able to influence directions in policy as well as check on the actions of governmental institutions responsible for their welfare. An informed and educated public is the greatest weapon of democracy (Emmerinsky, 2001).

Unfortunately, studies made by political scientists and observers have shown that the average American today is not adequately informed of the nations political issues and is unlikely to show interest in the goings-on in government. Is the American public well-informed In terms of access to information, television is now a common fixture in every household so that the ordinary citizen can get news and other relevant information from it as well as from other sources such as the Internet. On the other hand, the people may be bombarded with news every day, but the more important question is the quality and truth of the information presented to the public. In my opinion, the problem does not rest with the American peoples lack of interest in political processes, but rather, the American governments policy of withholding information. This is especially true in matters of foreign policy. As former Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld said, in times of crises, In wartime truth is so precious that she should always be attended by a bodyguard of lies. Indirectly, this is an admission that the government has lied to the public about certain issues, and this is worrisome. That the U.S. government has lied to the American people about its interventionist actions and policies in foreign countries is something that makes trust almost impossible to expect from the ordinary citizen. This explains why there seems to be greater public distrust in government now.  For instance, the September 11 terrorist attacks called for greater public scrutiny on the United States actions not only in the Middle East, but in the Third World. In fact, many Americans then wondered why so many people seemed to hate America, despite the fact the government spends so much on foreign aid. The depreciating level of public awareness is worrisome to any aspiring democracy. Public confidence in government institutions must be restored and there must be transparency from the government itself so that the people can fully participate in decision-making processes that are essential to any democratic government. As James Madison said, A popular government without popular knowledge or the means of acquiring it is but a prelude to a farce or a tragedy or perhaps both (cited in Lehman, 1938, p. 6).

Industrial relations

Legal contests over the employers freedom of expression during union organizing drives provide one of the clearest examples of the manner in which the law attempts to balance the interests and rights of the workplace parties. In this way, it provides a climate in which public policy objectives can be realized. In your own labour legislation, identify the provisions that either allow the employer to express its opinion or prevent the employer from abusing this right. In your opinion, are the prohibitions and the remedies sufficient

Section 91(1) gives employers the freedom to apply to the board if they feel that a strike is unlawful. The strike could have already happened, could be happening or could be happening in future following authorization by the employees trade unions (Department of Justice Canada, 2010).

Following this, the board may require that the trade union calls off the strike or it may prohibit the employees from taking part in the strike. Section 92 ensures that the employers do not abuse this right by giving the trade unions the freedom to present their complaints to the board if they feel that the prohibition is unlawful (Department of Justice Canada, 2010).

Following this the board may request the employer not to interfere with the strike. These prohibitions and remedies are sufficient since they ensure that the interests of employees and the employers are balanced.

Legislators and the courts have ruled that trade unions require an enormous amount of discipline over their members in order to create and preserve the collective strength required to maintain a truly balanced bargaining relationship with employers. It has been argued that without this strength, employees freedom of association would mean little. Do you agree with the legal machinery they have provided Or is there some other legal format in which these policy objectives could have been achieved

The provided legal machinery does not give the trade unions enough powers to be able to discipline their members. For the trade unions to achieve their objectives, the legal provisions should be revised. The trade unions should be given powers to go into employees workplaces to persuade them to become members.

Employers should also be required to dismiss the employees who do not participate in strikes that the trade unions have authorized (Department of Justice Canada, 2010). This way, the trade unions would get the collective strength they need to bargain with employers.

3. Considerable public debate has taken place over the right of the state to seek special restrictions on the right to strike for its own employees, loosely defined as public sector workers. The debate also focuses on the extent to which alternate dispute resolution procedures actually provide a fair and viable substitute for industrial action. The sanctions that the state can employ to impose its will in this area naturally become a factor in real lifeand this becomes part of the argument. Where do you stand in this debate Pick one issue and present your view.

In the absence of unions and with prohibition of strikes, the state will be able to oppress its workers. The workers will have no avenues for presenting their grievances.

Whereas industrial action acts as a good way of presenting grievances, unions are usually the best option. Avenues such as formation of social clubs as are being imposed by state on its employees will never be as effective.

Collective bargaining is based on the premise that the two major workplace parties can effectively create and administer the rules governing their relationship, with the collective agreement serving as the major instrument for this. Based on your knowledge of the workplace, and conditions of employment, do you believe that this is realistic

No, this is not realistic. In majority of the workplaces, the employer has total authority and there is usually no room for negotiations. Even with unions, the workers are never able to really have a say in making of the rules that govern how they relate with their employers.

This is usually because the employer is usually the determinant of important issues such as pay, working conditions and can declare demands of employees as unreasonable. Since the employees need the jobs, they are usually forced to accept the terms of the employer.

There is much debate over the merits of the peculiar collective bargaining institution that has developed over the years in Canada. What do you think about the deal as it was struck in 1944 and has developed since How good do you think it was for employers For employees

Following the 1944 deal which is also known as Wartime Labor Relations Regulations, both employees and employers benefited greatly (Black  Silver, 2008). The employees benefited due to shielding from labor practices that were unfair.

This means that their rights as employees were recognized and upheld. It also benefited the employers in that they also got a chance to be able to form trade unions which would represent them. This would protect them from the effects of unlawful strike by their employees.
What are some of the primary features of the parties, process, and outcomes typical of collective bargaining that distinguish it from other forms of contract making in Canada today

The parties to a collective bargaining are varied and could include employees and employees, employer and employer or employee and employer. A primary feature of the process of collective bargaining is that its continuous. This form of contract is usually permanent and never temporary unlike other forms which can be temporary. A typical outcome feature of collective bargaining is that it protects all the interests of its members. These interests could be economic, social or political unlike others which deal with a single interest of their members (Black  Silver, 2008).

What are some of the major changes and trends that are shaping modern workplaces and work processes What implications do they hold for the future of collective bargaining

The modern work processes and workplaces are being shaped by major trends and changes. One of these is that there has been an increase in the costs of premiums for some of the benefits (Black  Silver, 2008). This has been forcing the employers to find ways to control these increases. If the employers impose more deductions on the employees, it would be a basis for bargaining by the trade unions which would be opposed to such a move.

Another trend is the increasing need for job security (Black  Silver, 2008). Employers will be forced to make agreements with the trade unions which will see this issue dealt with without restricting the future options of the employers.

Lesson 1 asserted that some of Canadas greatest legal and political minds have tied the goals of collective bargaining to the goals of democracy, in response to the fact that the governments of most Canadian workplaces are really autocracies. Many Canadians would regard this statement as contentious, and some might even find it offensive. As a student of industrial relations, how would you respond to

One of the outcomes of collective bargaining is democracy and this is supposed to benefit workers. In majority of the workplaces in Canada, the workers have no right to negotiate about the conditions of working or their pay with their employers. This is contrary to the principles of democracy and so the trade unions should seek to have this changed.

However, the labor movement has not been serious in seeking democracy for employees and so its not right to equate democratic goals to goals of collective bargaining especially in Canada.
9. When the two workplace partiesmanagement and the trade unionmeet at the bargaining table, which of following statements more accurately describes their relationship The parties are united by convergent interests (i.e., by what they have in common). The parties are divided by divergent interests (i.e., by what makes them different).

Pick one point of view, and explain your reasons for choosing it.

When the trade unions and the management are bargaining, they are usually united by their common interests. They are both interested in seeing businesses succeed. For this to happen, a satisfied productive workforce is mandatory.

The trade unions helps the employers to create a productive workforce by negotiating for better salaries, better working conditions as well as helping to improve communication between employees and the employers (Black  Silver, 2008).

10. The common law governing employment, arguing that it reflects and reinforces the employment relationship as one of subordinationcharacteristic of the relationship between master and servant.Considering your experiences and perspective do you agree or disagree with such an analysis

I totally agree with this analysis. During the time when this employment relationship was coined, failure of workers to comply with the terms of their work contracts led to punishments (Black  Silver, 2008). This still happens today in the workplaces. The employees are also supposed to totally submit to the employer and in most of the places they are not supposed to voice their opinions. They are expected to accept whatever pay is offered even though its little compared to the volume of work done.

Another thing is that mistakes are usually punished in some workplaces. For example in some workplaces employees are fined if their mistake causes the company or the employer to incur losses.
11. Unit 6 seeks to explain the nature of modern trade unions by showing how, as organizations, they develop an existence and rationale of their own, apart from, or even contrary to, the expressed wishes of their members. Most significantly, trade unions have developed into forces for moderating and even suppressing members demands and overcoming members resistance to the employers agenda.Considering your experiences, and your perspective do you agree with this theoretical position


Currently, unions are not very member oriented. The economic changes in Canada have made the unions to lose their earlier luster. This has also decreased their bargaining power and so currently all they are doing is to make sure that the members remain employed.

They are more concerned with remaining relevant in a society that is fighting to phase then out than serving the needs of their members.

Read the following lyrics and answer the question accordinglyWhen the Unions inspiration through the workers blood shall run,There can be no power greater anywhere beneath the sun.Yet what force on earth is weaker than the feeble strength of oneBut the Union makes us strong.Solidarity foreverSolidarity foreverSolidarity foreverFor the Union makes us strong.Is there aught we hold in common with the greedy parasiteWho would lash us into serfdom and would crush us with his mightIs there anything left for us but to organize and fightFor the Union makes us strong.chorusIt is we who plowed the prairies built the cities where they tradeDug the mines and built the workshops endless miles of railroad laid.Now we stand outcast and starving, midst the wonders we have madeBut the Union makes us strong.chorusAll the world thats owned by idle drones is ours and ours alone.We have laid the wide foundations built it skyward, stone by stone.It is ours, and not to slave in, but to master and to own,While the Union makes us strong.chorusThey have taken untold millions that they never toiled to earn,But without our brain and muscle not a single wheel can turn.We can break their haughty power gain our freedom, when we learnThat the Union makes us strong.chorusIn our hands is placed a power greater than their hoarded goldGreater than the might of armies, magnified a thousand-fold.We can bring to birth a new world from the ashes of the old.For the Union makes us strong.
Question What problem do these lyrics identify in the employment relationship And what solution(s) do they propose Setting aside the rhetoric in the lyrics, do you agree with this assessment of the employment relationship Why or why not

The problem identified in these lyrics is poverty among workers while the employers continue to get richer yet it is the employees who work to make the money. The solution the workers are proposing is formation of a union which will help them to fight for their right. With a trade union, they will have a stronger voice and thus will be heard better than if each were acting on their own.

Away from the lyrics, the same issues addressed here do take place in real life. In most of the workplaces, the employees work tirelessly to make millions yet they are paid peanuts. This makes the employees to continue wallowing in poverty while the employers get richer and richer.

Read the following lyrics and answer the question accordinglyTumble out of bed and I stumble to the kitchen Pour myself a cup of ambition Yawnin, stretchin, try to come to life Jump in the shower and the blood starts pumpin Out on the streets the traffic starts jumpin And folks like me on the job from nine to fiveChorusWorkin nine to fiveWhat a way to make a livin Barely gettin by Its all takin and no givin They just use your mind And they never give you credit Its enough to drive you Crazy if you let itNine to five, for service and devotion You would think that I would deserve a fair promotion Want to move ahead, but the boss wont seem to let me I swear sometimes that man is out to get me Mmmmm...They let you dream Just a watch em shatter Youre just a step On the boss mans ladder But you got dreams hell never take awayIn the same boat with a lot of your friends Waitin for the day your shipll come in And the tides gonna turn And its all gonna roll your waychorusNine to five, yeah They got you where they want you Theres a better life And you think about it, dont you Its a rich mans game No matter what they call it And you spend your life Puttin money in his wallet
Question What tension do these lyrics identify in the employment relationship Is this tension recognized by the unitarist perspective on industrial relations What are the implications of ignoring this tension

The tension recognized in this relationship is one where an employer will promise a worker a promotion which will never be. This makes the worker to really work hard in the hope that the employer will notice and promote him but this never happens. This tension exists in majority of workplaces where employers will hint about promotions to make employees more committed.

This makes the employees to work harder each day hoping that their dreams of being promoted will come true. When the employers continue to ignore this tension, the employees can become demoralized and this may lower their productivity. Another implication is that the employees may leave the workplace in search of a place where they will realize their dreams.

14. With only 1 year unionized work experience I have not really seen union democracy. Looking at the present legal policy of non-intervention of internal union affairs I think is reasonable to some degree. I believe as long as the union is following proper legal legislatings and treats everyone who is part of the union with the same respect, rules and regulations, then there is no reason for the law to get involved. Unions members agree to a collective agreement (a negotiated agreement) made between employers and employees covering issues such as pay and terms and conditions of employment. In cases where a collective agreement is being negotiated, employees are able to see what they are agreeing to so I dont feel it is necessary for the law to then step in and get involved when in the first place they did not agree to the terms and conditions of the collective agreement.If an organization has a union in place and the unions is looked at as an open shop then employees are not required to be part of the union and support the collective agreement that is in place employees have the option to join the union or not. In this case if you dont agree with the unions views then dont join.If an organization has a closed shop union, employees have no choice if they join the union or not. If employees dont agree with what the unions collective agreement says then dont join the company.I believe employees have choices and for this, I dont see it necessary for legal policy intervention of internal union affairs to take place. If law representatives are not involved when companies are putting together their collective agreement, then why should they get involved if something goes wrong between employer and employeeunion

The trade unions are more powerful when membership is compulsory. The members also become more active in its affairs. Its important to note that internal affairs of trade unions just like any other affair require legal intervention. This is to solve any problems that may occur when one party breaches the terms of the contract (Black  Silver, 2008).

I do agree with the legal machinery provided. I find a common theme running through labour law is that employers are in a much more powerful position than unions. Why exactly is this The most obvious reason is that employees are dependant on the employer for their wages. I think the most important reason for an employers power is the absolute unity that exsists within mangement.

Obiedence to company directives is absolute and there are no competeing interests. A union is often made up of very different people, doing different jobs, with different interests. A union must have the enormous discipline granted by legislation and the courts or its inherent divisions would be ruthlessly exploited by management. During collective bargining, the employer must bargin with the union, and not its employees, for the process to be fair. If the employer barginined with its employees, without the current legislation, it could cut seperate deals and pit one group of employees against each other. Collective bargining works because of union discipline, at the bargining table it is one hiearchy negotiating with another.

Trade unions offer the best avenue for the employees to present their grievances without fear of discrimination. Individual employees are less powerful than the employers but when presented as a group by the trade unions, they become at par with the employers. This requires discipline of the individual workers.

Thoughts on the Rand FormulaI find the Rand formula to be the most contentious guarantee in our collective bargaining legal regime - I dont necessarily find it the most unusual (or unfortunate) personally, but it seems to have the longest reach of the guaranteed provisions, and to have brought about the most debate, particularly since the introduction of the Charter. The mandatory enforcement of dues amongst employees has the dual effect of ensuring benefits of union membership are directly linked to contribution -preventing bias, favoritism, or perceptions thereof - and of maintaining the collective bargaining notion that employers cannot bargain with individual employees outside of the unit once the unit has been established. To do so would, after all, completely destabilize the unit and giving employers such a right would render the establishment of any union a moot point. The mandatory contribution of union dues is unavoidable anywhere the Rand legislation is in place, with voluntary automatic check off being a standard in the places where it is not, being avoidable only under religious circumstances, and a payment for recognition (to a charity of choice or designation) still being a requirement for employment in the unit. People seem to take objection to this in two ways the most common is the actual deduction of dues, easily the most widespread objection to unionization. The second is the alleged restriction that laboring under a mandatory dues contribution system places on ones freedom of association by forcing a personal association with an organization upon an employee in order to stay employed. Though this may not infringe upon a persons degree of association within an organization (and has been determined not to - Lavigne 1991 decision), the same cannot necessarily be said of the union-employee association beyond the workplace. This has become increasingly true as unions have grown more politically and socially active in an effort to broaden the reach of their social policy. Though restrictions on coercion, intimidation, and other methods used by organizations to control individuals restrict unions from unduly influencing the actions of its members, the taint of association is often enough to rankle members, with the necessity of dues being an added insult, and its a broad problem across all jurisdictions in one form or another.

The things accomplished by trade unions cannot be if there was no unity of the workers being represented. By making contributions compulsory, the workers become more united and they feel as part of the union. This gives the union the powers it needs to represent the employees.

While the collective bargaining process does result in rules governing the employee  employer relationship, the process does not exist within a vacuum. Socio-political and economic conditions can and often do have a dramatic effect on outcome of the final collective agreement.As competition arising from an ever increasing global economy becomes prevalent in Canada companies have had to restructure employee compliments and increase efficiencies wherever and whenever possible. As was observed over the past year with the Canadian auto manufactures, collective agreements had to be reopened and modified to suite the needs of the organization for its very survival. A very strong message has been sent out to unions particularly within exporting in Canada which indicates leaner times to come. In the public sector unions are faced with permanent exceptionalism having access to collective bargaining stripped via back to work legislation. The government of BC recently imposed a contract on the Ambulance workers with social pressures mounting due to the upcoming Olympic games and increased demands on health care services due to the spread of H1N1 throughout the province. The aforementioned are but a few examples of how external forces can impact the collective bargaining process and in most cases these forces act to the detriment of the unions bargaining strength. In many cases unions are entering into negotiations at best trying to hold onto the gains of past but more commonly accepting concessions in the hopes they will be enough to keep the organization viable and thus keep their membership employed. Collective bargaining implies a negotiation where parties involved give and take to achieve agreed upon conditions. Unfortunately due to realities of the socio-political and economic climate in Canada the equity of this process exists more in theory than in practice.

There are a lot of external forces that influence the bargaining ability of the unions. In the recent past, the political, social and economic environments in Canada have been making the union to have less bargaining power (Black  Silver, 2008). This means that the unions are in most instances agreeing to the conditions of the employers.