Theory of Negotiation Literature Review

The analysis of decisions has become to be known as the fundamental basis of negotiation theory. Majority of economists have identified other elements such as the game theory, behavioral decision making process and the negotiation analyses to be imperative in the whole formulation of the negotiation theory. However, other writers have drawn a difference between strategic analysis, structural analysis, process analysis, behavioral analysis and integrative analysis of the negotiations. It is more benefiting when each individual makes his or her own separate contributions in the making of interactive decisions. This is the basis of negotiation analysis which examines the manner in which bright individuals should unite and make collaborative and joint decisions. The theories require being interleaved and should be given an approach of a synthetic point of view.

According to Meiners and Miller (2004), negotiation can be said to be a specialized and a kind of formal mechanism for resolving of conflicts. This machinery is mostly employed when very crucial issues have to be agreed upon (p.228). When one party discovers that the other partys agreement is necessary in the achieving of its goals, then negotiation becomes the most invaluable tool in success. Negotiation is aimed at building a shared environment that leads to a long-term trust which in most cases involves a neutral and third neutral party that extracts the matters from various emotions while keeping the concerned individuals to remain focused.

Negotiations have been identified as the most reliable options of problem resolutions although it requires skills and experiences.  Some authors have defined negotiation as the process of joining two objects from two contrasting positions into a general decision under the decision of the unanimity. This phenomenon makes it possible for the outcomes can be affected by the process. In any business environment, negotiations have always led to the making of decisions that have completely changed the business at large.  However, a majority of theories of negotiation have been known to share the common notion of negotiations that it is a process which needs stepwise observation. Negotiation process has been considered to be a power margin by the structural analysis. In fact, strategic analysis theory has considered the negotiation process as another emergence of the Game theory which is a repeated history.

In his argument, Musambachime (2001), has highlighted that in integration analysis, the intuitive notion of process is more preferred. In this process, the negotiations undergo specific successive stages such as stalemate, pre-negotiation and settlement (p.3). The structural, procedural and strategic analysis is built on some rational actors who prioritize evident goals and they are able to make take-offs between various conflicting issues and are largely in their negotiation and able to take various uncertainty in the account. The negotiations however have been seen to differ from the mere coercion. This is seen when the negotiating parties have had the possibility to withdraw from the negotiation. Researcher have identified that it is easier to investigate into the bi-lateral negotiations than the multilateral negotiations. There are four major analyses which have been proposed to be involved in negotiations (Lawrence, 2000, p.545). These have come to be referred to as negotiation theories. The types of analysis include the strategic analysis, the structural analysis, the process analysis and the integrative analysis.

In yet another argument Bazerman and his collegues (2000) has formulated that the structural analysis has been proposed to be based on the distribution of the most empowering elements amongst the negotiating parties, (p.5). One of the most significant features of structural analysis is that it tends to move further away from the notions of power of the Realism implying that it does not only reflect on power to be a major possession that is manifested in military and economic resources for instance but also reflects on power as a form of relation.

In structural analysis, which is purely based on the elements distribution, power symmetry between two uniformly strong parties or the power asymmetry between the weaker parties and the stronger parties. In his research study, Zhao (2002) conceptualized that evidence has been gathered by most economical observers that the entire elements from which the individual parties can draw power add up to structure (p.58). These elements may take the form of material nature for instance the hard power such as weapons or the social nature or the soft power comprising of the contracts, norms or precedents.

The instrumental power elements have either been defined as the relative position of the parties, in the position of resources, or as the relative abilities of these elements to enable their options thrive. It has been possible to criticize the structural analysis with significant ease. This is because the structural analysis often predicts that the strongest comes to be in the winners position (Lens, 2004, p.145). However, this observation that the strongest will come to be the winner does not always hold to have any validity.

The second form of analysis most economists have come to agree upon is the strategic analysis. According to this analysis, the negotiations are always described with the techniques such as the Prisoners Dilemma of the matrices. This concept was depicted by the later economists from the Game theory (Lens, 2004, p.146). Other recent depiction of this form of analysis has been the Chicken Dilemma which is an example of such common games.

There is a common observation that the strategic analysis begins with the postulation that the two parties have some for of rejection or a veto. This implies that the two negotiating parties can take either of the two steps to cooperate or to defect. This illustrations show that the structural analysis creatively evaluates all the possible outcomes of negotiations. These outcomes are the combinations that may be possible considering the two events, the cooperation (C) or the defection (D). The four combinations can be C, C C, D D, D or D, C. it has been found that C, C or the cooperation from the two parties results into the best results.

Major hurdles have been identified with the strategic analysis that takes the form of C and D analysis. This problem arises due to the fact that the two parties can never achieve surety that the other party will definitely cooperate. There are two main reasons which may derive into this observation first, the decisions are made virtually at the same time and the second reason is that the dispensations of one party might not be returned. This shows that the two parties have two totally contradicting incentive to defect or to cooperate. Therefore, if one of the parties makes a concession or cooperates while the other party does not, there is a more chance that the defecting party will gain more than the cooperating party.

In strategic analysis, Quinn, Bell and Wells (1997) have unanimously provided that the trust which seems to overwhelm the decisions may be built exclusively in the repetitive games through the emergence of a tit-for-tat tactic which is a pattern of behavior (p.24). These observations have been the key to economical analysts which give them the ability to make weighty decisions which help to build the business or sail it forward. This implies that without the strategic analysis, the decision making process would have to rely on some other tools that are not handy like the strategic analysis. Business men and companies have adopted the strategy and good results are expected.

According to Lawrence (2000), the other form of analysis that has gained publicity among the economic experts is the process analysis. Some earlier economic researchers compared the process analysis to the haggling (p.549). In the process analysis, the two parties begin from two different points where they then converge at some point after going through a series of concessions. The process analysis, just like the strategic analysis, both have some forms of veto such as to sell or not to sell or to pay or not to pay. At the same time, the process analysis features various structural assumptions since one side may be stronger or weaker for instance, the more the party is more eager to sell, and the scenario where the party is not readily to pay some given price.

In their research article, Meiners and Miller (2004), have argued that the process analysis specifically focuses on the processes dynamics study for instance both the Cross and the Zeuthen had struggled to find out the formula in so as to make the prediction of the behavior of the other party possible (p.238). This venture will try to find out the rate of concession so as to predict the possible outcome. Therefore, the process of negotiation is purely considered to be unfolding between the fixed points that is the discord starting point, and the convergence endpoint point. Another aspect taken into great consideration is the security point which is the result of optional withdrawal.

The last from of analysis is the integrative analysis that divides the process into a number of successive stages. The technique does not emphasize on major points. The integrative analysis successfully achieves all functions through the spread of the analysis to the steps of pre-negotiations where the parties make their initial contacts. The results are always explained as the actors performance at some different stages which award the parties (Zhao, 2002, p.60). These forms of stages may comprise of the crest behavior, the settlement, the pre-negotiation and the formula finding of distribution.

In general, provide how many ways in which the process of negotiating arises, it is possible to imagine how many different kinds of negotiation that exist. However, the negotiation theorists have often provided a number of different concepts that assist in the sorting out and deeply understanding process. Perhaps, one of the simplest symbols is to talk about the taking the discussion. The tools of negotiation have built business empires as they provide the basis of creativity. It should however not to be forgotten that the development of any busies relies on the factors of production which include the labor, capital and other crucial factors such as entrepreneur. Simply put, the negotiation theory has been an important aspect in creating opportunities in the cross-cultural dimensions. The difference between different types of culture is highlighted and in more straight, the theory explains on how to deal with various conflicts that arise in an economic environment.

Environmental Pollution and Control Measures

The An Inconvenient Truth (Guggenheim, 2006) film by the former U.S vice president Al Gore received a lot of support and criticism various from people, organizations, and governments. However, the film was a revelation to the public with regards to the disaster facing them because of environmental pollution. There was a feeling that the film was biased since it only showed humans as the main contributors to environmental pollution. As the effects of global warming become evident, everyone is realizing the possible disaster at hand. The problem is the balance between development and environmental conservation, which is the main issue that should be addressed.  Basing from the movie created by Al Gore, it is evident that the issue at hand is with regards to the climate change which is resulting to massive changes in the environment, climate, and natural resource. Through the continuous development of different nations, it is the environment that is being abused and sacrificed in order to compensate the needs of different entities such as the business community and food industries and the likes. Hence, due to the continuous use of the environment, growth of different industries as well as the demand of the people it has become inevitable for humans to experience climate change.

The An Inconvenient Truth by Gore is a film aimed at educating the public on the severe impacts of global warming. The film is more of a personal story of how Gores life has been negatively impacted by global warming by bringing out personal experiences in his life. These ranges from his sisters death from cancer to a fatal car crash involving his brother. Interestingly, the film brings out a strange point of evaluation by explaining why earth is the only inhabitable planet compared to other planets. At the end of the film, one is left thinking of the things life encounters that are usually ignored such as devastating effect of the waste and pollution done by humanity and the supposed impact it has on the environment.

Do you believe An Inconvenient Truth is exaggerated or erroneous representing the global interests of one country versus another Or perhaps the political interests of one country versus another
The An Inconvenient Truth by Al Gore (Guggenheim, 2006) though giving a warning of the disaster facing the continent is somehow exaggerated. The conclusion taken by Gore in the film is somehow biased and subjective.  As mentioned by Professor Clark (2007), Warmer periods of the Earths history came around 800 years before rises in carbon dioxide levels (Wheldon, 2007). This means that rising carbon dioxide levels follow a rise in average temperatures globally. Mr. Gore assertion is that rise in carbon dioxide levels is followed by a high rise in temperatures. On the other hand Mr. Gore researched on ice samples derived from Antarctica and concluded that the rise in carbon dioxide levels is the cause of high-rise in temperatures. The conclusion that humans are the only ones responsible for the global warming is thus not objective and it vilifies humans (Guggenheim, 2006).

Gore at the end of the film stresses the countries responsible for the global warming impact by stating all the cities, which follow the Kyoto protocol regulations. In addition, he stresses that U.S and Australia are the only parties outside the protocol. There is no effort to give credit for the measures taken by the U.S government in reducing pollution. Some of which are programs which are often for the protection of different natural resources such as forests, rivers, seas and the likes. Moreover, the Clean Air Act of 1990 became stronger than ever. Furthermore, the United States had greatly and strongly implemented to reduce the pollution which is being emitted in the atmosphere. Through the Clean Air Act of 1990 the government is able to monitor different activities of different entities which highly contribute to pollution in different parts of the countries. Therefore the film is more a political tool against the regime in the U.S to discredit it or to show the insensitivity of the regime towards environmental issues (United States Environment Protection Agency, 2008).

Do you believe that government and industry leaders are being honest with its citizens when they make statements about the amount of pollution their industry or country creates

The government and industries are not giving the public the real picture about the actual effect of the emissions. There is a game of passing the blame of global warming from one country to the other instead of giving the facts. An example is the U.S explanation on the rejection of Kyoto protocol. The U.S -Milan consulate when taken to task on the issue of pollution said, We also did not sign because the convention excluded the industrializing nations of the third world  India, China, and Brazil being the best-known exclusions (Bustamante, 2007). The U.S government instead of tackling the real issues on pollution and its implication taking into account their role in global warming they passed the buck to the developing countries and hence refused to sign the protocol. The consulate further asserted that U.S government was the leading nation in constituting the Kyoto meeting on environment as a way of showing the countrys concern towards environment. In addition Bustamante stated that, We estimate that, in order to meet Kyoto greenhouse gas goals, we would have had to cut our energy economy by one-third, costing us an average of 400 billion annually and involving the loss of 4.9 million jobs (2007).

This is the explanation given about reducing the intended emissions by the U.S government. It is becoming difficult and complex to establish who the main culprits in global pollution are because the developed nations do not want to take the full blame and the developing nations still are not committed. Industries still do not want to commit themselves although they are the principal root cause of the global warming problem. It would be difficult for people to get facts.

It appears global warming is clearly an international problem. Should an organization such as the United Nations address this worldwide issue to make sure all nations adhere to standardized pollution regulations

The united Nation has put up some measures to be adopted globally to reduce environmental pollution. The UN body advocates for Cleaner Production (C.P) in industries for all countries. According to U.N, cleaner production is defined as the continuous application of an integrated prevention strategy to processes, products, and services to increase the efficiencies and reduce risks to environment and humans (Elwan, Ahmad  Hamed, 2010, p. 419). The UN advocates for the improvement of sustainable development to cleaner production in reducing pollution for all countries. In sustainable development policy of 1987, countries were required to adopt a balance between production and environmental pollution. The clean production is a mechanism, of achieving more production and development at lower pollution levels. United Nations bodies on environmental protection have really shown their commitment but it will take more than the United Nation enforcement to practical implement protective measures as it requires political will from the member nations to implement those policies.

Developing nations are just beginning to feel the positive impact of economic growth and development often at the cost of the environment. What international public policies should be in place to prevent revolutionary and economic uprisings in those countries

The Kyoto and Montreal Protocols clearly lay down the effective measures to prevent industrial and public crisis in developing countries as well as protecting the environment. According to the protocols, MacWhinney (2007) stated that, developing countries should strive to reduce to emission of fluorocarbons by 2013 and complete elimination of the carbons by 2030. Carbon credits incentives are given for industries achieving the clean development mechanism. In this case, any company adopting CDM will be liable for funding through credit points from developed countries.

The aim of these incentives is to encourage adoption of environmental friendly production methods as well as the materials used. Fluorocarbons are known to be among the worst green house gases and this was the main concern behind the carbon credit move. This will encourage more industrialization at the same time protecting the environment. It solves both industrial and public crisis through more production, and employment opportunities.

What options do you see presently for world enforcement of pollution control, economic growth, and political stability while still maintaining world peace In the case of oil for example, it is predicted as oil shortages increase world instability will increase.

The only available option for the world to reduce pollution, enhances development, and maintains peace as the fuel reserves decrease is adoption of green technologies.  In an article   it is stated that, Consumers and investors are increasingly taking account of organizations approach to corporate social responsibility, with the result that an organizations green reputation and environmental programs can directly impact its bottom line(Green Technology in Regulatory Climate, 2010). The consumers are aware of products that require less power consumption, gadgets that can switch off when not in use and the companies that are strict in environmental policies. Bio fuels are another alternative that may be used to reduce the over-reliance on fossil fuels. Although not many countries have adopted this type of fuel, further modification may make bio fuels an alternative source of energy in the near future. This way the oil reserves will not be depleted and the environment will be cleaner and safer. Energy is the main concern currently with several options being used in different countries but still there is over-reliance and dependency on oil because it is currently the only source of energy (Almost 90 of energy is from fossil fuels or oil). It is true oil shortages can accelerate instability in the world as the more the reserves decrease countries become insecure and will need to obtain it at any cost. This may result political and even military conflict in trying to protect the future of their countries. Hydro-power the oldest energy source is becoming more unreliable and has a negative impact to the environment. Adoption of nuclear energy, wind and solar energy sources might give the best solution to the current energy problem and at the same time providing an alternative greener energy source to use.

Green technology is the only alternative that has to be adopted to ensure both sustainable future production and environmental protection. Green technologies involve there steps these are,  self regulation, government regulation and indirect regulation Non-legislative certification and reporting programs, developed or endorsed by non-profit, private or quasi-government organizations (Green Technology in Regulatory Climate, 2010). In this method, all sectors are represented and more harmony in global markets is stabilized due to the standardization of quality products. In the Inconvenient Truth, Mr. Gore ends by giving hope that not all is lost and if correct measures are taken, we may redeem our environment. Greener technology might be the best way to reclaim the environment. Failure to this, the continent might face massive flooding, desertification and unimaginable catastrophes all of which have long-term serious and devastating effects on survival of humankind.
 Hence, the film of Al Gore is a representation of what is needed by the peopleto understand the current situation of the earth. In a way, the film is a media which shakes the minds of people while encouraging the actions which different individuals must take in order to take responsibility of the situation. In the course of the movie, it seems bias for Al Gore did not provide the actions which had been taken by the United States to reduce its emissions. However, in reality it is the United States that lastly ratified the Kyoto Protocol. Compared to other developing and developed nations which are actively participating in the protocol, it is the United States that brought a haul to asserting the need of the whole world in lessening pollution. In the end, Al Gore may have political interests at hand but climate change is a reality which is brought about by abuse of the environment and anger of Mother Nature.

The United States Policies in the Face of Irans Nuclear Ambitions

Irans acquisition of nuclear weapons has been an issue of concern for a long time. This is because it is bound to pose a significant security threat not only to the United States of America but also to the rest of the world. These fears are today even more real with Irans intention to acquire half a dozen theatre level nuclear weapons within the next year. In light of this, the US government has been forced to re-analyze its policy on nuclear weapon proliferation, its foreign policy toward Iran and most importantly, come up with a pre-emptive attack strategy to counter this threat.

My administration has in the past stated that it is working towards the global elimination of nuclear weapons. This position will not change and will remain a vital point in the U.Ss efforts to make the world a better, peaceful and secure place for all peoples. This is especially applicable to the Iranian case seeing that there lies an opportunity for nuclear weapons originating from the country finding their way to the hands of terrorist or militant groups in the Middle East.

The US will in the next year put in place a number of policies intended at ensuring that Irans possession of nuclear weapons becomes of minimal threat to the international system.  As has for a long time been the case, the US will continue to pursue a non-military solution to the nuclear stand-off.  It is widely agreed that the first and most appropriate choice in conflict resolution should always be dialogue.  It will continue to seek for dialogue and negotiation between it and Iran on ways of finding an amicable end to the nuclear stand-off.

It will be first important for the US government to send a signal to Iran that it does not only seek to bring to an end the nuclear stand-off.  It will be seen that an agreement between it and the US and Iran will also result in the normalization of relations between them.  Normalization means that the current tense relationship between the two countries will come to an end allowing for the lifting of sanctions, possible trade arrangements between the two and cessation of all hostilities.  Therefore, the US will begun taking measures to address these issues that have created contention between the countries.
Engagement with Iran as argued by Wisner (2006) will serve to rebuild the relationship between it and the US but also reduce the likelihood of future security threats. This policy has worked before in almost similar circumstances with the former Soviet Union and China.  There is very little reason why the same will not work in Iran

In addition to engaging the Iranian government in bilateral negotiations, The US will immediately embark on a process of seeking and consolidating from its allies in the international community aimed at convincing the Iranian government to give up its nuclear ambitions by altering the risk-benefit equation. The risks put forward for Iran will include penalties like asset freezes, travel bans and political gestures to trade and investment. These, according to Einhorn (2006) will be coupled with incentives like free trade, and the lifting of existing economic sanctions (p.14).

Another strategy that will give the US at least a temporary length of time and allow it to employ other contingency measures will be destabilizing the leadership in Iran and therefore destructing it from its nuclear ambitions. The US will attempt to destabilize and if possible, change Irans political leadership.  Pollack et al (2009) have noted that, like any other country, Iran despite having nuclear capabilities, is still vulnerable to internal problems with possibility of internal revolution. Regime change in Iran will be achieved through taking advantage of the existence within Iran of opposition to the ruling regime.  For example, as Soloski and Clawson (2005) have noted, there are moderate groups within the Iranian society who are willing to cooperate with the US.  It may also require the assistance of Irans neighbors to destabilize Irans regime (p. 212).

This will not only draw Irans attention away from its nuclear activities but also provide the US with more time to strategize on alternative ways of dealing with the stand-off.  In order to achieve this objective, the US will heavily rely on support from both its allies in the Middle East and also its existing, though limited support within Iran.  This will require increased cooperation between the US and these countries and improving our image in the Iranian society.

The US will also during this year come up with ways of ensuring that the countrys defense capabilities are capable of preventing Irans nuclear possessions from threatening US interests.  This strategy, according to Schake and Yaphe (2005) will involve reassuring its regional allies, improving the countrys defenses and sending Iran unequivocal signals

To reassure its regional allies, the US will portray to the international community an image of Iran that is prosperous, powerful and governed by the rule of law.  This will in effect give Iran the political and economic status that it is seeking through international engagement as opposed to based on its nuclear status.  It will also reassure the international community in case the US will be required to use another method to tackle Iran (p.63).

My administration will also seek to improve its own military defense capabilities.  It will develop its ability to destroy incoming warheads and missiles.  This will involve enhancing its ballistic missile capabilities, improving Coast guard monitoring and improve screening at US ports of entry (p.64).
Finally, the US will continue to give Iran a firm and predictable response to any of its military and political threats while providing definitive red lines that should trigger a US response if and when crossed.  My administration will continue to make it clear that the US is committed to defending its territory and citizens, honoring its pledges and security assurances to its friends and allies, maintaining its freedom of military operations , avoiding where possible conflict and most importantly, improving relations with Iran as circumstances will merit (p.71).

While these strategies are intended to prevent the worst from occurring, they stand a chance of not succeeding and will therefore leave the US with no choice but to use military means. This will have better chances of success when military action against Iran is pre-emptive.  While this will most likely result ion more conflict, there are a number of military operations that the US will undertake to ensure its safety.

The US will enhance its operations and military forces currently present in the Middle East.  This is aimed at reducing its interests in the Gulf regions vulnerability to Iranian attack (p. 68).  This will also play a deterrent role for Iran and in effect buy time to improve its strategies.  The US government will also place a premium on weapon systems in the Gulf region.  This will create a virtual encirclement of Iran and therefore prevent missiles from leaving the Iran airspace (p. 69).

Measures will also be taken to reduce Irans capabilities to reach its intended targets. These will include increasing the number of military holdings in one prepositioned site while a the same time reducing them in another, reducing the values of independent ports and air fields and dispensing US forces in smaller units (p. 70). These steps will aid in reducing the potential damages that may be caused by the theatre level nuclear weapons.

In light of the cost and consequences of it making a pre-emptive military attack on Iran, the United States will continue to view the use of is nuclear weapons as a last resort when all other methods have failed. It will however continue to hold the option of using them if its enemies use them first (p. 70)
Irans acquisition of have half a dozen theatre level nuclear weapons within the year is a move that the US is forced to counter. It is an indication that our past policies toward Irans nuclear ambitions have failed. However, it is imperative to note that the issue is very sensitive and will require the US to decide a way of countering the Iranian threat that poses the least risk to its interests and the International Community.

Of the policy options available to us, engagement stands out as the best move to make in order to resolve this nuclear stand-off. This policy is not intended at legitimizing Irans actions and neither does it mean that the US tolerates the proliferation and use of nuclear weapons. It is however a move that is bound to bring forth a long lasting solution to the differences that it has with Iran. It will also save the country and the international community from the losses that will be incurred if and when the country takes military action against Iran.

Should the U.S. president have line-item veto power

The line item veto is the authority of the president to reverse or even cancel certain provisions of the bill which are related to budget, without vetoing the whole legislative package. These nullifications or cancellations can be subjected to legislative override. In the United States, the power is given to most state governors. There are just about seven states which lack this veto. Although this power is not included in the constitutions, it was given to the president of the confederate states at the time of the American civil war in 1861. The power allowed the confederate president to approve or disapprove provisions in the bill with the disapprovals being returned to the house for reconsideration and even override. Presidents of the United States have persistently requested the congress to grant them veto power. It started with President Ronald Reagan in 1986 at the state of the union address where he requested the congress to grant him the power. Bill Clinton also repeated the same request in 1995 at the state union address. In 1996, the president was granted this power in line with item line veto act of 1996 which was enacted by the congress with the aim of controlling pork barrel spending which was focused on regions instead of the whole nation. President bill Clinton used the power 82 times in 11 bills which were derived from the federal budget (Garrett, para. 4).

In 1998, the United States district court judge ruled that one-sided change of some parts of the law was against the constitution of the country. The ruling was later on supported by the United States Supreme Court in a case which was filed by the New York City mayor Rudy Giuliani against President Bill Clinton. The congress has periodically considered granting the president line item veto power since the court ruled against it. Although this power was overruled by the Supreme Court in 1998, President George W. Bush revisited the matter by requesting the congress to enact the law that would ensure return of the power to the president. He made the proposal at the state of the union address in 2006 and later on sent the legislative proposal to the congress on March 6, 2006 requesting for its faster enactment. The proposal was also introduced by a group of three people namely senator Bill Frist, senator John McCain, and the republican whip senator Mitch McConnell. The director of the office of management and budget gave a press conference on the same matter saying that the act will grant power to the president to disapprove unwise spending and put them on hold. He further differentiated this act from the one which was struck by the Supreme Court citing that before the president can act, he will have to seek congressional approval on such line item vetoes. This simply means that for a president to annul previously passed spending, a small majority of the congress is required to support that particular intention (Garrett, para. 8).

With the increasing interest in lowering the federal expenditure, some people have suggested a line item veto for the United States president so as to cut down unnecessary expenditure. The question which should be asked is the effectiveness of line veto in reducing spending. Some people have expressed fears that the act will grant the presidents excess power over government spending as compared to the powers of the congress. Some have even suggested that it would grant the president de facto legislative powers in changing the laws which could result in abuse of the principles of the constitution (Joyce and Reischauer, p. 54).

The act is supported by others who argue that it will make the president responsible for federal spending. It can also be applied in barring the passage of controversial provision changes that have been imposed into the bills by powerful legislators. It can also be used to hold responsible national leaders for the passage of controversial amendments. Even though line item veto has not existed, presidents have been pushed to sign controversial bills into law even without their support for such bills (Joyce and Reischauer, p. 55).

Line item veto has been in use in the states in the US for quite some time and has proved practical. It has also been applied in Washington and it worked. The power has worked to reduce unnecessary spending. President Bill Clinton used the budget reducing law 82 times to remove wasteful expenditures in approximately 11 budgetary bills. This resulted into about 2 billion savings in a period of five years. Although this sum appears insignificant in a 1.8 trillion annual budget, the economic advisers have cited that for the act to appear effective in controlling unnecessary expenditure, it must be in use for sometimes before the effects could be felt. While assessing the list of programs which were deleted by President Bill Clinton, almost all of them did not serve the interest of the nation. The congress accepted the request of Bill Clinton and granted him the line item veto power which he used wisely to eliminate the budgets of the unnecessary projects. In this case it worked as it was intended therefore it proved necessary (Moore, para. 6).

People feared that the president might abuse this power but this was not the case. There were complaints which were raised on the presidents use of the line item veto power. Senate appropriations committee chairman Ted Stevens claimed that Clintons actions in relation to line item veto was abuse of power. Others also complained that the president used the power to intimidate and threaten the congress. As much as the power proved necessary, there was one incident where the administration purportedly decided to remove a threatened line item veto of a 1.5 million cemetery enlargement in Rep. This case served as an example of abuse of power. Apart from this single case, there was no any other complaint of abuse of power by the administration.  In addition, most of the line items deleted were in Democratic districts which further indicate that the president did not act impartially (Joyce and Reischauer, p. 60).

Although the powers were used properly, the administration failed to give a proper explanation why some projects were deleted while others left. Line item veto can only function effectively if the president creates logical and strict methods and then applies the power in relation to the set standards. The president used the power sparingly because he cancelled some projects and left some which were also unnecessary and deserved to be cancelled. Example of such projects is Energy and Water bill of 1998.  If the criteria he used in applying the veto power was that the project should be funded at the local level or the projects whose cost surpasses the benefits, then the money which could have been saved from such projects would have been higher than that achieved (Kogan, para. 8).

Much work has been done to expose unnecessary spending by the federal government. With the increasing concern in reducing federal spending, there is need to grant the president item line veto power, but the president should also be ready to use the power whenever it is necessary. From the statistics above, it is true that careful use of item line veto power could result into more saving than what was realized. If this power was granted to President Reagan, the national debt might have reduced tremendously.

Other complaint which has been raised in regard to item line veto power is that it redirects the power of budget to the administration. It does not engage into a huge and exceptional power shift to the direction of the white house. It should be viewed as a relatively weak and limited re-establishment of the rightful budgetary powers of the president that were removed from the executive branch of the government by the 1974 Budget Act. The act resulted in removal of the powers of the president to take away funds which were not budgeted for appropriately. The power was exercised by presidents ranging from Thomas Jefferson through Richard Nixon (Joyce and Reischauer, p. 63).

I strongly believe that there is need to enact a constitutional amendment for presidential item line veto power with a two thirds override provision. It is the function of the executive branch of the government to determine whether the money budgeted for by the congress is necessary and serves the interest of the nation. If the power of the president to take away funds which was removed was put back in place, there would be no need for item line veto power. To ensure that the power is balanced between the executive and the legislature, the item veto will require the congress to attain two thirds supports in both houses to get funding for the program being questioned. This will assure the president that the program in question is highly supported. The line item veto should be given to presidents because it has more benefits. There is much evidence support the use of item line veto. It ensures that unnecessary spending which do no benefit tax payers is deleted.

Obamas New Strategy

Barack Obamas new strategy against the war on terror calls for the comprehensive approach of military and civilian efforts against remaining Taliban insurgents and Al-Qaeda operatives moving in and out of Afghanistan, Pakistan and its neighboring countries.

In my opinion, the Afghan people can expect to see more stabilized areas with the deployment of additional troops. Afghan security forces and civilians tasked for peacekeeping and nation-building after a U.S. withdrawal can better prepare under the guidance of American instructors. Consequently, resources and socio-infrastructure support can afford livelihood for Afghan civilians in war-torn areas, and hopefully entice non-extremist fighters to surrender. However, a credible and local co-implementor is essential for this partnership to continuously succeed, as stressed by former United Nations envoy to Afghanistan Peter Galbraith (Valera, 2009).

Moreover, another notable development is the role of Pakistan in the Afghan conflict. In exchange for military and monetary aid to stabilize Pakitans economy, the U.S. expects it to perform and clear out the insurgents and terrorists within its area. However, this line is met with caution, as echoed by military consultant David Kilcullen, who states that combatants and civilians are clearly known in Afghanistan, but in Pakistan, it is harder to determine allies from enemies (PBS, 2009).

With these developments, U.S. presence in these areas may have an effect on the relationship of Afghanistan and Iran, the perceived arms race between Pakistan and India, and other countries as well. Clearly, the new strategy will not just influence the drive against terrorism because as the plan moves forward, new scenarios will soon emerge.


The Balkans refers to the area in southwest Europe that spreads from Bulgaria to Serbia. The area is also known by other names like south-eastern Europe and the Balkan Peninsula. The name is derived from the Balkan Mountains that spread across the region. The population of the area is around sixty million and has an area of about 212,000 square miles. The countries that are physically located within the peninsula include, Albania Bulgaria, Greece, Kosovo, Serbia, Macedonia and Montenegro. The term Balkan is used to cover some countries that lie outside the peninsula like Romania, Slovenia and Croatia. Contemporary usage of the term Balkan especially in  the English speaking countries refers to the following countries  Albania, Bulgaria, Bosnia,  Herzegovina, Croatia, Greece, Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro  and Serbia, and sometimes may include  Moldova, Romania, Turkey and Slovenia.
The major natural resources that are present in the peninsula include coal, lead, zinc, chromium and silver. Petroleum deposits are available in Romania while lignite is present in Greece. The climate of the region is largely Mediterranean in the coast line while the interior has a continental climate. Agriculture is not widely practiced in the region due to the mountainous landscape (1). The region has a rich and diverse history which dates back to the Neolithic period. The history of the region is largely responsible for shaping the geopolitics of the region as well as shaping the relationships between the Balkan states and other countries over the years and even to the present. The cultures that have dominated the region over the years have been characterised by a blend of different cultures specifically the Greek and the Latin in the reign of the Roman Empire over the region. The region was also the meetings point of Catholicism and orthodox Christianity in early AD as well the region where Islam from the Middle East and Christianity in Europe met and fused in the 17th century.

In the classical period, the region was inhabited by the paenonians, Greeks, Thracians, dacians and the Illyrians. The area fell under the control of the Roman Empire during the 1st to 6th century which made the region adopt Roman traditions and customs and the Latin language. Despite these influences of the Romans in most of the regions, the predominant culture that was practiced was the Greek culture. In the middle ages, the region was characterized by a range of wars among the Serbian, Bulgarian and Byzantine empires. The Ottoman Empire which was created by the Turkish tribes reigned in the region between the 15th and the 19th century. It was the most authoritative and an influential empire on the peninsula and its era was characterised by fierce fight for freedom and conflicts with the Hapsburgs tribes which occurred across the borders of Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. The frequent wars during the reign of the Ottoman Empire made the Balkans to become the least developed part of Europe because of the obsession with war rather than economic development unlike in other areas of Europe where economic development was the preoccupation (2). The Ottoman Empire lasted until the 19th century when Turkey adopted a secular form of government.

Most of the countries within the Balkan Peninsula gained independence in the 19th century. Serbia gained independence in 1833, Greece in 1829 and Bulgaria and Montenegro in 1878.  The first major war of the Balkans occurred between 1912 and 1913 shortly after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire. It involved an alliance of the Christian countries of the Balkan teaming up against the receding Turks which ended the authority of the Turks in the region. The war was fought for five months and shortly after the first war, the second Balkan war broke out which involved Bulgaria attacking Greece and Serbia which were former allies in the fight against the Turks after it was discontented with its share of the peninsula. The Bulgarians were defeated by an alliance of Greece, Serbia and Romania which contributed to the collapse of Bulgaria.

The region was critical in triggering the First World War which occurred after Serbia assassinated the austral Hungarian heir in 1914 which led to war between the two nations. The war sparked a series of alliances that were responsible for triggering the First World War. The Ottoman Empire was the first to join the alliance then Bulgaria which attacked Serbia. When the Greeks joined the alliance, the German Bulgarian front collapsed which ended the First World War. During the second war, most of the Balkan states were alliances with Germany in the war. The war expanded to the Balkan Peninsula when Italy invaded Greece making Germany to intervene. The area experienced the fiercest fighting of the world war and when the war ended, the region was left largely ruined and economically unstable (3).

During the cold war era, most Balkan states were under the control of communist Soviet Union. Greece was the first country to shun communism and adopt capitalist policies. However, during this period, some of the countries like Yugoslavia and Albania differed with the Soviet Union and sought better relations with the non communist west. They later joined the developing countries at the time in the Non Aligned Movement. Albania was the nation that maintained fierce communist ideals during the period. The defining period of the Balkan Peninsula occurred in the 1990s when civil war started in the region after the break away of the Yugoslavia republics after Serbia resolved to change the equality status of the states which was constitutionally ensconced. This resolve to alter the status and Serbian failure to endorse the dissolving of the Yugoslav union contributed to a civil war between it and the rest of the Balkan republics. The civil war resulted in international intervention by the UN and NATO against Serbia in the nations of Bosnia, Herzegovina and Kosovo (5).  The war resulted in attainment of full independence in the nations of Croatia, Macedonia, Montenegro and Kosovo.  The main land routes that control Western Europe, Asia and the Middle East are located in the peninsula and this has made the area a region of interest not just to the EU but to other nations and Asia as well.

Since 2000, all the Balkan states have had good ties with the European Union and all of them have expressed their wish to join the European Union which has made the Balkans a region of interest to the Europeans. Greece joined the union in 1981 while Slovenia and Cyprus joined in 2004. The other countries to join the EU were Romania and Bulgaria in 2007 (4). This interest of the European Union in the Balkan states was particularly revealed in 2005 when the European Union resolved to commence accession and joining negotiations with the countries that qualified for candidate membership like Croatia, Turkey and Macedonia. In April 2009, other countries like  Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, Slovenia, Serbia, Montenegro and Romania all started talks on joining the union but Montenegro and Serbia were denied the offer of accession   after they declined  to engage with the ICC for war crimes that were committed during the civil war.

One of the major interests of the Europeans in the Balkan is financial aid and assistance for all the candidate nations for EU membership. These nations include Croatia, the former Yugoslav republics, and Turkey. The assistance is also extended to potential members like Herzegovina, Albania and Bosnia, Serbs, Kosovo and Montenegro. The financial assistance is aimed at aiding these nations to establish reforms in their economic, political and social institutions in order for them to meet the standards that are set for such institutions before the countries are granted membership (3). These reforms are aimed at improving the standards of living for these candidate countries in the recipient countries.

 The major focus of the financial assistance targets reforms in the political institutions especially the reinforcing of law, basic human rights and in safeguarding the rights of marginalized groups in the society in turn leading to the advancement of civil institutions of the society. The other aim of the financial aid is aimed at making the candidate countries to improve their market structures (6). Since it is a requirement for all  member states to have  a market economy that functions properly even with the tough competition and market dynamics of the European market, the aid therefore supports these countries  in  implementing market reforms that lead to economic development and improvements in the employment numbers.

The EU also provides assistance to these Balkan candidate countries to adopt these requirements that must be met before joining the union collectively known as acquis communautaire. The rate at which these candidate countries implement reforms and the rates of the accession process are closely tied because the faster the rate the higher the accession. The assistance helps the candidate countries to improve their joining prospects by lining the policies of the candidate countries to conform to the EU regulations, like the adoption of common policies governing the approach towards drug, crimes and illegal immigrants.  This aid helps improve the internal relations and the regional cooperation between the European Union and the Balkan states, a major interest for the Europeans. The aid also helps in promoting developing and reducing the levels of poverty in these states (7). The financial assistance also aims at changing the European economy and society as a whole by boasting trade within the whole of Europe continent.

The other major interest of the Europeans in the Balkans is promoting reconciliation between the different ethnic groups within the region through improving the contacts between the groups and the development of civil institutions. The EU aims at achieving this through reinforcing the respect of law, better governance and improving the justice and administrative practices within the region, The European Union has continually marshalled many policies to support this initiative in order to achieve progress for the region. There is a strong dedication from the members of the EU to continually support the Balkan people to adopt European ideals and standards of living. To achieve this, EU has adopted a policy of travel without visas across the union in order to ensure there is greater integration of the Balkans people into the European lifestyle.

In the areas of education, the Europeans through the European Union are committed towards improving cooperation and assistance in order to improve the development of civil society in the Balkan states. The European Union has continually increased substantially the scholarships allocated to students from the Balkan states to access education in the European Union member states.  The union has opened many agencies and programs in the Balkan states that are aimed at improving the cooperation between the educational and research institutions of the European institution member states and the Balkan states (8). These programmes will enhance the cooperation between the European Union and the Balkan states in the fields of science, research culture youth, environment and other social services

In the field of disaster prevention and environmental protection, the Europeans through the European Union has continued to provide assistance and cooperation in the event of disasters occurring in the as was witnessed in the well coordinated response to forest fires that occurred in Greece during the summer of 2007. The EU organised a structured response that spanned several borders which minimised the scale of the disaster. The aim of the Europeans through the European Union is to establish a program that handles disaster preparedness and response between the members states and the Balkan Peninsula that will be able to improve regional coordination in disaster management across the whole European continent.

In the field of transportation, the major interest of the Europeans is to be able to access the land routes that link Western Europe, Asia and the Middle East, since the major routes through land are located in the Balkans peninsula. The European Union has signed a treaty with the Balkan countries termed the West Balkan Transport Treaty (WBTT). The treaty is critical in ensuring the flow of goods between the Western Europe and Asia and is critical in boasting the volume of trade between Asia and the European Union. The Europeans other interest in the Balkan regions to extend the airspace of the European Union through the joining of Balkan states. A major stride has already been made through the signing of a treaty with some of the Balkan states called the European Common Aviation Area (ECAA). This treaty grants the European nations access to the airspace of the Balkan states (9).

Europeans interest in boasting trade in the European union is demonstrated in the rate at which it has granted candidate status to some of these states in the Balkan peninsula even with countries that differ with it in ideologies like Turkey and the signing of the Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA) that is aimed at contributing to the wider development of the whole European territory. The other area of interest for the Europeans is the collaboration in the field of energy production and utilization between the Balkan states and the European Union. This regional cooperation in energy issues is achieved through the Energy Community Treaty (ECT) which outlines frameworks that outline the areas and the guidelines on collaboration between the Balkan states and the European Union.

Another issue that is of concern to the Europeans is the massive immigration of the Balkan people into the European Union due to the accession of the Balkan countries to the European Union. There are conflicting views of the effects of this migration once more countries get full membership to the European Union. The effect of immigration are already being felt in the European Union countries due to a relaxation of the visa requirements between the EU and some of the Balkan states like a drop in the wages due to availability of cheap labour from these countries. Some of the member countries argue that the massive immigration is essential in improving the status of the Balkan economy through the remittance of funds to their respective economies from these immigrant populations (4). This issue of immigration is a thorny issue for the European Union and the Balkan states as well. This issue will continue to have many consequences and raise varied opinions as more of these Balkan states get integrated into the European Union.

The effects of immigration in the European Union have made some governments to adopt some protectionist policies that limit the influx of unskilled workers into their countries. For example, the United Kingdom has adopted some measures that propose the imposing of heavy fines to employers who employ unskilled workers. The measures were adopted after the effects of immigration from the Balkan states worsened an already bad immigration crisis from other regions of the world .The major effects of the massive  immigration to the European economy has been its the effects on the labour markets especially the employment numbers and the wages. Another effect of the massive immigration from the Balkan states to the European Union has been the pressure and strain on public social services because of the build up of sudden demand, (10). The effects of the Balkan immigration will continue to haunt the member countries of the European Union as it expands through the accession and joining of more Balkan states

With the exit of United States from running the affairs of the Balkan states by the Bush administration, the European Union have assumed the responsibility of maintaining peace in this troubled Balkan peninsula. The policy of the EU towards attaining regional stability and overcoming the ethnic hatred and tensions that have characterized the region is driving the Balkan region towards embracing Europes society values of tolerance and pluralism through offering membership to these states. The European Union has also drafted a pact that outlines the framework of establishing dialogue, cooperation and reconciliation of these states (8). Another policy employed by the Europeans through the European Union is the enactment of a guideline called the Stabilization and Association Process (SAP), which provides guidelines on the process of membership and accessation.

The other major interest of the Europeans in the Balkan region is the opportunity it offers of foreign direct investment (FDI). The collapse of communism and accessation of some of these countries in joining the European union have made the Balkan states  a  favourable business destination for   attracting  investors from the European union and other regions of the world as well. Countries such as Bulgaria, Serbia, Albania, Montenegro, Macedonia and Romania all have been characterized by poor leadership that cripples the reforms that attract the foreign direct investment and therefore have not benefited substantially from the opportunity though of late there has been considerable progress in implementing the reforms that favour the flow of FDI into their economies (11).

The major countries of the European Union that have invested into the region include Spain, Ireland, Portugal, Greece and the United Kingdom. The Balkan states have attracted the investment due to opening of their borders which offer opportunities challenges and incentives for foreign direct investment. The major factors hampering more investment by the Europeans in the region include poor leadership, great distance from the west and cultural differences between the region with other parts of Europe, the regions inclination towards Soviet Communist policies and the political instability that have characterised the region. With the acessation of many of these states to membership of the European Union, the region stands to benefit from more inward investment of foreign direct investment from the Europeans from the European Union members

The other critical role the Balkan Peninsula plays is that it influences the relationship between the European Union and Russia. Russia plays a key role of providing about 25 of the energy needs of the Europeans. The pipelines and other infrastructure that transfer oil and gas from Russia to the European union cut across most of the states of Balkan and the major infrastructure for transporting the resources into the European union member states are under construction in most of the Balkan states with most installations being constructed in Romania and Slovakia in order to meet the growing demand for the resource in Europe.  Therefore, the relations that exist between Russia and the European Union are largely influenced by the relations between the Balkans and the Europeans and the relations between Russia and the Balkan nations (12). The energy aspect will continue to shape the relations between the European Union and Russia for a long time with the signing of treaty that allows construction of major routes of transporting petroleum and gas through the Balkan

Another major interest the Europeans have in the Balkan is shaping the geopolitical equation of the Balkan Peninsula. For example, the negotiation of the end of conflict in Serbia and Macedonia in early 2001 was made due to extreme Europe involvement. The major issues that will shape the reorganization of the geopolitical boundaries of the region include the individual preferences of the member states that will prevent the European Union from adopting a common policy for the Balkan states. An example of this is the conflict of the usage of the name Macedonia. The common term for the EU is Macedonia but Greece refuses to recognize the name and instead prefers to use the term former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia to refer to the nation of Macedonia.

Another example of the differences within the EU  are the differences that exist between Turkey and Greece which have delayed the achievement of cooperation in all the states in the field of military cooperation. Another example of how the differences in the views of the member states will continue to shape the geopolitics of the region is proposition by the French president to delay the total independence of Kosovo in 2007 in order for France to position itself to change the Balkan politics according to its preferences. These differing policies will have a profound influence on the geopolitics and political stability of the region especially at this time when many of these Balkan states are gearing up for European Union membership (13).

The major agenda of the Europeans in the Balkans is to expand their union in order to make it to conform to its founding principles. These principles were the unity of all the continent of Europe after the world war in maintaining peace through integration. Its other founding principle was to ensure the safeguarding of a common way of life that is founded on the principles of good governance and freedom. This is what has inspired the European Union to admit some of these Balkan states to members and also giving candidate status for some of the members in order to achieve these objectives (14). This enlargement is aimed at increasing the influence of the Europeans in the world stage.

The other area of interest to the Europeans is the area of humanitarian relief. European Union is the largest contributor of finance, soldiers, policemen and experts in many of the humanitarian operations in the Balkan Peninsula. The European Union has been critical in implementing programs aimed at repatriating the refugees of the conflicts that have occurred in the region and remains an area of interest to the Europeans as it indicates the level of advancement in democracy for the Europeans.  The other role that interests the Europeans in the Balkan regions is the security role. The European Union regards the maintaining of political stability within South East Europe to be among the majors of its precedence. From the time the European union took the security interventions in the Balkan peninsula in the period between 1999 and 2003, the policy of integrating its security systems and planning concepts have made it to broaden its scope of international military operations ever since (15). The Balkan Peninsula was the foundation of its new policies on security and it still acts as a major inspiration and a reference ground for testing the future challenges for it in military operations as it aims at becoming a major actor in international resolution of conflicts. The improvements of the European Union involvement with the Balkan states have made it to launch a uniform security policy for all the member states.

In summary, the interests and the policies of the Europeans will continue to influence the security, instability and economic growth of the Balkan states. The key issue that will contribute towards peace and stability for the region will be the rate at which the European Union approves accesation and membership for each of the member states. Approval of each of the member states will have consequences and wider implications within the European Union and across the Balkan states as well in terms of peace and stability. Despite the interests and policies of the EU towards these Balkan sates to improve their a cessation, and the rate of admission to membership, the major determinate of the rate of integration will the will of the Balkan states themselves and not the wish of the European union  member states. In conclusion, it is evident that almost every aspect of the Balkan states future will be much under the influence of the interplay of factors outside their control especially the interests of the Europeans on the region.

Social Hierarchy Evidence from The White Tiger

This paper discusses social hierarchy as one of the main factors contributing to poverty in India. While taking cues from the novel, The White Tiger by Aravind Adiga, this paper draws insights from peer reviewed resources to confirm that caste system contributes to poverty.  The main argument of this paper is mainly grounded on social inequalities or the established system in societal hierarchy as one of the causes of poverty in India.

The basic plot of The White Tiger centers around Balram Halwai, the protagonist and the main character of the story who grows up in an impoverished village of Laxmangarh, India and ends up working as a driver for the rich and urbanized Ashok. Ashok comes from the clan of feudal landlords who ruin or even run the lives of Halwais folks residing at the village. Although Ashok comes from the well-off feudal family and treats Halwai way better than he treats the other servants and chauffeurs, Halwai seizes the chance to kill his master and run-off with large amount of money enough to establish him as a wealthy businessman in India.

The protagonists journey from having lowly origins coming from the remote village describe as the darkness, to the murder of his employer, and to his transformation into a businessman is retold through the letters sent by Halwai and addressed to Wen Jiabao, the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China.

The novel reveals the dark issue of social hierarchy through the usage of metaphors and allegories aiming at the negative impact of caste system. According to Halwai, those people who continue to be eaten by the predator are being trapped inside a small closed cage known as the rooster coop that limit their opportunities to explore greater heights.

The White Tiger by Aravind Adiga
The White Tiger is a critically acclaimed novel by Aravind Adiga that posits the destructive virtues of contemporary India. The novel depicts social and economic inequalities by drawing insights from the life of its main character, Balram Halwai who distinguishes two separate worlds existing in the third world nation. One of the two disparate worlds of Halwai include the small and remote village of Laxmangarh where he was born and raised to become a laborer. The village is located in the Darkness, a specific backward part of India controlled by crooked and feudally powerful landlords that instigate societal inequalities in the land.  The darkness of the village urges the main character to question, there is no water in our taps, and what do you people in Delhi give us you give us cell phones. Can a man drink a phone when he is thirsty

Born in a region which is under the cruel jurisdiction of feudal lords, Halwais parents could not even provide him with a proud name and instead, they just called him boy of lowly origin due to the fact that powerful families control everything in the land, the opportunities are very limited in the region, and almost everyone is destined to be servants of feudal families. Halwai says, the desire to be a servant had been bred into me hammered into my skull, nail after nail, and poured into my blood, the way sewage and industrial poison are poured into Mother Ganga. The author is able to emphasize that the remote village is a place of extreme hopelessness by citing its allegorical figures of corrupt wealth the four particular landlords who are given animalistic names by the white tiger, Halwai himself. The Great Socialist appears in the picture through his re-election by virtue of false promises of change and corrupt electioneering.

The other disparate world of Halwai is the sliver of the Indian state which he inhabits as a humble driver for the westernized son of the village landlord, Ashok.  The city where the protagonist is taken to render service for Ashok offers him the realization that there is a new societal system mobilizing in both India and the world and this system possesses some Hindu features.

In the countenance of Halwai, glamorous and fancy malls, which are  a forbidden place for him, the air-conditioned Honda the he drives, and the red purse consisting of large amount of money for politicians who possess power over The Storks enterprise constitute the crazy city.

The White Tiger takes the form of a series of letters written by the protagonist and addressed  to Wen Jiabao, the Premier of the State Council of the Peoples Republic of China, on the eve of his visit in New Delhi. In the conversation, the protagonist recounts his story as a boy with lowly origins residing in the Darkness where education and electricity are scarced  and where people commonly banter about election like eunuchs discussing Kama Sutra. Halwai then shifts the topic to his transformation to becoming a killer.

The darkly comic explicates the factors why chauffeur Halwai murders his employer and tries to justify the crime as an act of social entrepreneur. Halwai divulges that his rage is deeply rooted out from the avarice of the upper class society in New Delhi.

Although, Halwais social journey from rags to riches is replete with cliched conversations and representations which are a common feature in the Indian contemporary literature, the novel confirms Indias longstanding battle against the backlash of its societal hierarchy.  As the author excludes the subject of the prevalence of good will over evil deeds, he is able to emphasize the true emotion of men against inhumanities and is able to expose the reason why people of lower class commit illegal acts and misdeeds to pursue their own intention.

Caste System and the Disadvantaged Minority Groups in India
 The caste system of India is a Hindu societal order containing features that are in contrast with the legally accepted characteristics of international human rights framework. Since its independence, the Indian state has been deeply troubled with the widespread of poverty and has implemented anti-poverty legislations to address the crisis.

The Indian government has long been using public policy to eliminate caste-based discrimination to prevent social breakdown and to uplift the economic status of the impoverished groups. At the center of the nations pursuit is the implementation of the constitutional mandate which ensures the presence of the legislators belonging to minority groups in state and national legislatures.

But still, several legal initiatives and measures aiming at the complete demise of caste-based discrimination are unable to hinder the presence of the ancient social hierarchy in the daily lives of Indians. The country tends to deny its citizens the freedom to partake in the benefits and advantages of representative democracy. Indians have long been silenced when it comes to the establishment of fair and just government policies. As a result of Indias dysfunctional democracy, caste system is strengthened and has contributed to the economic deprivation of those born into lower states.

In a relevant research, Yoko Kijima says that despite policies targeting scheduled castes (SC) and scheduled tribes (ST), there remain large disparities of living standards between the SCSt and non SCST household in India.  Kijima adds that the SCST households may be poorer because they possess lower human and physical capital , but they may also earn lower returns to these assets.  In this study, it can be argued that the historically disadvantaged minority groups in India are the ones who have to deal with the states lack of complete policy commitment targeting the demise of the caste system together with its setbacks.

Adigas representation of Halwai as coming from the impoverished region of India  is a strategic move aiming at the exposing what India has become since the advent of  modernization, a period which the upper class  has taken advantaged of making the poor, poorer and the rich, richer. 

The novel is suggestive of the fact that due to the failure of Indias government to enact laws meant to alleviate social hierarchy, those who belong to the lower class of the caste system will be the finite slaves of the rich and wealthy westernized first class Indians.

The lack of strong commitment of the policy-makers in India has encouraged the creation of politics of caste and religion, not only as an academic exercise, but also as a developmental practice.  A recent study suggests that the existing policies should never be ignored or be viewed as anachronistic or backward, instead, they should be perceived as opportunities for development activists to facilitate grassroots initiatives and involvement leading to a higher degree of democratization.

The untouchable status of Indias caste system been studied by several scholars who are at one in saying that India has its own social system that differs from the social stratification system found in the other parts of the world and it also possesses social, economic and political institutions that wee mostly static and unchanging.

Although, the caste system of India was perceived to be a unique system by classical theorists, Halwai of the White Tiger never believes in the uniqueness of such structure because the system is nothing but a glitch to him. In the eyes of the Halwai, some of the oppressive features of the Indian social hierarchy are segmental division of society hierarchy restrictions on feeding and social intercourse civil and religious privileges lack of unrestricted choice of occupation and restrictions on marriage.

For Halwai, the restrictions and limitations allowed him to form an inner uprising against the tyrant society and to resort to murder as an answer to the turmoil. Halwai is saddened for what the country has become after its long journey towards equal societal progress. It can be said that the country is badly modified by globalization and effects of industrialization. Halwais decision to murder upper class Ashok and take all his money to become a rich businessman signifies that Americanization and multiculturalism have already shaped and turned Hindu traditions away from social security. 

The basic pursuit of Indians towards socio-economic security can be divided into fur realms which are food, health, housing, education and employment.  Considering himself as deprived of the five categories, Halwai considers himself as a lifetime slave because the lowest class of the society has not been given ways to socially secure itself.  Most of the socially unsecured Indians are concentrated in the rural area wherein 47. 6 percent of the population  are deprived with all of the five categories.  Such deprivation is attributable to poverty because the lower class is left with tiny holdings scarced with financial support bestowed with little resources to take the risks of the unknown and has no aspiration for the improvement of lives.

The novels portrayal of social divide in India reveals how a hopeless Indian is able to penetrate the countrys corrupt system to be able get what he desires at the steepest of worth. Though witty and comic, Adigas book is a brutal presentation of Indias class struggles and how anger and envy derived from poverty and social inequalities breed murder. The book is a visible proof of the finite battle of India to re-establish its society free from inequalities and guided by fair and just laws and legislations.

According to the book, India is a land trapped in a mono-classic belief in its traditions. The country needs a reform that will embrace the indigenous and impoverished society as individuals deserving of equal socio-economic opportunities. India needs to strengthen its policies targeting the lower class to be able to instigate progress and to evenly distribute the advantages and benefits of a rewarding economy and international partnerships with other nations.